Flora of China
  FOC Vol.17 (1994)              | Family List  Solanaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Solanaceae  A. L. Jussieu
茄科   qie ke
Authors:Zhang Zhiyun, Lu Anming; W.G.D'Arcy


Herbs, shrubs, small trees, or climbers. Stems sometimes prickly, rarely thorny; hairs simple, branched, or stellate, sometimes glandular. Leaves alternate, solitary or paired, simple or pinnately compound, without stipules; leaf blade entire, dentate, lobed, or divided. Inflorescences terminal, overtopped by continuing axes, appearing axillary, extra-axillary, or leaf opposed, often apparently umbellate, racemose, paniculate, clustered, or solitary flowers, rarely true cymes, sometimes bracteate. Flowers mostly bisexual, usually regular, 5-merous, rarely 4- or 6-9-merous. Calyx mostly lobed. Petals united. Stamens as many as corolla lobes and alternate with them, inserted within corolla, all alike or 1 or more reduced; anthers dehiscing longitudinally or by apical pores. Ovary 2-5-locular; placentation mostly axile; ovules usually numerous. Style 1. Fruiting calyx often becoming enlarged, mostly persistent. Fruit a berry or capsule. Seeds with copious endosperm; embryo mostly curved.

About 95 genera with 2300 species: best represented in western tropical America, widespread in temperate and tropical regions; 20 genera (ten introduced) and 101 species in China.

Some species of Solanaceae are known in China only by plants cultivated in ornamental or specialty gardens: Atropa belladonna Linnaeus, Cyphomandra betacea (Cavanilles) Sendtner, Brugmansia suaveolens (Willdenow) Berchtold & Presl, Nicotiana alata Link & Otto, and Solanum jasminoides Paxton.

Kuang Ko-zen & Lu An-ming, eds. 1978. Solanaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 67(1): 1-175.

1Flowers in several- to many-flowered inflorescences; peduncle mostly present and evident.(2)
+Flowers 1-3 per axil; peduncle absent or obsolete.(9)
2(1)Fruit enclosed in fruiting calyx.(3)
+Fruit exposed, exceeding fruiting calyx.(6)
3(2)Plants copiously spiny; leaves much divided or lobed13  Solanum    茄属
+Plants unarmed; leaves entire.(4)
4(3)Flowers in congested axillary clusters; disc conspicuous, red-orange; fruit a berry10  Withania    睡茄属
+Flowers in racemes, spikes, or panicles, sometimes umbellate; disc not evident; fruit a capsule.(5)
5(4)Corolla zygomorphic, 2-lipped; fruiting calyx lobes mucronate, with strong marginal veins6  Hyoscyamus    天仙子属
+Corolla actinomorphic; fruiting calyx lobes lacking mucros and strong marginal veins7  Physochlaina    泡囊草属
6(2)Corolla tube much longer than lobes and limb; seeds not compressed, usually ovoid to ellipsoid; calyx not or hardly becoming enlarged.(7)
+Corolla tube much shorter than lobes and limb; seeds mostly compressed, discoid, reniform, or lenticular; calyx often becoming enlarged.(8)
7(6)Fruit a few-seeded berry; flowers regular; plants puberulent or glabrescent; calyx less than 6 mm, shallowly lobed18  Cestrum    夜香树属
+Fruit a many-seeded capsule; flowers somewhat zygomorphic; plants mostly viscid glandular pubescent; calyx more than 6 mm, deeply lobed19  Nicotiana    烟草属
8(6)Corolla yellow; anthers dehiscing longitudinally, with a slender, sterile apex; seeds pilose; flowers 5-9-merous15  Lycopersicon    番茄属
+Corolla usually white, blue, or violet (if yellow then zygomorphic); anthers dehiscing by terminal pores, lacking a terminal appendage; seeds glabrous; flowers 4- or 5-merous13  Solanum    茄属
9(1)Fruit enclosed in fruiting calyx, sometimes fused with it; herbs.(10)
+Fruit fully or mostly exposed, free from calyx; herbs, shrubs, or trees.(16)
10(9)Fruit a dry dehiscent capsule; flowering calyx more than 1.5 cm, lobed or divided halfway; corolla more than 2.5 cm.(11)
+Fruit a juicy or dry indehiscent berry; flowering calyx mostly less than 1.5 cm (if more than 1.5 cm then corolla more than 2 cm), deeply parted; corolla less than 2 cm.(14)
11(10)Stems mostly underground; normal leaves forming a rosette at stem apex, scaly leaves distributed along new stems; flowers mostly included within rosette5  Przewalskia    马尿泡属
+Stems aboveground; normal leaves borne along stems, scaly leaves absent; flowers arising along stem or apically in leaf axils.(12)
12(11)Leaves mostly subsessile, petiole if present winged; pedicel less than 5 mm; calyx lobes sharp pointed, with noticeable marginal veins6  Hyoscyamus    天仙子属
+Leaves petiolate, petiole wingless; pedicel more than 5 mm; calyx lobes blunt, lacking marginal veins.(13)
13(12)Corolla zygomorphic, funnelform; stamens unequal; calyx lobes alike; fruiting pedicel not thickened4  Atropanthe    天蓬子属
+Corolla regular, campanulate; stamens subequal; calyx lobes differing in size and/or shape; fruiting pedicel thickened3  Anisodus    山茛菪属
14(10)Corolla blue and white; fruiting calyx lobes free more than halfway down, each with 2 basal auricles; fruit a dry brown berry1  Nicandra    假酸浆属
+Corolla yellow or white; fruiting calyx lobes united to near apex, lacking basal auricles; fruit a juicy, green, yellow, or orange berry.(15)
15(14)Fruiting calyx with thickened angles (ribs), bristly soft emergences that appear deltate on drying, or with both8  Physaliastrum    散血丹属
+Fruiting calyx lacking enations on ribs or walls, angles sometimes prominent but not thickened9  Physalis    酸浆属
16(9)Fruit a dry capsule; leaves entire, dentate, or lobed.(17)
+Fruit a berry, often juicy; leaves entire.(18)
17(16)Calyx 5-lobed, circumscissile; fruit prickly or papillate, 4-valved or irregularly dehiscent; plants erect, mostly more than 60 cm tall; seeds discoid; corolla lobes pointed17  Datura    曼陀罗属
+Calyx 5-parted, persistent; fruit unarmed, lacking papillae, 2-valved, dehiscent; plants sprawling, if erect then less than 50 cm tall; seeds ovoid or oblong; corolla mostly with rounded lobes20  Petunia    碧冬茄属
18(16)Corolla funnelform; stamens mostly exserted; shrubs, often thorny; leaves usually fasciculate on short shoots2  Lycium    枸杞属
+Corolla campanulate, rotate, or stellate; stamens included; unarmed herbs or shrubs; leaves arising along stem or forming a basal rosette.(19)
19(18)Calyx with 5 well-developed apical lobes; fruit yellow to orange or black.(20)
+Calyx subtruncate, sometimes with 10 subapical teeth or umbos arising near base of apical rim; fruit red, sometimes yellow, purple, or pink in cultivation.(21)
20(19)Calyx becoming enlarged, wide flaring in fruit; leaves subsessile, usually forming a basal rosette; anthers dehiscing longitudinally16  Mandragora    茄参属
+Calyx not enlarged; leaves petiolate, arising along stem; anthers dehiscing by apical pores13  Solanum    茄属
21(19)Anthers dehiscing by apical pores; corolla rotate; plants sometimes pubescent with simple or branched hairs; calyx often with 10 subapical teeth14  Lycianthes    红丝线属
+Anthers dehiscing longitudinally; corolla campanulate; plants glabrescent with sparse simple hairs; calyx 5-toothed or toothless.(22)
22(21)Corolla bright yellow; fruit a juicy globose berry; anther yellowish12  Tubocapsicum    龙珠属
+Corolla white, rarely blue or violet; fruit a dry variously shaped berry; anthers purplish11  Capsicum    辣椒属
   List of lower taxa