Flora of China
  FOC Vol.24 (2000)              | Family List  Zingiberaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   20. Zingiberaceae  Lindley
姜科   jiang ke
Authors:Wu Delin (吴德邻 Wu Te-lin)1; Kai Larsen2


Herbs perennial, terrestrial, rarely epiphytic, aromatic, with fleshy, tuberous or non-tuberous rhizomes, often with tuber-bearing roots. Stems usually short, replaced by pseudostems formed by leaf sheaths. Leaves distichous, simple, those toward base of plant usually bladeless and reduced to sheaths; leaf sheath open; ligule usually present; petiole present or not, located between leaf blade and sheath, cushionlike in Zingiber; leaf blade suborbicular or lanceolate to narrowly strap-shaped, rolled longitudinally in bud, glabrous or hairy, midvein prominent, lateral veins usually numerous, pinnate, parallel, margin entire. Inflorescence terminal on pseudostems or on separate, short, sheath-covered shoots arising from rhizomes, cylindric or fusiform, sometimes globose, lax to dense, few to many flowered, sometimes with bracteolate cincinni in bract axils and then a thyrse, sometimes a raceme or spike; bracts and bracteoles present, often conspicuous, colored. Flowers bisexual, epigynous, zygomorphic. Calyx usually tubular, thin, split on 1 side, sometimes spathelike, apex 3-toothed or -lobed. Corolla proximally tubular, distally 3-lobed; lobes varying in size and shape. Stamens or staminodes 6, in 2 whorls. Lateral 2 staminodes of outer whorl petaloid, or forming small teeth at base of labellum, or adnate to labellum, or absent. Median staminode of outer whorl always reduced. Labellum formed from lateral 2 staminodes of inner whorl. Fertile stamen median, of inner whorl; filament long or short; anther locules 2, introrse, dehiscing by slits or occasionally pores; connective often extended basally into spurs and/or apically into a crest. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed initially, 1- or 3-loculed when mature; ovules ± numerous per locule; placentation parietal, basal, or axile. Developed style 1, very thin, placed in a furrow in filament and between anther locules; stigma appearing above anther, funnelform, papillose, ± wet, margin often ciliate. Stylodes 2, reduced to nectaries at apex of ovary. Fruit a capsule, fleshy or dry, dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes berrylike. Seeds few to many, arillate; aril often lobed or lacerate.

About 50 genera and 1300 species: pantropical with center of diversity in S and SE Asia, some species in America and subtropical and warm-temperate Asia; 20 genera (one endemic) and 216 species (141 endemic, four introduced) in China.

Wu Te-lin, Chen Sen-jen, Tsai Hsi-tao, Tong Shao-quan, Chen Pei-shan & Zhao Shi-wang. 1981. Zingiberaceae subfam. Zingiberoideae. In: Wu Te-lin, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 16(2): 22--148.

1Lateral staminodes forming small teeth at base of labellum, or adnate to labellum (forming a 3-lobed structure), or absent.(2)
+Lateral staminodes petaloid.(10)
2(1)Lateral staminodes adnate to labellum forming a 3-lobed structure; style extended well beyond fertile part of anther; anther connective crest elongate, wrapped around style1  Zingiber    姜属
+Lateral staminodes forming small teeth at base of labellum or absent; style extended just beyond fertile part of anther; anther connective crest (if present) not wrapped around style.(3)
3(2)Inflorescences terminal or lateral on pseudostems.(4)
+Inflorescences on separate shoots arising from rhizomes.(7)
4(3)Inflorescences lateral, breaking through leaf sheaths2  Plagiostachys    偏穗姜属
+Inflorescences terminal.(5)
5(4)Labellum horizontal or pendulous, broad; filament usually shorter than corolla or labellum3  Alpinia    山姜属
+Labellum erect, narrow, or absent; filament exserted above corolla.(6)
6(5)Labellum erect, narrowly spatulate, base adnate to filament; leaf blade subsagittate or cordate at base4  Pommereschea    直唇姜属
+Labellum absent; filament boat-shaped, apex narrow; leaf blade rounded or acute at apex5  Rhynchanthus    喙花姜属
7(3)Inflorescence not surrounded by a conspicuous involucre of sterile bracts.(8)
+Inflorescence surrounded by a conspicuous involucre of sterile bracts.(9)
8(7)Bracteoles tubular; leaves usually numerous6  Amomum    豆蔻属
+Bracteoles not tubular; leaves 1 or 27  Elettariopsis    拟豆蔻属
9(7)Base of labellum adnate to filament to form a distinct tube above lateral staminodes and corolla lobes; corolla tube shorter than or equaling labellum8  Etlingera    茴香砂仁属
+Base of labellum free from filament; corolla tube more than 2 × as long as labellum9  Hornstedtia    大豆蔻属
10(1)Ovary 1-loculed, placentation parietal; anther long; labellum adnate to filament to form a slender tube above lateral staminodes and corolla lobes10  Globba    舞花姜属
+Ovary 3-loculed, placentation axile; anther short; labellum free from filament.(11)
11(10)Anther with 2 basal spurs.(12)
+Anther without basal spurs.(14)
12(11)Inflorescences conical; bracts connate laterally for ca. 1/2 their length, forming basal pouches, each subtending a cincinnus of 2--7 flowers11  Curcuma    姜黄属
+Inflorescences spikelike; bracts not connate, each subtending 1 flower.(13)
13(12)Ovary and capsule oblong, cylindric, or clavate; capsule late dehiscent; flowers purple or white, rarely yellow12  Roscoea    象牙参属
+Ovary and capsule globose; capsule soon dehiscent; flowers yellow or orange13  Cautleya    距药姜属
14(11)Leaves all basal or on very short pseudostems; inflorescences terminal on pseudostems or on separate shoots arising from rhizomes.(15)
+Leaves on conspicuous pseudostems; inflorescences terminal on pseudostems.(17)
15(14)Labellum strongly concave14  Boesenbergia    凹唇姜属
+Labellum not concave.(16)
16(15)Inflorescence surrounded by a campanulate involucre15  Stahlianthus    土田七属
+Inflorescence without a campanulate involucre, bracts spirally arranged16  Kaempferia    山柰属
17(14)Bracts 1--3 per inflorescence, margin basally adnate to main axis, apex with leaflike extension17  Pyrgophyllum    苞叶姜属
+Bracts 1--10 per inflorescence, rather small or free.(18)
18(17)Filament very long (rarely very short); anther dorsifixed, apex without appendage18  Hedychium    姜花属
+Filament short; anther basifixed, apex or connective with appendage.(19)
19(18)Pedicel articulate; capsule cylindric, torulose, 12--13 cm19  Siliquamomum    长果姜属
+Pedicel not articulate; capsule ovoid-oblong, not torulose, ca. 1 cm20  Caulokaempferia    大苞姜属
   List of lower taxa