Flora of China
  FOC Vol.12 (2007)              | Family List  Tiliaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   9. Tiliaceae  A. L. Jussieu
椴树科   duan shu ke
Authors:Tang Ya (唐亚); Michael G. Gilbert, Laurence J. Dorr


Trees, shrubs, or herbs. Leaves simple, alternate or rarely opposite, basally veined, entire or serrate, sometimes lobed; stipule, when present, caducous or persistent. Inflorescences cymose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers bisexual or unisexual (plants dioecious), actinomorphic. Bracts caducous or sometimes large and persistent. Sepals (4 or)5, free or sometimes basally connate, valvate. Petals as many as sepals, sometimes absent, free, usually glandular on adaxial surface. Androgynophore present or absent. Stamens numerous, rarely 5, free or connate into fascicles at base; anthers 2-loculed, dehiscence longitudinal or apical; petaloid staminodes alternating with petals or absent. Ovary superior, 2-6-loculed, sometimes more; ovules 1 to many per locule; placentation axile; style simple, sometimes free; stigma acute or peltate, usually lobed. Fruit usually a drupe, capsule, or schizocarp, sometimes a berry or samara, 2-10-loculed. Seeds without aril; endosperm copious; embryo erect; cotyledons flat.

About 52 genera and ca. 500 species: primarily in tropical and subtropical areas; 11 genera and 70 species (32 endemic) in China.

Molecular data have shown that the members of the Tiliaceae as here defined fall clearly into four clades that can either be treated as subfamilies within an enlarged Malvaceae or as families in their own right. In this view the Tiliaceae/Tilioideae is restricted to Tilia and Craigia, along with the Central American Mortoniodendron Standley & Steyermark; Colona, Corchorus, Grewia, Microcos, and Triumfetta are placed in the Sparrmanniaceae/Grewioideae; Berrya and Diplodiscus are placed in the Brownlowiaceae/Brownlowioideae; and Burretiodendron and Excentrodendron form a basal group of uncertain placement, possibly most closely allied to the Pentapetaceae/Dombeyoideae which includes mostly genera here placed in the Sterculiaceae.

Plagiopteron Griffith, included in the Tiliaceae in FRPS (49(1): 48-50. 1989), is now regarded as either a member of the Celastraceae or a separate family, Plagiopteraceae (see Fl. China 11).

Chang Hung-ta & Miau Ru-huai. 1989. Tiliaceae. In: Chang Hung-ta, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 49(1): 47-123.

1Herbs or subshrubs(2)
+Trees or shrubs(3)
2(1)Androgynophore absent; petals eglandular; fruit a smooth capsule.3  Corchorus    黄麻属
+Androgynophore present; petals glandular; fruit a spiny or bristly capsule.7  Triumfetta    刺蒴麻属
3(1)Each inflorescence with a single large, persistent, band-shaped bract partially connate with peduncle.1  Tilia    椴树属
+Inflorescence without such a bract(4)
4(3)Fruit without wings, at the most ridged(5)
+Fruit with well-defined wings(7)
5(4)Calyx campanulate; fruit a capsule; androgynophore absent.8  Diplodiscus    海南椴属
+Calyx with free sepals; fruit a drupe, often 2- or 4-lobed; short androgynophore present(6)
6(5)Inflorescences paniculate, terminal; stigma subulate, not lobed.5  Microcos    破布叶属
+Inflorescences cymose, usually axillary; stigma swollen, lobed.6  Grewia    扁担杆属
7(4)Calyx campanulate; ovary 3-loculed; fruit with 3 pairs of long wings.9  Berrya    六翅木属
+Calyx divided to base or near to base; ovary 3-5-loculed; fruit with 3-5 wings(8)
8(7)Flowers bisexual(9)
+Flowers unisexual or polygamous(10)
9(8)Basal veins 3; inflorescences axillary, cymose; petals absent.2  Craigia    滇桐属
+Basal veins 5-7; inflorescences usually terminal, paniculate; petals 5.4  Colona    一担柴属
10(8)Leaf blade leathery, glabrous, basal veins 3.10  Excentrodendron    蚬木属
+Leaf blade papery, stellate scaly or stellate pilose, basal veins 5-9.11  Burretiodendron    柄翅果属
   List of lower taxa