Flora of China
  FOC Vol.6 (2001)              | Family List  Ranunculaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   11. Ranunculaceae  Jussieu
毛茛科   mao gen ke
Authors:Wang Wencai , Svetlana N. Ziman


Herbs perennial or annual, sometimes subshrubs or herbaceous or woody vines. Leaves basal and cauline, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, simple or variously compound, palmately nerved, rarely penninerved, with or without stipules. Inflorescence a simple or compound monochasium, dichasium, simple or compound raceme, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual, sometimes unisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic, hypogynous. Sepals 3--6 or more, free, petaloid or sepaloid, imbricate or sometimes valvate in bud. Petals present or absent, 2--8 or more, free, usually with nectaries. Stamens numerous, rarely few, free; filaments linear or filiform; anthers latrorse, introrse, or extrorse; sometimes some sterile stamens becoming staminodes. Carpels numerous or few, rarely 1, free, rarely connate to various degrees; ovary with 1 to many ovules. Fruit follicles or achenes, rarely capsules or berries. Seeds small, with abundant endosperm and minute embryo.

About 60 genera and 2500 species: worldwide, but richly represented in N temperate regions, particularly in E Asia; 38 genera (four endemic) and 921 species (604 endemic) in China.

Nigella damascena Linnaeus and N. glandulifera Freyn & Sintenis are cultivated (not native) in China.

Wang Wen-tsai, Wang Shu-hsiou & Hsiao Pei-ken. 1979. Ranunculaceae subfam. Helleboroideae and subfam. Thalictroideae. In: Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 27: 59–601; Wang Wen-tsai, Chang Mei-chen, Fang Ming-yuan, Ling Ping-ping, Ting Chih-tsun, Wang Shu-hsiou & Liou Liang. 1980. Ranunculaceae subfam. Ranunculoideae. In: Wang Wen-tsai, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 28: 1–345.

1Ovary with 1 ovule; fruit an achene.(2)
+Ovary with several or many ovules; fruit a follicle, rarely a capsule or berry.(17)
2(1)Inflorescence with an involucre.(3)
+Inflorescence without an involucre.(6)
3(2)Involucre contiguous with flower, calyxlike25  Hepatica    獐耳细辛属
+Involucre separate from flower.(4)
4(3)Leaves pinnatisect, penninerved; pollen grains spinulose26  Anemoclema    罂粟莲花属
+Leaves 1 to few times palmately or subpinnately divided, palmately nerved; pollen grains not spinulose.(5)
5(4)Style strongly elongate and plumose in fruit27  Pulsatilla    白头翁属
+Style not as above24  Anemone    银莲花属
6(2)Petals absent.(7)
+Petals present.(10)
7(6)Sepals valvate in bud; style usually strongly elongate and plumose in fruit; cauline leaves opposite, rarely alternate29  Clematis    铁线莲属
+Sepals imbricate in bud; style not as above; cauline leaves (if present) alternate.(8)
8(7)Achene (1--)3-ribbed on each side; leaves compound, rarely simple21  Thalictrum    唐松草属
+Achene not ribbed; leaves simple.(9)
9(8)Basal leaves several, palmately lobed or undivided, veins reticulately anastomosing; staminodes absent28  Metanemone    毛茛莲花属
+Basal leaf 1, palmatisect, veins dichotomously branched, not anastomosing; staminodes present31  Kingdonia    独叶草属
10(6)Vines woody; cauline leaves opposite; style strongly elongate and plumose in fruit30  Naravelia    锡兰莲属
+Herbs perennial or annual; cauline leaves (if present) alternate; style not as above.(11)
11(10)Petals without nectaries33  Adonis    侧金盏花属
+Petals with nectaries.(12)
12(11)Aggregate fruit terete, achene with a robust, rostrate, persistent style at apex and 2 tubercles near base38  Ceratocephala    角果毛茛属
+Aggregate fruit not terete, achene with neither robust, rostrate, persistent style at apex nor tubercles near base.(13)
13(12)Basal leaves several times pinnatisect; ovule pendulous from ovary locule apex32  Callianthemum    美花草属
+Basal leaves not pinnatisect; ovule attached to ovary locule base.(14)
14(13)Achene ribbed on each side.(15)
+Achene not ribbed.(16)
15(14)Stolons absent; petals 13--15; achene 1-ribbed on each side36  Oxygraphis    鸦跖花属
+Stolons present; petals 5--10; achene 2- or 3-ribbed on each side37  Halerpestes    碱毛茛属
16(14)Petals yellow; achene smooth, rarely spinulose or tuberculate34  Ranunculus    毛茛属
+Petals white, rarely yellow; achene transversely rugose on each side35  Batrachium    水毛茛属
17(1)Flowers zygomorphic; inflorescences usually racemose; pedicels 2-bracteolate.(18)
+Flower actinomorphic; inflorescences monochasial or, if racemose, pedicels ebracteolate.(20)
18(17)Upper sepal spurless; petals clawed10  Aconitum    乌头属
+Upper sepal spurred; petals clawless.(19)
19(18)Staminodes 2, each differentiated into claw and limb; petals free; carpels 3--5(--7)11  Delphinium    翠雀属
+Staminodes absent; petals connate; carpel 112  Consolida    飞燕草属
20(17)Flowers many, borne in compound cymes, panicles, or racemes.(21)
+Flowers solitary, terminal, or few in monochasia.(24)
21(20)Leaves simple, undivided; petals and staminodes absent4  Beesia    铁破锣属
+Leaves 1 or more times ternately or subpinnately compound; petals or staminodes present.(22)
22(21)Proximal cauline leaves sheathlike; sepals 8--11 mm; fruit slender stipitate5  Souliea    黄三七属
+Proximal cauline leaves not sheathlike; sepals less than 4.5 mm; fruit shortly stipitate or sessile.(23)
23(22)Fruit a berry; basal leaves scalelike7  Actaea    类叶升麻属
+Fruit a follicle; basal leaves not scalelike6  Cimicifuga    升麻属
24(20)Petals absent.(25)
+Petals present.(27)
25(24)Leaves 2-ternate14  Enemion    拟扁果草属
+Leaves simple.(26)
26(25)Leaves entire1  Caltha    驴蹄草属
+Leaves 3-sect2  Calathodes    鸡爪草属
27(24)Carpels connate at base22  Dichocarpum    人字果属
+Carpels free.(28)
28(27)Petals long clawed.(29)
+Petals very shortly clawed or clawless.(30)
29(28)Leaves simple, peltate, entire or palmately lobed; carpels 5--8, free13  Asteropyrum    星果草属
+Leaves usually pedately compound, rarely ternate, not peltate; carpels 2, connate at base.(28)
30(28)Carpels slender stipitate23  Coptis    黄连属
+Carpels sessile.(31)
31(30)Staminodes present, membranous, linear-lanceolate.(32)
+Staminodes absent.(34)
32(31)Sepals white; stamens 8--14; style 1/6--1/5 as long as ovary20  Semiaquilegia    天葵属
+Sepals blue or purple; stamens numerous; style ca. 1/2 as long as to longer than ovary.(33)
33(32)Leaves all basal, simple, 3-sect, or ternate; petals ca. 1/3 as long as sepals, not petaloid (instead specialized nectariferous organs); style ca. 2 × as long as ovary; follicles cubic-globose18  Urophysa    尾囊草属
+Leaves both basal and cauline, 2 or more times ternate; petals subequaling sepals, petaloid; style ca. 1/2 as long as ovary; follicles narrowly cylindric19  Aquilegia    耧斗菜属
34(31)Leaves simple.(35)
+Leaves compound.(37)
35(34)Leaves all basal; inflorescence with an involucre9  Eranthis    菟葵属
+Leaves both basal and cauline; inflorescence without an involucre.(36)
36(35)Leaves palmatipartite or palmatisect; petals linear3  Trollius    金莲花属
+Leaves pedatisect; petals tubular or cupular8  Helleborus    铁筷子属
37(34)Leaves all basal, persistent remnants of petioles forming a dense clump; flower solitary, terminal; petals clawless17  Paraquilegia    拟耧斗菜属
+Leaves both basal and cauline, petioles not forming a clump; flowers few, borne in a monochasium; petals very shortly clawed.(38)
38(37)Herbs perennial; carpels 1--515  Isopyrum    扁果草属
+Herbs annual; carpels 6--2016  Leptopyrum    蓝堇草属
   List of lower taxa