Flora of China
  FOC Vol.13 (2007)              | Family List  Violaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   8. Violaceae  Batsch
堇菜科   jin cai ke
Authors:Chen Yousheng (陈又生), Yang Qiner (杨亲二); Hideaki Ohba, Vladimir V. Nikitin


Herbs annual or perennial, shrubs, or subshrubs, sometimes scandent, rarely small trees. Leaves simple, usually alternate, sometimes opposite, with small or leaflike stipules, petiolate, margin entire, serrate, or dissected. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, rarely polygamous, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, solitary or in axillary or terminal, spicate, paniculate, or racemose inflorescences, 2-bracteolate, sometimes cleistogamous. Sepals 5, equal or unequal, imbricate, persistent. Petals 5, imbricate or convolute, unequal, anterior one usually larger than others, saccate, gibbous or spurred at base. Stamens 5; anthers erect, free or connivent or connate, connectives often dilated into membranous appendages; filaments very short or absent, anterior 2 stamens with spurlike nectary at base. Ovary superior, 1-loculed, 3-5-carpelled, syncarpous, with 3-5 parietal placentae each with 1 to many anatropous ovules; style simple; stigmas variously shaped. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, usually with elastic and abaxially carinate valves, rarely baccate. Seeds often carunculate; testa hard, nitid, often with oily bodies, sometimes alate; endosperm copious, fleshy; embryo erect.

Twenty-two genera and 900-1000 species: worldwide, but particularly in tropical regions; three genera and 101 species (36 endemic, three introduced) in China.

Wang Chingrui. 1991. Violaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 51: i-v, 1-148.

1Shrubs or trees; inflorescences mostly more than 5-flowered; flowers actinomorphic, not spurred, not cleistogamous.1  Rinorea    三角车属
+Herbs or subshrubs; inflorescences 1-3-flowered; flowers distinctly zygomorphic (lowest petal spurred), or cleistogamous(2)
2(1)Subshrubs; sepals basally not auriculate.2  Hybanthus    鼠鞭草属
+Herbs; sepals basally auriculate.3  Viola    堇菜属
   Lower Taxon
  • Hybanthus  Jacquin  鼠鞭草属
  • Rinorea  Aublet  三角车属
  • Viola  Linnaeus  堇菜属
  • Viola subg. Dischidium  (Gingins) Petermann  二裂花柱亚属
  • Viola subg. Erpetion  (Sweet) Y. S. Chen  无距堇菜亚属
  • Viola subg. Melanium  (Gingins) Petermann  美丽堇菜亚属
  • Viola subg. Chamaemelanium  (Gingins) Juzepczuk  须毛柱头堇菜亚属
  • Viola subg. Viola    堇菜亚属