Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Caprifoliaceae  PDF Lonicera  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   5. Lonicera  Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 173. 1753.
忍冬属   ren dong shu

Caprifolium Miller; Euchylia Dulac; Xylosteon Miller.


Shrubs erect or dwarf, rarely small trees, sometimes climbers, deciduous or evergreen. Branches hollow or solid with white or brown pith; winter buds with 1 to several pairs of scales, rounded or acutely 4-angular, inner scales sometimes accrescent and reflexed. Accessory buds sometimes present, occasionally terminal buds reduced and substituted by 2 lateral buds. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled, margin entire, rarely dentate or divided; leaves usually estipulate, occasionally with interpetiolar stipules or a swollen interpetiolar line; sometimes 1 or 2 pairs of leaves below inflorescence connate and forming involucral bracts. Inflorescence thyrsoid, terminal or axillary, cymes opposite and usually reduced to paired flowers, rarely 1-, sometimes 3-flowered. Inflorescence occasionally pedunculate; cymes sessile, sometimes forming a capitulum, or cymes pedunculate with a pair of bracts and 2 pairs of bracteoles; bracts usually small, sometimes leaflike; bracteoles usually free, sometimes ± fused and cupular occasionally enclosing ovaries, sometimes absent. Paired flowers with free or partially to completely fused ovaries. Calyx 5-lobed, rarely 4-lobed, sometimes truncate, base occasionally with a collarlike emergence. Corolla white, yellow, reddish, or purple-red, often changing color after anthesis, campanulate, funnelform, regularly or subregularly 5(or 4)-lobed, or bilabiate and upper lip 4-lobed; tube long or short, often shallowly to deeply gibbous on ventral side toward base, rarely spurred. Nectary of compact sessile glandular hairs on ventral side toward base of corolla tube, occasionally in 5 regular lines, rarely swollen at base of style. Stamens 5; anthers dorsifixed. Ovary 2 or 3(-5)-locular; style slender, hairy or glabrous; stigmas capitate. Fruit a berry, red, blue-black, black, green, or white sometimes pruinose, bracteoles occasionally accrescent in fruit and enclosing paired berries. Seeds 1 to numerous, smooth, pitted or granular, with rounded embryo.

About 180 species: N Africa, Asia, Europe, North America; 57 species (23 endemic) in China.

See Rehder, Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 27-232, t. 1-20. 1903.

See Rehder, Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 14: 27-232, t. 1-20. 1903.

1Flowers in 3-flowered cymes forming whorls at ends of branches(2)
+Flowers paired (occasionally single), axillary, paniculate or forming thyrses at ends of branches; involucral bracts not connate(5)
2(1)Involucral bracts not connate; cymes pedunculate.14  L. hypoleuca    白背忍冬
+Involucral bracts usually connate; cymes sessile(3)
3(2)Corolla funnelform, lobes regular.55  L. subaequalis    川黔忍冬
+Corolla bilabiate(4)
4(3)Corolla 1.5-2.5 cm; bracts lanceolate.56  L. yunnanensis    云南忍冬
+Corolla 5-9 cm; bracts ovate.57  L. tragophylla    盘叶忍冬
5(1)Shrubs; corolla actinomorphic, tube not gibbous and nectary of compact sessile glandular hairs in 5 regular lines; branches with solid pith; accessory buds absent(6)
+Shrubs or climbers; corolla zygomorphic (sometimes only at base), tube gibbous at base or not and nectary of compact sessile glandular hairs on ventral side toward base of corolla tube; branches solid or hollow; accessory buds often present(10)
6(5)Style as long as or longer than corolla tube(7)
+Style ca. 1/2 length of corolla tube(8)
7(6)Anthers and stigmas exserted; branches often with leafless spinelike apex; berries pale violet to white; dwarf shrubs 30-60 cm tall.5  L. spinosa    棘枝忍冬
+Anthers and stigmas not exserted; branches not spinelike at apex; berries blue-black with glaucous bloom; shrubs 200-400 cm tall.3  L. tomentella    毛冠忍冬
8(6)Leaves sometimes whorled; flowers at bases of branches; branches often becoming spinelike at apex; stems sympodial; ovary 3-locular.4  L. rupicola    岩生忍冬
+Leaves not whorled; flowers on short lateral branches or along monopodial stems; branches not spinelike at apex; ovary 2-locular(9)
9(8)Ovaries fused above middle or throughout; corolla tubular-campanulate, lobes usually more than 1.5 mm; flowers 4- or 5-merous.2  L. angustifolia    狭叶忍冬
+Ovaries free; corolla narrowly tubular, lobes usually ca. 1.5 mm; flowers 5-merous.1  L. tubuliflora    管花忍冬
10(5)Climbers, sometimes sprawling(11)
+Upright shrubs, sometimes compact or prostrate with upright shoots(20)
11(10)Corolla with a ca. 12 mm spur toward base, neighboring 2 ovaries connate.42  L. calcarata    长距忍冬
+Corolla not spurred, sometimes shallowly gibbous, neighboring 2 ovaries free(12)
12(11)Corolla less than 3 cm(13)
+Corolla more than 3 cm(15)
13(12)Corolla tube broadly funnelform, shallowly gibbous toward base.45  L. acuminata    淡红忍冬
+Corolla tube narrowly funnelform, not gibbous(14)
14(13)Corolla densely yellow-brown strigose; leaves abaxially densely yellow-brown strigose, margins conspicuously ciliate.46  L. ferruginea    锈毛忍冬
+Corolla with spreading or adpressed hairs and minute glandular hairs, glabrous, or strigose; leaves abaxially not densely yellow-brown strigose, margins not conspicuously ciliate.   
15(12)Bracts leaflike(16)
+Bracts not leaflike, linear or subulate(17)
16(15)Bracts ovate to elliptic, 10-30 mm; leaves abaxially sparsely to densely hairy but not obscuring leaf surface.44  L. japonica    忍冬
+Bracts linear-lanceolate, 5-14 mm; leaves abaxially white velutinous with indumentum obscuring leaf surface.   
17(15)Corolla 9-12 cm, tube broadly funnelform; berries green when ripe.53  L. hildebrandiana    大果忍冬
+Corolla 3-9 cm, tube narrowly funnelform; berries white, red, or black when ripe(18)
18(17)Corolla 5-9 cm; leaves glabrous; berries white or black.52  L. longiflora    长花忍冬
+Corolla 3-7 cm; leaves abaxially hirsute mixed with short glandular hairs, pubescent, shortly white velutinous or glaucous with large sessile orange glands, occasionally subglabrous; berries white, red, or black(19)
19(18)Corolla 3-4.5 cm, lip less than 1/5 as long as tube; berries red.54  L. bournei    西南忍冬
+Corolla 3-7 cm, lip more than 1/4 as long as tube; berries white or black.   
20(10)Branches with pith becoming brown and later hollow(21)
+Branches with solid pith(25)
21(20)Peduncles 10 mm or less(22)
+Peduncle 10 mm or more(23)
22(21)Calyx scarious and campanulate, splitting; corolla 1.2-1.5 cm; winter bud scales hairy inside.41  L. trichosantha    毛花忍冬
+Calyx not scarious, tubular at base but lobed at apex; corolla ca. 2 cm; winter bud scales glabrous inside.40  L. maackii    金银忍冬
23(21)Inner winter bud scales densely hairy and ciliate outside, ovaries ± glandular hairy.39  L. chrysantha    金花忍冬
+Inner winter bud scales glabrous to sparsely hairy outside, ovaries glabrous(24)
24(23)Upper corolla lip 4-lobed, 2 lateral lobes reaching base and spreading, tube shallowly gibbous toward base; leaf margin ciliate.37  L. tatarica    新疆忍冬
+Upper corolla lip 4-lobed, 2 lateral lobes reaching 1/2-3/4 and slightly spreading, tube deeply gibbous toward base; leaf margin sometimes dentate.38  L. ruprechtiana    长白忍冬
25(20)Bracteoles fused into a cupule enclosing ovaries at anthesis (note that this can give appearance of fused ovaries and absent bracteoles); bracteoles sometimes accrescent and enclosing paired berries in fruit(26)
+Bracteoles absent or shorter than ovaries, free, fused in pairs, sometimes fused into a cupule but not enclosing ovaries(30)
26(25)Calyx forming a collarlike emergence at base; bracteoles not accrescent in fruit(27)
+Calyx not forming a collarlike emergence at base; bracteoles accrescent in fruit sometimes enclosing paired berries(28)
27(26)Corolla bilabiate; style stiffly hairy to apex; leaves usually with tufted hairs at base of midvein abaxially.11  L. gynochlamydea    蕊被忍冬
+Corolla lobes regular; style villous at base only; leaves usually without tufted hairs at base of midvein abaxially.12  L. ligustrina    女贞叶忍冬
28(26)Inflorescence not terminal, paired flowers axillary; corolla lobes regular; cupule glabrous, tightly enclosing paired ovaries and forming a compound fruit.10  L. caerulea    蓝果忍冬
+Inflorescence terminal; corolla bilabiate; cupule pubescent, loosely enclosing paired berries, berries often exserted from cupule in fruit(29)
29(28)Cupule usually glandular pubescent, accrescent to 1/2 length of berries; inflorescence terminal, of 3-8 whorls; winter buds glabrous inside; seeds shallowly pitted; leaf apex obtuse or rounded.14  L. hypoleuca    白背忍冬
+Cupule villous, enclosing paired berries, sometimes splitting at maturity; inflorescence terminal, of 1-3 whorls; winter buds densely villous inside; seeds deeply pitted with orange glands; leaf apex acuminate or acute.13  L. ferdinandi    葱皮忍冬
30(25)Winter bud acutely 4-angular(31)
+Winter bud not acutely 4-angular(34)
31(30)Ovaries free or fused only at base; bracteoles free or fused into a cupule; berries black.   
+Ovaries half to completely fused, bracteoles fused into a cupule; berries red or black(32)
32(31)Peduncle to 7 mm; berries red.30  L. modesta    下江忍冬
+Peduncles 5-30 mm; berries red or black(33)
33(32)Berries red; leaf blade ovate, 4-12 × 1.5-3.5 cm.   
+Berries black; leaf blade usually obovate, 1-2.5 × 0.7-1.8 cm, abaxially often pruinose, apex retuse to obtuse.   
34(30)Ovaries connate to ca. 1/2 or more(35)
+Ovaries free(39)
35(34)Corolla with regular erect lobes; stamens inserted or partially exserted 6-8. L. tangutica species complex(35)
+Corolla bilabiate, lobes recurved; stamens fully exserted(36)
36(35)Bracteoles present, free or sometimes fused into a cupule; inner winter bud scales long accrescent; peduncle 0.5-9 cm, usually thickened toward apex.   
+Bracteoles absent; inner winter bud scales long accrescent or not; peduncle 0.5-1.5 cm, not thickened toward apex(37)
37(36)Flowering Apr-Jun; inner winter bud scales not accrescent; berry globose.9  L. microphylla    小叶忍冬
+Flowering Jan-Apr; inner winter bud scales long accrescent; berry oblong(38)
38(37)Deciduous shrubs; leaves ovate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate, 3-8.5 cm.15  L. fragrantissima    郁香忍冬
+Evergreen shrubs; leaves broadly obovate, obtuse and mucronate, 1-2 cm.16  L. mucronata    短尖忍冬
39(34)Corolla hypocrateriform, densely hairy at mouth; style ca. 1/2 length of corolla tube; flowers appearing before leaves.18  L. setifera    齿叶忍冬
+Corolla not hypocrateriform; style subequaling or longer than corolla tube; flowers appearing before or after leaves(40)
40(39)Corolla bilabiate(41)
+Corolla funnelform, lobes subregular(44)
41(40)Bracteoles absent; bracts leaflike, ovate to lanceolate.26  L. humilis    矮小忍冬
+Bracteoles present, free or fused in pairs or into a cupule; bracts linear-subulate(42)
42(41)Prostrate shrubs with evergreen leathery leaves; corolla tube longer than lobes.43  L. crassifolia    匍匐忍冬
+Erect shrubs with deciduous leaves; corolla tube shorter than lobes(43)
43(42)Bracteoles free or fused in pairs; peduncle 0.5-9 cm, usually thickened toward apex; leaves ovate-elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, longer than wide, apex apiculate to long acuminate.   
+Bracteoles fused into a cupule shorter than ovaries; peduncle 0.7-1 cm, not thickened toward apex; leaves broadly rhombic, as long as wide, apex cuspidate and mucronate or obtuse.29  L. oblata    丁香叶忍冬
44(40)Cymes reduced to a single flower, sometimes with a second partially developed.25  L. subhispida    单花忍冬
+Cymes of paired flowers(45)
45(44)Inner winter bud scales not accrescent and covered by a single outer pair of keeled scales; bracts usually 1 cm or more.   
+Inner winter bud scales accrescent; bracts usually 1 cm or less(46)
46(45)Corolla lobes more than half as long as tube; anthers usually deep pink, exserted; berry globose.17  L. praeflorens    早花忍冬
+Corolla lobes less than half as long as tube; berry ellipsoid.24  L. elisae    北京忍冬
   List of lower taxa