Flora of China
  FOC Vol.4 (1999)              | Family List  Taxodiaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Taxodiaceae  Warming
杉科   shan ke
Authors:Fu Liguo (傅立国 Fu Li-kuo) , Yu Yongfu (于永福) ; Robert R. Mill


Trees evergreen, semievergreen, or deciduous, monoecious; trunk straight; main branches ± whorled. Leaves spirally arranged or scattered (decussate in Metasequoia), monomorphic, dimorphic, or trimorphic on same tree, lanceolate, subulate, scalelike, or linear. Microsporophylls and cone scales spirally arranged (decussate in Metasequoia). Pollen cones borne in panicles, or solitary or clustered at branch apices, or axillary, small; microsporangia with (2 or)3 or 4(-9) pollen sacs; pollen nonsaccate. Seed cones terminal or borne near apex of previous year’s growth, ripening in 1st year, persistent or late deciduous; cone scales developing after ovules originate in bract axils; bracts and cone scales usually spirally aranged (decussate in Metasequoia), sessile, opening when ripe (falling in Taxodium), semiconnate and free only at apex, or completely united; bracts occasionally rudimentary (in Taiwania); ovules 2-9 per bract axil, erect or pendulous; cone scales of mature cones flattened or shield-shaped, woody or leathery, 2-9-seeded on abaxial side. Seeds flat or triangular, wingless (in Taxodium), narrowly winged all round or on 2 sides, or with a long wing on proximal part. Cotyledons 2-9. 2n = 22*.

Nine genera and 12 species: Asia, North America, and (Athrotaxis D. Don) Tasmania; eight genera (one endemic, three introduced) and nine species (one endemic, four introduced) in China.

A merger of the Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae is increasingly supported by both morphological and molecular evidence (see note under Cupressaceae). However, the two groups are kept as separate families here for pragmatic reasons.

Tsui Hung-pin, Cheng Wan-chün, Fu Li-kuo & Chao Chi-son. 1978. Taxodiaceae. In: Cheng Wan-chün & Fu Li-kuo, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 7: 281-312.

1Leaves and cone scales decussate (but leaves spirally arranged on leading branchlets); lateral branchlets deciduous; cone scales shieldlike, woody, 5-9-seeded (when fertile); seeds compressed, winged all round8  Metasequoia    水杉属
+Leaves and cone scales spirally arranged (but leaves often appearing falsely 2-ranked or alternate); other characters various.(2)
2(1)Cone scales or bracts leathery.(3)
+Cone scales woody.(4)
3(2)Leaves linear-lanceolate, margin serrulate; bracts large; cone scales 3-seeded1  Cunninghamia    杉木属
+Leaves scalelike or subulate, margin entire; bracts rudimentary; cone scales 2-seeded2  Taiwania    台湾杉属
4(2)Deciduous or semievergreen; fertile cone scales 2-seeded; seeds irregularly triquetrous or slightly flattened.(5)
+Evergreen; fertile cone scales 2-9-seeded; seeds flattened.(6)
5(4)Deciduous or semievergreen; pollen cones borne in pendulous racemes or panicles; seeds irregularly triquetrous, large, wingless5  Taxodium    落羽杉属
+Semievergreen; pollen cones borne on short, erect branchlets; seeds elliptic, slightly flattened, small, with a single, terminal, recurved wing4  Glyptostrobus    水松属
6(4)Leaves subulate; seed cones sessile; umbo of cone scales with a central spine and 4 or 5(-7) toothlike projections3  Cryptomeria    柳杉属
+Leaves all scalelike, or scalelike on main branchlets and linear on lateral branchlets; seed cones pedunculate; umbo of cone scales without spines or projections.(7)
7(6)Leaves all scalelike; seed cones with 25-40 cone scales, ripening in autumn of 2nd year6  Sequoiadendron    巨杉属
+Leaves scalelike on main branchlets and linear on lateral branchlets; seed cones with 15-20 cone scales, ripening in 1st year7  Sequoia    北美红杉属
   Lower Taxon
  • Cryptomeria  D. Don  柳杉属
  • Cunninghamia  R. Brown ex Richard & A. Richard  杉木属
  • Glyptostrobus  Endlicher  水松属
  • Metasequoia  Hu & W. C. Cheng  水杉属
  • Sequoia  Endlicher  北美红杉属
  • Sequoiadendron  J. Buchholz  巨杉属
  • Taiwania  Hayata  台湾杉属
  • Taxodium  Richard  落羽杉属