Flora of China
  FOC Vol.18 (1998)              | Family List  Scrophulariaceae  PDF Pedicularis  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   57. Pedicularis  Linnaeus
马先蒿属   ma xian hao shu
Authors:Yang Han-bi; Noel H. Holmgren, Robert R. Mill


Herbs perennial or annual, rarely biennial, hemiparasitic. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, usually pinnatifid to 1- or 2-pinnatisect, rarely entire or dentate. Lower leaves usually long petiolate; upper leaves often ± sessile. Inflorescences terminal or flowers axillary; bracts usually leaflike. Calyx tubular to campanulate, often ± bilabiate, usually deeply cleft anteriorly, (2--)5-lobed. Corolla purple, red, yellow, or white, strongly bilabiate; upper lip (galea) hooded, enclosing anthers, laterally compressed, rounded or truncate, or terminating in teeth or in a beak; lower lip 3-lobed, usually spreading, external to upper lip in bud. Stamens 4, didynamous; filaments glabrous or pubescent; anthers mucronate or not. Stigma capitate. Capsule moderately compressed or not, loculicidal. Seeds numerous, reticulate or costate.

About 600 species: best represented in the mountains of SW China and widespread in the frigid and alpine zones of the northern hemisphere; 352 species (271 endemic) occur in China.

From the limited available data,the species of Pedicularis in China are pollinated by bumblebees gathering nectar and/or pollen on nectariferous non-beaked species, and pollen only,by scraping or vibrating,on beaked species including those with long corolla tubes (Macior, L. W. 1988. Plant Species Biol. 3: 61--66.; Macior, L. W. & S. K. Sood. 1991. Plant Species Biol. 6: 75--81.; Macior, L. W., pers. comm.).

The rank of series has been traditionally used in Pedicularis since the time of Prain's work (Ann. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 3: 1--196. 1890). Sections (and subgenera) have also been used (e.g., by Bunge in Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 3: 409--433. 1844; Li, H. L. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 101: 1--214. 1949; Yamazaki, T. 1988. A revision of the genus Pedicularis in Nepal. in: Ohba, H. & Malla, S.B. (eds.), The Himalayan Plants 1: 91--161, and others). Because series names have been used widely (e.g., Tsoong, P. C., 1955, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 4: 103--147; Tsoong, P.C., 1963, Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 68) but sectional names only in revisions covering limited areas (e.g., Yamazaki, T. 1988) and since not all species have been assigned to sections yet, the rank of series is used here.

1Leaves opposite or whorled (or in ser. 26, 84, 86, 87 alternate apically).(2)
+Leaves alternate or at least alternate apically (or in ser. 1, 30, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 45, 67, 102 rarely with pseudo-opposite or opposite leaves).(62)
2(1)Leaves opposite or occasionally alternate.(3)
+Leaves usually in whorls of 3 or 4.(30)
3(2)Corolla galea beakless.(4)
+Corolla galea beaked.(13)
4(3)Corolla galea toothless.(5)
+Corolla galea toothed.(8)
5(4)Leaves lanceolate to linear.(6)
+Leaves ± ovate.(7)
6(5)Leaves entire or obscurely crenate50  Ser. Salicifoliae    柳叶系
+Leaves pinnatipartite to pinnatisect102  Ser. Flammeae    火焰系
7(5)Corolla 3--3.5 cm; roots glabrous21  Ser. Salviiflorae    丹参花系
+Corolla less than 2 cm; roots densely yellow-brown pubescent26  Ser. Aloenses    阿洛系
8(4)Leaves mostly basal, stem leaves often only in 1 pair; flowers in a densely capitate spike or flowers only 2 or 3.(9)
+Leaves mostly on stem, basal leaves few; flowers not in a dense capitulum, more than 2 or 3.(10)
9(8)Plants 2--4 cm tall; flowers few; galea without a protuberance at middle of margin on each side87  Ser. Collatae    铺地系
+Plants usually more than 10 cm tall; galea with a protuberance at middle of margin on each side89  Ser. Cernuae    俯垂系
10(8)Corolla galea at least as long as lower lip.(11)
+Corolla galea shorter, only ca. 1/2 as long as lower lip, apex with only 1 tooth on each side of margin.(12)
11(10)Corolla apex with several teeth on each side of margin76  Ser. Lyratae    琴盔系
+Corolla apex obscurely 2-toothed36  Ser. Pteridifoliae    蕨叶系
12(10)Calyx relatively large, with dense reticulate veins, teeth triangular, entire38  Ser. Pentagonae    五角系
+Calyx relatively small, without dense reticulate veins, teeth leaflike, serrate84  Ser. Atrovirides    深绿系
13(3)Corolla tube ± elongated, more than 2 X as long as calyx.(14)
+Corolla tube not elongated, less than 2 X as long as calyx.(19)
14(13)Stems usually flexuous, ascending, more than 40 cm tall.(15)
+Stems diffuse or if erect then more than 10 cm tall.(16)
15(14)Corolla beak bending downward28  Ser. Flexuosae    曲茎系
+Corolla beak bending upward33  Ser. Omiianae    峨眉系
16(14)Plants low; stems short or sometimes nearly absent.(17)
+Stems ± elongated, diffuse.(18)
17(16)Stems short, erect, ± woody; leaf segments few; corolla beak slightly recurved75  Ser. Urceolatae    坛萼系
+Stems often trailing or plants ± stemless, not woody; leaves pinnatisect; corolla beak straight31  Ser. Axillares    腋花系
18(16)Stems herbaceous; calyx lobes shorter than calyx tube; galea not dilated apically, toothless at margin86  Ser. Sikkimenses    锡金系
+Stems ± woody; calyx lobes longer than calyx tube; galea dilated apically, toothed on lower margin34  Ser. Batangenses    巴塘系
19(13)Stems repent basally.(20)
+Stems erect, not repent if diffuse.(21)
20(19)Plants annual; leaves on stem, not fernlike77  Ser. Reptantes    爬行系
+Plants perennial; leaves basal, fernlike30  Ser. Vagantes    蔓生系
21(19)Beak of galea slender, usually S-shaped; leaves narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate80  Ser. Integrifoliae    全叶系
+Beak of galea short, straight or curved, not S-shaped; leaves wider.(22)
22(21)Corolla with 2 colors73  Ser. Binariae    双生系
+Corolla with only 1 color.(23)
23(22)Leaves alternate, often pseudo-opposite throughout; flowers long pedicellate.(24)
+Leaves opposite throughout; flowers not long pedicellate.(27)
24(23)Galea not crested, beak usually straight; calyx not or slightly cleft anteriorly.(25)
+Galea usually crested, sometimes inconspicuously; calyx deeply cleft anteriorly.(26)
25(24)Plants 5--9 cm tall; stems 2--4; Xizang96  Ser. Mychophilae    菌生系
+Plants 30--70 cm tall; stems single; not in Xizang45  Ser. Racemosae    总花系
26(24)Beak curved; calyx 2- or 3-lobed97  Ser. Franchetianae    佛氏系
+Beak straight or falcate; calyx 3--5-lobed67  Ser. Strobilaceae    球状系
27(23)Stem leaves long petiolate; inflorescences long spicate; calyx large, with dense reticulate veins, lobes entire39  Ser. Dichotomae    二岐系
+Stem leaves short petiolate; inflorescences short; calyx small, without reticulate veins, lobes serrate.(28)
28(27)Galea margin 1-auricled, apex of beak erose-denticulate88  Ser. Pseudoasplenifoliae    假铁角蕨叶系
+Galea margin not auricled, apex of beak not erose-denticulate.(29)
29(28)Galea marginally 2-toothed; leaves small, broadly ovate85  Ser. Remotilobae    疏裂系
+Galea not marginally 2-toothed; leaves larger, narrower79  Ser. Debiles    弱小系
30(2)Corolla galea beakless (except for a short beak in ser. 52, 22, 61, 59).(31)
+Corolla galea beaked.(45)
31(30)Corolla galea toothed.(32)
+Corolla galea toothless.(36)
32(31)Bases of whorled petioles of leaves or at least bracts connate, cupular40  Ser. Reges    大王系
+Bases of petioles of leaves and bracts not connate or cupular.(33)
33(32)Corolla tube strongly decurved in calyx, corolla ± S-shaped55  Ser. Microchilae    后生轮叶系
+Corolla tube not strongly decurved in calyx, corolla not S-shaped.(34)
34(33)Calyx lobes 2, calyx tube deeply cleft anteriorly52  Ser. Ikomanae    生驹氏系
+Calyx lobes 5, calyx tube slightly cleft anteriorly.(35)
35(34)Calyx lobes triangular or lanceolate, entire51  Ser. Rigidae    坚挺系
+Calyx lobes ± leaflike, serrate22  Ser. Melampyriflorae    山萝花系
36(31)Bases of petioles of leaves and bracts connate, cupular40  Ser. Reges    大王系
+Bases of petioles of leaves and bracts not connate or cupular.(37)
37(36)Corolla tube decurved basally.(38)
+Corolla tube erect or decurved apically.(39)
38(37)Corolla yellow, galea plicate; anthers apiculate at apex53  Ser. Plicatae    皱褶系
+Corolla usually purple, red, white, or rarely yellow, galea not plicate; anthers not apiculate at apex54  Ser. Verticillatae    轮叶系
39(37)Corolla tube ± erect.(40)
+Corolla tube decurved.(41)
40(39)Plants annual; leaf segments 5--7 pairs61  Ser. Simae    矽镁系
+Plants perennial; leaf segments 7--17 pairs1  Ser. Gloriosae    灿烂系
41(39)Inflorescences and calyx densely tomentose81  Ser. Pilostachyae    绵穗系
+Inflorescences and calyx glabrous or sparsely pubescent.(42)
42(41)Corolla tube ± decurved at middle.(43)
+Corolla tube slightly curved, expanded, or bent forward apically.(44)
43(42)Plants annual; stems (15--)30--80 cm tall, often branched apically; corolla 7--9 mm58  Ser. Molles    柔毛系
+Plants perennial; stems 5--12 cm tall, simple; corolla 22--30 mm57  Ser. Caucasicae    
44(42)Leaves pinnatipartite to pinnatisect; leaves whorled60  Ser. Abrotanifoliae    蒿叶系
+Leaves pinnatilobate to pinnatifid; leaves opposite or whorled59  Ser. Denudatae    秃裸系
45(30)Corolla tube ca. 2.5--3 X as long as calyx43  Ser. Cyathophyllae    斗叶系
+Corolla tube less than 3 X as long as calyx.(46)
46(45)Bases of petioles of leaves and bracts connate, cupular.(47)
+Bases of petioles of leaves and bracts not connate or cupular.(48)
47(46)Galea navicular; beak indistinct41  Ser. Cyathophylloides    拟斗叶系
+Galea not navicular; beak long, distinct42  Ser. Superbae    华丽系
48(46)Flowers scarcely 6 mm, in a dense capitate raceme25  Ser. Coniferae    结球系
+Flowers more than 10 mm.(49)
49(48)Beak of galea shorter than anther-containing part.(50)
+Beak of galea longer than anther-containing part.(54)
50(49)Stems with curved branches23  Ser. Longicaules    长茎系
+Stems unbranched, or with erect straight branches.(51)
51(50)Corolla tube decurved in calyx tube56  Ser. Cheilanthifoliae    碎米蕨叶系
+Corolla tube not decurved in calyx tube.(52)
52(51)Corolla tube decurved in throat of calyx tube23  Ser. Longicaules    长茎系
+Corolla tube not decurved or decurved outside calyx lobes.(53)
53(52)Anther-containing part of galea red, goosehead-shaped; stem leaves in 1 or 2 pairs90  Ser. Tatsienenses    打箭系
+Anther-containing part of galea not red, not goosehead-shaped; stem leaves numerous62  Ser. Myriophyllae    万叶系
54(49)Beak of galea coiled or twisted.(55)
+Beak of galea straight or slightly falcate-curved.(58)
55(54)Corolla tube bent at a right angle apically83  Ser. Meteororhynchae    翘喙系
+Corolla tube not bent at a right angle apically.(56)
56(55)Corolla yellow or purplish, with yellowish tube apically and lower lip basally74  Ser. Pectinatiformes    拟篦齿系
+Corolla purplish red or yellow, or yellow with purple galea.(57)
57(56)Calyx often less than 6 mm, lobes ± serrate; bracts usually narrower and serrate or pinnatilobate63  Ser. Semitortae    半扭卷系
+Calyx often ca. 10 mm, lobes ± entire; bracts at least ovate and entire apically64  Ser. Pectinatae    篦齿系
58(54)Stems branched apically.(59)
+Stems unbranched apically.(60)
59(58)Branches in whorls of 4--6, often woody; beak of galea slightly falcate-curved; calyx lobes ovate; capsule ca. 1/2 exceeding calyx24  Ser. Graciles    纤细系
+Branches opposite or in whorls of 4, herbaceous; beak of galea bent upward; calyx lobes triangular; capsule ca. 4/5 exceeding calyx27  Ser. Moupinenses    穆坪系
60(58)Corolla tube decurved in calyx56  Ser. Cheilanthifoliae    碎米蕨叶系
+Corolla tube not decurved.(61)
61(60)Basal leaves large, persistent, ± lanceolate or narrowly oblong, pinnatifid, with many segments; stem leaves in whorls of 382  Ser. Tantalorhynchae    颤喙系
+Basal leaves smaller or not persistent, ± elliptic to ovate, with few segments; stem leaves sometimes opposite78  Ser. Brevifoliae    短叶系
62(1)Corolla slightly beaked or beakless (beak not longer than wide).(63)
+Corolla beaked.(84)
63(62)Galea with marginal teeth near apex.(64)
+Galea without marginal teeth.(73)
64(63)Galea with several marginal teeth on each side near apex105  Ser. Rhynchodontae    喙齿系
+Galea usually with a distinct marginal tooth on each side of apex.(65)
65(64)Lower corolla lip usually erect or slightly spreading, corolla tube usually not decurved.(66)
+Lower corolla lip spreading, corolla tube usually decurved.(69)
66(65)Plants branched44  Ser. Pedicularis    
+Plants usually unbranched.(67)
67(66)Basal leaves to 28 cm, with 5--9 pairs of segments36  Ser. Pteridifoliae    蕨叶系
+Basal leaves less than 12 cm, with more segments.(68)
68(67)Plants reddish or reddish brown hirtellous; basal leaves persistent20  Ser. Hirtellae    粗毛系
+Plants not hirtellous; basal leaves not persistent16  Ser. Striatae    红纹系
69(65)Leaves opposite or sometimes alternate apically; stems ascending84  Ser. Atrovirides    深绿系
+Leaves alternate; stems erect.(70)
70(69)Plants usually less than 15 cm tall.(71)
+Plants usually more than 15 cm tall.(72)
71(70)Plants without persistent marcescent leaves at base; inflorescences more than 1/2 total height of plants, centrifugal104  Ser. Pseudo-oederianae    假欧氏系
+Plants with persistent marcescent leaves at base; inflorescences short spicate or capitate92  Ser. Merrillianae    迈氏系
72(70)Leaves usually 2-pinnatifid, 1-pinnatisect, 2-pinnatisect or pinnatipartite66  Ser. Comosae    多毛系
+Leaves usually 1-pinnatisect, with linear-lanceolate, dentate segments65  Ser. Sudeticae    苏台德系
73(63)Corolla tube decurved apically, lower lip spreading; capsule oblique.(74)
+Corolla tube usually erect or occasionally decurved basally, lower lip not spreading; capsule not oblique.(77)
74(73)Plants usually cespitose or procumbent to ascending.(75)
+Plants erect; flowers in a spike, or few and basilar, long pedicellate.(76)
75(74)Inflorescences terminal and basilar, usually distinctly centrifugal103  Ser. Corydaloides    拟紫堇系
+Flowers few, axillary87  Ser. Collatae    铺地系
76(74)Inflorescences short, capitate or flowers few, not distinctly centrifugal91  Ser. Roseae    玫瑰系
+Inflorescences elongated, spicate, with dense flowers102  Ser. Flammeae    火焰系
77(73)Flowers axillary.(78)
+Plants with distinct erect stems; flowers usually in terminal inflorescences.(79)
78(77)Plants with distinct stems26  Ser. Aloenses    阿洛系
+Plants usually stemless29  Ser. Acaules    无茎系
79(77)Apex of galea acute2  Ser. Grandiflorae    野苏子系
+Apex of galea usually rounded or obtuse.(80)
80(79)Throat of corolla expanded, lower lip long stipitate basally3  Ser. Tsekouenses    茨口系
+Throat of corolla not expanded, lower lip not stipitate.(81)
81(80)Stem leaves usually few; plants not drying black1  Ser. Gloriosae    灿烂系
+Stem leaves usually numerous; plants drying black or not.(82)
82(81)Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, pinnatipartite; plants to 1 m tall4  Ser. Tristes    阴郁系
+Leaves ovate to elliptic-oblong, dentate to pinnatilobate; plants less than 40 cm tall.(83)
83(82)Plants drying black; rhizomes distinct, rootstock developed, roots glabrous; leaves alternate; corolla large, galea falcate apically5  Ser. Galeatae    显盔系
+Plants not drying black; without rhizomes, roots densely yellowish brown pubescent; leaves mostly opposite; corolla ca. 1.3 cm, galea ± straight26  Ser. Aloenses    阿洛系
84(62)Corolla tube at least 2 X as long as calyx (except P. bicolor of ser. Wilsoniae).(85)
+Corolla tube less than 2 X as long as calyx.(95)
85(84)Plants usually diffuse; calyx lobes usually 5.(86)
+Plants erect or ± stemless; if stems diffuse, calyx lobes 2 or 3, not 5.(88)
86(85)Plants ± woody; leaves with linear segments; galea usually abruptly constricted into a straight beak34  Ser. Batangenses    巴塘系
+Plants herbaceous; leaves with ovate to oblong segments; galea usually gradually constricted into a beak.(87)
87(86)Beak of galea bent upward33  Ser. Omiianae    峨眉系
+Beak of galea not bent upward, usually straight or twisted35  Ser. Muscicolae    藓生系
88(85)Plants more than 10 cm tall, if smaller, corolla often yellow, or corolla red-purple and less than 1.5 cm.(89)
+Plants less than 10 cm tall; corolla ± red-purple.(91)
89(88)Inflorescences short, racemose, centripetal; galea 1-toothed on each side71  Ser. Amplitubae    丰管系
+Inflorescences usually longer, centrifugal; galea toothless at margin.(90)
90(89)Lower corolla lip spreading, not enveloping galea111  Ser. Longiflorae    长花系
+Lower corolla lip not spreading, usually enveloping galea, only slender beak projecting112  Ser. Megalanthae    硕花系
91(88)Pedicel to 1--4 cm; galea circinate-incurved basally101  Ser. Neolatitubae    新粗管系
+Pedicel shorter; galea not incurved basally.(92)
92(91)Corolla tube expanded apically100  Ser. Wilsoniae    魏氏系
+Corolla tube not expanded apically.(93)
93(92)Corolla with lower lip less than 2 cm wide; corolla tube slender, usually less than 0.75 mm wide99  Ser. Albiflorae    白花系
+Corolla with lower lip more than 2 cm wide; corolla tube usually more than 1 mm wide.(94)
94(93)Leaves pinnatifid; beak of galea usually downward uncinate108  Ser. Robustae    壮健系
+Leaves ± entire or only pinnatifid; beak of galea not downward uncinate110  Ser. Pumiliones    低矮系
95(84)Galea usually marginally long ciliate.(96)
+Galea not marginally long ciliate.(108)
96(95)Galea navicular.(97)
+Galea not navicular.(100)
97(96)Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, pinnatilobate or dentate8  Ser. Craspedotrichae    缘毛系
+Leaves not linear, shorter and wider, segmented.(98)
98(97)Leaves pinnatisect, with linear-lanceolate segments17  Ser. Proboscideae    鼻喙系
+Leaves double dentate to pinnatipartite, with shorter wider segments.(99)
99(98)Leaves ± lanceolate-oblong, less than 3.5 X as long as wide7  Ser. Dolichocymbae    长舟系
+Leaves not linear to linear-lanceolate, more than 4 X as long as wide6  Ser. Rudes    粗野系
100(96)Beak of galea nearly as long as lower corolla lip.(101)
+Beak of galea longer than lower corolla lip.(104)
101(100)Leaves mostly basal, pinnatisect with lanceolate segments; beak of galea with apical tuft of hairs18  Ser. Lachnoglossae    绒舌系
+Leaves mostly on stem, not pinnatisect; beak of galea without apical tuft of hairs.(102)
102(101)Lobes of lower corolla lip long stipitate basally, galea ± abruptly constricted into a slender beak11  Ser. Lasiophrydes    毛颏系
+Lobes of lower corolla lip not stipitate, galea gradually constricted into a beak.(103)
103(102)Plants usually more than 30 cm tall, to 80 cm; corolla galea less than 3 mm wide, sparsely pubescent9  Ser. Imbricatae    复瓦系
+Plants usually less than 30 cm tall; corolla galea 4--5 mm wide, densely pubescent10  Ser. Trichoglossae    毛盔系
104(100)Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate.(105)
+Leaves not narrowly linear.(106)
105(104)Plants usually more than 30 cm tall, to 1 m; beak of galea not twisted; lobes of lower corolla lip narrowly lanceolate12  Ser. Kongboenses    宫布系
+Plants less than 30 cm tall; beak of galea S-shaped; lobes of lower corolla lip short, wide15  Ser. Kialenses    甲拉系
106(104)Leaves ± ovate, usually more than 3.5 cm wide14  Ser. Excelsae    卓越系
+Leaves linear-lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, usually less than 3.5 cm wide (except P. angustilabris to 5.5 cm wide).(107)
107(106)Galea not twisted, densely villous at base and at margin; lobes of lower corolla lip not square-shaped19  Ser. Recurvae    反曲系
+Galea strongly twisted, glabrous or villous on lower margin and beak; lobes of lower corolla lip nearly square-shaped15  Ser. Kialenses    甲拉系
108(95)Inflorescences distinctly centrifugal.(109)
+Inflorescences distinctly centripetal or indistinctly centrifugal.(111)
109(108)Beak of galea more than 3 X as long as lower corolla lip107  Ser. Macrorhynchae    长喙系
+Beak of galea shorter or slightly longer than lower corolla lip.(110)
110(109)Lower corolla lip less than 1.2 cm wide106  Ser. Filiculae    拟蕨系
+Lower corolla lip usually more than 1.5 cm wide109  Ser. Macranthae    大花系
111(108)Stems weak, slender, usually diffuse; flowers usually axillary.(112)
+Stems erect or ± ascending, or ± stemless; flowers arising from a stock.(115)
112(111)Flowers usually in clusters at base of stems30  Ser. Vagantes    蔓生系
+Flowers not in clusters at base of stems, solitary.(113)
113(112)Galea with pairs of marginal teeth94  Ser. Odontophorae    具齿系
+Galea without marginal teeth.(114)
114(113)Leaves without distinct reticulate veins abaxially; calyx tube without reticulate veins31  Ser. Axillares    腋花系
+Leaves with distinct reticulate veins abaxially; calyx tube with reticulate veins apically32  Ser. Infirmae    孱弱系
115(111)Inflorescences usually elongated, not interrupted.(116)
+Inflorescences usually subcapitate, few flowered, or ± elongated and interrupted basally.(117)
116(115)Stems to 80 cm tall; leaves relatively large; corolla relatively small, beak of galea bent upward, lower lip 1/4 to 1/3 as long as galea13  Ser. Subsurrectae    亚举喙系
+Stems shorter; leaves relatively small; corolla relatively large, beak of galea bent downward only, lower lip longer69  Ser. Oxycarpae    尖果系
117(115)Plants less than 10 cm tall, without a distinct main stem.(118)
+Plants more than 10 cm tall.(121)
118(117)Leaves numerous, persistent, with several narrow segments93  Ser. Asplenifoliae    铁角蕨叶系
+Leaves few, not persistent, with fewer wider segments.(119)
119(118)Lower corolla lip more than 2 cm wide, galea usually robust, apex of beak 2-cleft108  Ser. Robustae    壮健系
+Lower corolla lip narrower, galea narrower, apex of beak not 2-cleft.(120)
120(119)Stems rigid; leaves alternate; roots numerous95  Ser. Paucifoliatae    少叶系
+Stems usually weak, flexuous; leaves usually pseudo-opposite; roots few96  Ser. Mychophilae    菌生系
121(117)Pedicel to 3--11.5 cm; galea not twisted97  Ser. Franchetianae    佛氏系
+Pedicel less than 3 cm; galea strongly twisted laterally.(122)
122(121)Flowers ± in a capitulum.(123)
+Flowers ± in a raceme.(128)
123(122)Corolla more than 3 cm; lower lip relatively wide, often completely enveloping galea98  Ser. Pseudomacranthae    假大花系
+Corolla usually less than 2.5 cm; lower lip relatively narrow, often spreading, not enveloping galea.(124)
124(123)Leaves to 2.5--13 X 14 cm, stem leaves often ovate-elliptic37  Ser. Phaceliifoliae    法且利亚叶系
+Leaves smaller, ± oblong or lanceolate.(125)
125(124)Plants usually branched basally and at middle67  Ser. Strobilaceae    球状系
+Plants unbranched or only branched basally.(126)
126(125)Corolla to 2.8 cm; beak of galea very long, S-shaped or semicircular72  Ser. Rhinanthoides    拟鼻花系
+Corolla smaller; beak of galea shorter, not S-shaped or semicircular.(127)
127(126)Leaves pinnatifid or pinnatipartite95  Ser. Paucifoliatae    少叶系
+Leaves pinnatisect or pinnatipartite68  Ser. Oliganthae    少花系
128(122)Galea strongly twisted laterally at base70  Ser. Dissectae    细裂系
+Galea not strongly twisted laterally at base.(129)
129(128)Leaves often ovate or elliptic, with few segments49  Ser. Furfurae    糠秕系
+Leaves oblong to linear, with numerous segments, some merely crenate.(130)
130(129)Basal leaves cespitose; plants herbaceous; bracts petiolate95  Ser. Paucifoliatae    少叶系
+Basal leaves not cespitose; plants ± woody; bracts sessile.(131)
131(130)Leaves only double dentate or entire.(132)
+Leaves pinnatipartite to pinnatisect.(133)
132(131)Beak of galea distinct45  Ser. Racemosae    总花系
+Beak of galea indistinct46  Ser. Carnosae    肉质系
133(131)Pedicel relatively short; beak of galea short or obscure47  Ser. Microphyllae    小叶系
+Pedicel relatively long, distinct; beak of galea slender48  Ser. Polyphyllatae    多叶系
   List of lower taxa