Flora of China
  FOC Vol.13 (2007)              | Family List  Rhizophoraceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   23. Rhizophoraceae  R. Brown
红树科   hong shu ke
Authors:Qin Haining (覃海宁); David E. Boufford


Trees or shrubs, evergreen, without spines, often with aerial roots. Stem nodes swollen. Stipules interpetiolar, sheathing terminal bud, caducous. Leaves simple, opposite or distichous, petiolate; leaf blade leathery, usually glabrous, margin entire, serrulate near apex, or completely serrulate. Inflorescences axillary, dense cymes. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic; hypanthium present [or absent]. Calyx lobes 4-16, inserted on rim of hypanthium, free or scarcely connate a base, valvate, persistent in fruit. Petals usually as many as sepals, free, usually caducous, margin entire, lacerate, or 2-cleft. Stamens twice as many as calyx lobes; anther locules 4 to many, dehiscing longitudinally or by an adaxial valve. Hypogynous disk present or absent. Ovary inferior or half-inferior; carpels 2-5(-20), 2-8-loculed; ovules usually 2 per locule, pendulous; style 1; stigma entire, capitate, or lobed. Fruit pulpy or leathery, indehiscent. Seeds 1 to few, viviparous; seedling (propagule) 7-80 cm when shed (except in Carallia and Pellacalyx).

About 17 genera and 120 species: tropics and subtropics; six genera and 13 species (three endemic) in China.

Ko Wan-cheung. 1983. Rhizophoraceae. In: Fang Wen-pei & Chang Che-yung, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 52(2): 125-143.

1Trees of inland ecosystems; seeds not germinating while attached to parent plant(2)
+Trees or shrubs of coastal mangrove ecosystems; seeds germinating and hypocotyls growing from fruit while attached to parent plant(3)
2(1)Stipules twisted, overlapping; free part of calyx divided to base; stamens attached to disk.5  Carallia    竹节树属
+Stipules flat, free; free part of calyx tubular, lobed only apically; stamens attached to mouth of calyx tube.6  Pellacalyx    山红树属
3(1)Calyx lobes 4; petals entire, lanceolate; anther locules many, opening by adaxial valve; trunk with stilt roots1  Rhizophora    红树属
+Calyx lobes 5-16; petals 2-lobed, many-cleft, or with apical appendages; anther locules 4, opening by lengthwise slits; trunk without stilt roots(4)
4(3)Calyx lobes 8-16; petals 2-lobed or emarginate.2  Bruguiera    木榄属
+Calyx lobes 5 or 6; petals fringed with apical appendages or many-cleft(5)
5(4)Calyx lobes ovate; petals spreading at anthesis; stamens 10-12; hypocotyl ridged.3  Ceriops    角果木属
+Calyx lobes linear-oblong; petals reflexed at anthesis; stamens indefinite; hypocotyl smooth.4  Kandelia    秋茄树属
   Lower Taxon
  • Bruguiera  Savigny  木榄属
  • Carallia  Roxburgh  竹节树属
  • Ceriops  Arnott  角果木属
  • Kandelia  (Candolle) Wight & Arnott  秋茄树属
  • Pellacalyx  Korthals  山红树属
  • Rhizophora  Linnaeus  红树属