Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Campanulaceae  PDF Codonopsis  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   3. Codonopsis  Wallich in Roxburgh Fl. Ind. 2: 103. 1824.
党参属   dang shen shu
Authors:Authors: Deyuan Hong, Thomas G. Lammers & Laura L. Klein

Glosocomia D. Don.


Herbs, perennial, often fetid. Roots thickened, carrot-shaped, fusiform, or tuberous, mostly fleshy, rarely lignified. Stems erect, ascending, climbing, procumbent, or twining. Leaves alternate, opposite, or fascicled (pseudoverticillate). Flowers solitary, terminal on main stems and branches, sometimes opposite to leaves, rarely axillary. Calyx tube variously adnate to ovary, often 10-ribbed; lobes 5. Corolla epigynous, 5-lobed for less than 1/2 its length and campanulate, funnelform, or tubular, or 5-fid for more than 3/4 its length and rotate, various shades of purple and blue, yellow, green, or white. Stamens 5; filaments often dilated at base, glabrous or hairy, rarely alternating with lamellar glands; anthers basifixed, connective glabrous or setose. Ovary inferior or at least inferior to corolla, 3-locular; ovules numerous; style glabrous or hairy; stigma usually 3-fid, lobes broad. Fruit with persistent calyx, an ovoid or obconic loculicidal capsule. Seeds numerous, ellipsoid, oblong, or globose, winged or wingless, smooth, faintly striate, or reticulate; embryo straight, embedded in copious endosperm.

Forty-two species: C, E, and S Asia; 40 species (24 endemic) in China.

1Plants usually not fetid; fruit an obconic capsule, dehiscent apex relatively short; seed testa smooth or finely striate(2)
+Plants commonly fetid; fruit an ovoid capsule, dehiscent apex elongate; seeds reticulate (1. C. subg. Codonopsis)(6)
2(1)Corolla campanulate, lobed for less than 1/2 its length (2. C. subg. Obconicapsula).36  C. dicentrifolia    珠峰党参
+Corolla rotate, divided for more than 3/4 its length (3. C. subg. Pseudocodonopsis)(3)
3(2)Stem erect or procumbent, scapiform; leaves rosulate.37  C. rosulata    莲座状党参
+Stem twining or suberect; leaves opposite or alternate, not rosulate(4)
4(3)Stem usually more than 1 m, twining and leafy throughout.39  C. convolvulacea    鸡蛋参
+Stem usually less than 1 m, erect or twining only at apex; leaves mostly aggregated toward stem base(5)
5(4)Stem and adaxial surface of leaves hirsute; leaves ovate, serrate.38  C. hirsuta    毛叶鸡蛋参
+Stem and leaves glabrous; leaves linear, entire.40  C. graminifolia    松叶鸡蛋参
6(1)Stem twining, leafy throughout, often over 1 m (C. sect. Codonopsis)(7)
+Stems erect or ascending (sometimes climbing or procumbent but not twining), often scapiform, less than 1 m tall (C. sect. Erectae)(21)
7(6)Leaves pseudoverticillate, in fascicles of 3 or 4 at apex of lateral branches(8)
+Leaves alternate or opposite, not pseudoverticillate(9)
8(7)Roots usually fusiform; leaf apex acute; calyx lobes 2-3 cm; corolla 2.5-3.5 cm; seeds winged.1  C. lanceolata    羊乳
+Roots tuberous; leaf apex obtuse; calyx lobes 1-1.5 cm; corolla 2-2.5 cm; seeds terete.2  C. ussuriensis    雀斑党参
9(7)Corolla tubular(10)
+Corolla campanulate, globose-campanulate, or tubular-campanulate(11)
10(9)Leaves deeply incised, large serrate, base cordate to broadly cuneate.14  C. deltoidea    三角叶党参
+Leaves shallowly incised, serrate, or subentire, base cuneate to rounded.15  C. tubulosa    管花党参
11(9)Calyx lobes linear to linear-lanceolate, well separated, 10-20 × 2-3 mm, length/width ratio > 5.8  C. viridis    细萼党参
+Calyx lobes wider, proximate, length/width ratio < 3(12)
12(11)Calyx ± pubescent(13)
+Calyx glabrous(14)
13(12)Leaves less than 3 × 3 cm; calyx tube hirsute, lobes ovate-orbicular or rhombic-ovate, dentate and hirsute; corolla globose-campanulate.6  C. subglobosa    球花党参
+Leaves much more than 3 × 3 cm; calyx tube sparsely hairy, lobes narrowly oblong or lanceolate, subentire, densely puberulent; corolla broadly campanulate.7  C. affinis    大叶党参
14(12)Lower leaves cordate, truncate, or rounded at base(15)
+Lower cauline leaves cuneate or rounded (occasionally cordate) at base(17)
15(14)Stem almost simple; leaves subentire or slightly sinuous on margins.3  C. cordifolioidea    心叶党参
+Stem branched; leaves serrate on margins(16)
16(15)Corolla large, more than 1.5 × 1.7 cm, usually longer than calyx lobes.4  C. pilosula    党参
+Corolla small, less than 1 × 1.5 cm, shorter than or subequal to calyx lobes.5  C. micrantha    小花党参
17(14)Stems and leaves glabrous; leaves entire(18)
+Stems and leaves ± hairy; leaves crenulate or serrate on margins(19)
18(17)Leaves 0.5-2 × 0.5-1.5 cm, apex acute or obtuse.9  C. farreri    秃叶党参
+Leaves 6-7 × 2-2.5 cm, apex shortly acuminate.10  C. rotundifolia    长叶党参
19(17)Calyx lobes ciliate, reflexed.11  C. henryi    川鄂党参
+Calyx lobes glabrous, not reflexed(20)
20(19)Leaf blade 3-15 × 1-7 cm, apex acuminate.12  C. levicalyx    光萼党参
+Leaf blade up to 2.3 × 1.7 cm, apex rounded or acute.13  C. kawakamii    台湾党参
21(6)Stems without branches like pinnate leaves and usually sterile(22)
+Stems with branches like pinnate leaves and usually sterile(29)
22(21)Corolla tubular or tubular-campanulate; filaments villous; stems mostly procumbent or climbing(23)
+Corolla campanulate; filaments not villous; stems mostly erect or scapiform(24)
23(22)Corolla 2-4 cm, yellow-green, base shaded brown-red, glabrous.16  C. benthamii    大萼党参
+Corolla only ca. 1.7 cm, yellowish, with purple-blue spots, densely puberulent outside.17  C. pianmaensis    片马党参
24(22)Leaves located at lower part of stems, main stems scapiform(25)
+Leaves evenly arranged on main stems, not scapiform(26)
25(24)Petiole 2-7 cm, leaf blade 2-13 × 1.5-5 cm; main stem with 1-4 flowers; calyx lobes 5-7 × ca. 3 mm, with sinus between them broad and obtuse; corolla less than 1.5 cm wide.19  C. subscaposa    抽葶党参
+Petiole less than 1 cm, leaf blade 5-8 × 1.5-3 cm; main stem with 1 or 2 flowers; calyx lobes 8-12 × 4-6 mm, with sinus between them narrow; corolla up to 3 cm wide.20  C. meleagris    珠鸡斑党参
26(24)Leaves opposite; plants glabrous throughout.21  C. purpurea    紫花党参
+Leaves alternate(27)
27(26)Plants ± hairy; corolla less than 2 cm.18  C. subsimplex    藏南党参
+Plants glabrous; corolla more than 3.5 cm(28)
28(27)Leaves lanceolate, 1.5-6.5 cm, entire; calyx lobes narrowly lanceolate, 18-20 × 2-3 mm.23  C. gombalana    贡山党参
+Leaves broadly lanceolate, 5-14 × 3-7 cm, serrate; calyx lobes 20-30 × 6-10 mm.24  C. chimiliensis    滇缅党参
29(21)Veins on leaves conspicuous, leaf margins revolute forming thick periphery(30)
+Veins on leaves inconspicuous, leaf margins not revolute(35)
30(29)Corolla broadly tubular, ca. 1.2 cm; lower slender branches sometimes fertile.35  C. bhutanica    西藏党参
+Corolla campanulate, more than 1.5 cm; lower slender branches sterile(31)
31(30)Leaves subentire; flowers entirely glabrous(32)
+Leaves crenulate; flowers ± hairy on some parts(33)
32(31)Leaves not more than 1.8 × 1.5 cm, sparsely puberulent abaxially; corolla purple-green, with purple veins.30  C. alpina    高山党参
+Leaves up to 3.2 × 2.6 cm, glabrous on both surfaces; corolla pale blue, with red-brown spots inside.31  C. cardiophylla    光叶党参
33(31)Calyx lobes 5-7 × 2-3 mm, with sinus between them broad and obtuse.34  C. chlorocodon    绿钟党参
+Calyx lobes more than 10 mm, with sinus between them narrow and acute(34)
34(33)Corolla glabrous throughout; calyx tube mostly glabrous, lobes ovate or ovate-lanceolate, broadest at middle, hispidulous only at apex outside.32  C. viridiflora    绿花党参
+Corolla villous inside; calyx tube mostly hairy, lobes narrowly triangular, broadest at base, mostly entirely hispidulous.33  C. tsinlingensis    秦岭党参
35(29)Corolla tubular or tubular-campanulate, at least lower part tubular(36)
+Corolla broadly campanulate(37)
36(35)Corolla tubular; connective setose.25  C. thalictrifolia    唐松草党参
+Corolla tubular-campanulate, lower half tubular but abruptly expanded at middle; connective glabrous.26  C. bulleyana    管钟党参
37(35)Plants white with dense white hairs; leaf blade less than 1.5 × 1 cm.28  C. canescens    灰毛党参
+Plants green with sparse hairs; leaf blade usually larger(38)
38(37)Calyx lobes 15-20 × 6-8 mm, hairy only at apex; leaf blades 1-5 × 0.8-3.2 cm.22  C. clematidea    新疆党参
+Calyx lobes much smaller, hairy throughout; leaf blades mostly smaller(39)
39(38)Corolla villous both inside and outside.29  C. argentea    银背叶党参
+Corolla glabrous or hairy only toward lobes outside.27  C. foetens    臭党参
   List of lower taxa