Flora of China
  FOC Vol.6 (2001)              | Family List  Ranunculaceae  PDF Clematis  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   29. Clematis  Linnaeus
铁线莲属   tie xian lian shu
Authors:Wang Wencai; Bruce Bartholomew

Archiclematis Tamura; Atragene Linnaeus.


Vines woody or herbaceous and perennial, rarely erect shrubs, subshrubs, or perennial herbs. Leaves opposite, rarely fascicled or alternate, simple or compound; leaf or leaflet blades palmately veined. Inflorescences cymose, sometimes solitary, usually pedunculate, 2-bracteate. Flowers bisexual or unisexual. Sepals 4 or 5(--8), petaloid, spreading, ascending, or erect, usually valvate in bud. Petals absent. Stamens numerous, sometimes outer ones sterile and becoming linear or petaloid staminodes; anthers introrse. Carpels numerous, usually pubescent or villous; ovaries 1-ovuled; ovule pendulous. Style elongated after anthesis, rarely slightly or not elongated. Achenes usually ± bilaterally compressed; persistent style usually strongly elongated, plumose.

About 300 species: widespread throughout the world; 147 species (93 endemic) in China.

In the protologue of Clematis zhejiangensis R. J. Wang (J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 7: 28. 1999), the author stated that his new species is related to C. quinquefoliolata . However, because the type specimen is in fruit, without flowers, the systematic position of this species is uncertain at present.

1Leaves alternate147  C. alternata    互叶铁线莲
+Leaves opposite, rarely fasciculate.(2)
2(1)Stamens hairy.(3)
+Stamens glabrous; sepals spreading (ascending in C. fruticosa, C. huchouensis, C. nannophylla, and C. pinnata, erect in C. fasciculiflora and C. napaulensis).(71)
3(2)Sepals spreading88  C. liboensis    荔波铁线莲
+Sepals ascending or erect.(4)
4(3)Sepals ascending.(5)
+Sepals erect(24)
5(4)Flowers 1(--3), arising with leaves from axillary buds of previous year’s or older branches; petaloid staminodes present.(6)
+Flowers in axillary or terminal cymes, or solitary and terminal, arising from leaf axils or apex of current year’s branches; staminodes absent.(10)
6(5)Leaves 2-ternate.(7)
+Leaves ternate, rarely pinnate.(8)
7(6)Staminodes linear-spatulate, ca. 1/2 as long as sepals145  C. sibirica    西伯利亚铁线莲
+Staminodes (at least outer ones) narrowly lanceolate, nearly as long as sepals, sometimes inner ones linear-spatulate146  C. macropetala    长瓣铁线莲
8(6)Leaves ternate or pinnate; sepals linear-lanceolate, abaxially velutinous, apex long acuminate144  C. moisseenkoi    绒萼铁线莲
+Leaves ternate; sepals oblong, narrowly elliptic, or ovate, abaxially puberulous, apex obtuse or subacute.(9)
9(8)Branches glabrous; bud scales 1--2 cm; flowers solitary, ca. 3.5 cm in diam.; sepals 1.7--2 cm142  C. koreana    朝鲜铁线莲
+Branches sparsely pubescent; bud scales 3--7 mm; flowers 1--3-fasciculate, 4--7 cm in diam.; sepals 3.6--4.5(--5) cm143  C. iliensis    伊犁铁线莲
10(5)Leaves 1-pinnate or ternate; leaflet blades 3--7.5 cm wide; sepals white or blue; filaments linear89  C. pinnata    羽叶铁线莲
+Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate; leaflet blades 0.5--4 cm wide; sepals yellow or tinged with purple; filaments linear-lanceolate.(11)
11(10)Flowers solitary, terminal, sometimes also in axillary, 1--3-flowered cymes.(12)
+Flowers in axillary cymes, not terminal.(18)
12(11)Shrublets dwarf, erect.(13)
+Vines woody.(14)
13(12)Leaflet blades papery, margin ± densely denticulate; sepals adaxially glabrous68  C. tangutica    甘青铁线莲
+Leaflet blades leathery, margin entire or 1- or 2-denticulate; sepals adaxially puberulous70  C. pamiralaica    帕米尔铁线莲
14(12)Sepals adaxially glabrous.(15)
+Sepals adaxially puberulous.(16)
15(14)Leaflet blades papery, both surfaces sparsely puberulous, margin densely denticulate; sepals not corniculate at apex abaxially68  C. tangutica    甘青铁线莲
+Leaflet blades leathery, glabrous, margin entire or sometimes 1-denticulate; sepals corniculate at apex abaxially72  C. corniculata    角萼铁线莲
16(14)Flowers solitary and terminal only, not in axillary cymes; sepals apically attenuate into a tail-like projection 3--6 mm71  C. caudigera    尾尖铁线莲
+Flowers solitary and terminal and also in axillary cymes; sepals apically acute or cuspidate, without a tail-like projection.(17)
17(16)Leaflet blade margin ± densely dentate or denticulate68  C. tangutica    甘青铁线莲
+Leaflet blade margin entire or 1- or 2-denticulate69  C. tibetana    中印铁线莲
18(11)Sepals adaxially glabrous.(19)
+Sepals adaxially puberulous.(21)
19(18)Leaflet blade margin crenate75  C. akebioides    甘川铁线莲
+Leaflet blade margin entire or 1- or 2-denticulate.(20)
20(19)Leaflet blades narrowly elliptic, oblong, or narrowly ovate76  C. glauca    粉绿铁线莲
+Leaflet blades lanceolate or linear-lanceolate77  C. intricata    黄花铁线莲
21(18)Leaflet blades gray-green78  C. orientalis    东方铁线莲
+Leaflet blades green or bluish green.(22)
22(21)Leaflet blade margin entire or 1- or 2-denticulate76  C. glauca    粉绿铁线莲
+Leaflet blade margin dentate, denticulate, or serrate.(23)
23(22)Leaflet blades ovate or broadly so, margin irregularly sparsely dentate; bracts ternate73  C. zandaensis    扎达铁线莲
+Leaflet blades mainly lanceolate or narrowly ovate, margin densely serrate or denticulate; bracts simple, lanceolate or linear74  C. serratifolia    齿叶铁线莲
24(4)Calyx tubular; stamens sparsely puberulous near apex of filaments; flowers polygamous.(25)
+Calyx campanulate; stamens ± densely villous on filaments, sometimes also on anthers, rarely pubescent; flowers bisexual.(28)
25(24)Flowers solitary, terminal; leave pinnate and 5-foliolate or ternate93  C. tsugetorum    高山铁线莲
+Flowers in terminal or axillary, 5- to many-flowered cymes.(26)
26(25)Leaves 2-ternate or pinnate90  C. tatarinowii    细花铁线莲
+Leaves ternate.(27)
27(26)Leaflet blades adaxially appressed puberulous; peduncles and pedicels densely puberulous; anthers linear, 3.2--5 mm, apex apiculate, apiculus 0.2--0.5 mm91  C. heracleifolia    大叶铁线莲
+Leaflet blades adaxially glabrous; peduncles and pedicels velutinous; anthers narrowly oblong, ca. 2.8 mm, apex minutely apiculate, apiculus ca. 0.1 mm92  C. psilandra    光蕊铁线莲
28(24)Flowers 1--3, arising with 2 leaves from axillary buds of previous year’s or older branches.(29)
+Flowers usually arising from leaf axils or sometimes apex of current year’s branches.(30)
29(28)Leaves ternate; sepals yellow138  C. barbellata    吉隆铁线莲
+Leaves 2-ternate; sepals reddish purple or dark purple139  C. pseudopogonandra    西南铁线莲
30(28)Flowers solitary, axillary, pedicellate only, not pedunculate and 2-bracteate.(31)
+Flowers in axillary or terminal, usually pedunculate, 2-bracteate cymes, or solitary and terminal on current year’s branches.(32)
31(30)Leaflet blades glabrous on both surfaces or sparsely puberulous only abaxially136  C. pogonandra    须蕊铁线莲
+Leaflet blades appressed puberulous on both surfaces137  C. shenlungchiaensis    神农架铁线莲
32(30)Sepals longitudinally narrowly 2- or 3-winged abaxially.(33)
+Sepals not winged abaxially.(36)
33(32)Branches and leaves glabrous134  C. pterantha    思茅铁线莲
+Branches and leaves ± hairy.(34)
34(33)Branches erect, velutinous, hairs dense, spreading, short132  C. pinchuanensis    宾川铁线莲
+Branches scandent (sometimes erect in C. ranunculoides), pubescent or puberulous.(35)
35(34)Leaves simple, pentagonal, and 3-parted, or 1- or 2-ternate or pinnate, when leaflet blades ovate, broadly so, rhombic, or cordate, often 3-lobed, papery, margin usually dentate or denticulate133  C. ranunculoides    毛茛铁线莲
+Leaves ternate; leaflet blades oblong-oblanceolate, narrowly ovate, or narrowly elliptic, undivided, leathery, margin entire, sometimes 1-denticulate135  C. yuanjiangensis    元江铁线莲
36(32)Shrublets erect or perennial herbs.(37)
+Vines woody or herbaceous.(38)
37(36)Leaves sessile, simple140  C. integrifolia    全缘铁线莲
+Leaves petiolate, compound141  C. fusca    褐毛铁线莲
38(36)Leaves simple (sometimes ternate in C. henryi).(39)
+Leaves compound.(44)
39(38)Anthers glabrous, apex obtuse.(40)
+Anthers abaxially pubescent, apex usually minutely apiculate.(42)
40(39)Leaf blade narrowly ovate or lanceolate, margin minutely denticulate103  C. henryi    单叶铁线莲
+Leaf blade broadly ovate, cordate-ovate, or suborbicular.(41)
41(40)Leaf blade not reticulate, base rounded-cuneate or truncate, margin dentate102  C. chiupehensis    丘北铁线莲
+Leaf blade reticulate on both surfaces, base cordate, margin entire104  C. jingdungensis    多花铁线莲
42(39)Flowers solitary, terminal on current year’s branches, sometimes also in axillary, 1-flowered cymes121  C. yui    俞氏铁线莲
+Flowers in axillary, 1-flowered cymes only, not terminal.(43)
43(42)Leaves all simple, papery or subleathery, base broadly cuneate, margin usually entire122  C. kweichowensis    贵州铁线莲
+Leaves simple or sometimes ternate; leaf or leaflet blades papery, base subcordate, rounded, or broadly cuneate, margin sparsely dentate123  C. repens    曲柄铁线莲
44(38)Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate, 2-ternate, or 2--4-pinnatisect.(45)
+Leaves 1-ternate.(54)
45(44)Leaves 2--4-pinnatisect131  C. aethusifolia    芹叶铁线莲
+Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate or 2-ternate.(46)
46(45)Leaflet blade margin entire.(47)
+Leaflet blade margin dentate.(48)
47(46)Branches and leaves glabrous; sepals yellow, adaxially puberulous126  C. hupehensis    湖北铁线莲
+Branches and leaves sparsely pubescent; sepals purple, adaxially glabrous141  C. fusca    褐毛铁线莲
48(46)Petiole bases dilated and connate.(49)
+Petiole bases not or only slightly dilated, not connate.(50)
49(48)Vines woody; connate petiole bases strongly dilated, forming a suborbicular, platelike structure; leaflet blades 3.5--7.5 cm wide; sepals yellowish129  C. connata    合柄铁线莲
+Vines herbaceous; connate petiole bases moderately dilated, turgid, not forming a platelike structure; leaflet blades 1.4--3(--4.5) cm wide; sepals purple-red130  C. lasiandra    毛蕊铁线莲
50(48)Branches densely pubescent or velutinous.(51)
+Branches sparsely puberulous or subglabrous.(52)
51(50)Leaflet blades abaxially densely (rarely sparsely) pubescent; cymes usually many flowered; sepals abaxially densely appressed puberulous119  C. buchananiana    毛木通
+Leaflet blades abaxially velutinous; cymes usually 3-flowered; sepals abaxially velutinous120  C. grewiiflora    黄毛铁线莲
52(50)Leaves 1-pinnate; sepals purple127  C. dasyandra    毛花铁线莲
+Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate; sepals yellow.(53)
53(52)Leaflet blades lobed; cymes usually many flowered, paniclelike128  C. rehderiana    长花铁线莲
+Leaflet blades parted; cymes few flowered131  C. aethusifolia    芹叶铁线莲
54(44)Anthers hairy.(55)
+Anther glabrous.(60)
55(54)Branches densely pubescent; leaflet blades abaxially densely pubescent, adaxially sparsely pubescent, margin dentate; cymes 6- to many flowered118  C. rubifolia    莓叶铁线莲
+Branches sparsely puberulous or glabrous; leaflet blades glabrous or sparsely puberulous; cymes 1--3-flowered.(56)
56(55)Sepals abaxially puberulous.(57)
+Sepals abaxially glabrous.(58)
57(56)Leaflet blades lanceolate or narrowly ovate, margin entire or sparsely denticulate, apex attenuate or caudate-acuminate; sepals abaxially densely puberulous115  C. morii    森氏铁线莲
+Leaflet blades ovate, margin irregularly dentate, apex acuminate; sepals abaxially sparsely puberulous only at base and apex109  C. jinzhaiensis    金寨铁线莲
58(56)Petiole bases strongly dilated and connate, forming a disklike structure125  C. otophora    宽柄铁线莲
+Petiole bases only slightly dilated, not forming a disklike structure.(59)
59(58)Bracts sessile, linear or subulate, 3--10 mm; cymes 1-flowered123  C. repens    曲柄铁线莲
+Bracts petiolate, lanceolate or elliptic, 1--9 cm; cymes 1--3-flowered124  C. pseudootophora    华中铁线莲
60(54)Sepals abaxially rusty velutinous117  C. leschenaultiana    绣毛铁线莲
+Sepals abaxially not velutinous.(61)
61(60)Leaflet blades linear-lanceolate114  C. yunnanensis    云南铁线莲
+Leaflet blades ovate, elliptic, or broadly lanceolate.(62)
62(61)Anther apex minutely apiculate, apiculus ca. 0.1 mm116  C. hainanensis    海南铁线莲
+Anther apex not apiculate.(63)
63(62)Leaflets sessile or very shortly petiolulate; axillary cymes sessile112  C. nukiangensis    怒江铁线莲
+Leaflets distinctly petiolulate; axillary cymes usually distinctly pedunculate (with short peduncles 2--4 mm in C. qingchengshanica and sometimes C. kockiana and C. urophylla).(64)
64(63)Sepals glabrous on both surfaces, velutinous only at margin110  C. clarkeana    平坝铁线莲
+Sepals ± puberulous abaxially, adaxially, or on both surfaces.(65)
65(64)Leaflet blades not reticulate.(66)
+Leaflet blades finely reticulate.(68)
66(65)Sepals ca. 2 × as long as stamens106  C. urophylla    尾叶铁线莲
+Sepals nearly as long as or slightly longer than stamens.(67)
67(66)Leaflet blades narrowly ovate, margin regularly denticulate or serrate; pedicels slender, 0.8--1.2 mm in diam., puberulous107  C. kockiana    滇川铁线莲
+Leaflet blades oblong-elliptic, margin minutely 3--5-denticulate; pedicels robust, ca. 2 mm in diam., yellowish velutinous108  C. teretipes    柱梗铁线莲
68(65)Leaflet blades broadly lanceolate, apex long caudate113  C. acuminata
+Leaflet blades ovate or elliptic, apex acuminate.(69)
69(68)Leaflet blades abaxially ± densely puberulous104  C. jingdungensis    多花铁线莲
+Leaflet blades abaxially glabrous or subglabrous.(70)
70(69)Axillary cymes 8- to many flowered, peduncle 4--5.5 cm; bracts linear, 4--7 mm105  C. siamensis    锡金铁线莲
+Axillary cymes 1-flowered, peduncle 3--4 mm; bracts linear-triangular, ca. 2 mm111  C. qingchengshanica    青城山铁线莲
71(2)Shrublets erect, subshrubs, or perennial herbs.(72)
+Vines woody or herbaceous.(81)
72(71)Sepals 4, yellow, ascending.(73)
+Sepals 4--8, white or tinged pinkish, spreading.(76)
73(72)Leaves ovate, narrowly so, or lanceolate, undivided or variously divided.(74)
+Leaves linear, undivided, margin entire (1- or 2-denticulate proximally in C. tomentella).(75)
74(73)Leaves undivided or lobed64  C. fruticosa    灌木铁线莲
+Leaves pinnatipartite or pinnatisect, sometimes pinnatilobed65  C. nannophylla    小叶铁线莲
75(73)Leaves gray-green, appressed puberulous; flowers in a terminal, pedunculate, 1--3(--7)-flowered, 2-bracteate cyme; sepals 0.9--1.6 × 0.35--0.8 cm, abaxially puberulous66  C. tomentella    灰叶铁线莲
+Leaves green; flowers solitary, terminal on short, lateral branchlets, pedicellate only, not pedunculate and 2-bracteate; sepals 1.2--2.6 × 0.5--1.3 cm, abaxially glabrous or sparsely puberulous near apex67  C. viridis    绿叶铁线莲
76(72)Leaves pinnatisect or pinnate.(77)
+Leaves simple, rarely ternate.(78)
77(76)Herbs perennial; leaves pinnatisect, leathery, reticulate; sepals (4 or)5 or 6(--8)63  C. hexapetala    棉团铁线莲
+Shrublets; leaves pinnate, papery, not reticulate; sepals 4--662  C. delavayi    银叶铁线莲
78(76)Leaves ternate60  C. lancifolia    披针铁线莲
+Leaves simple.(79)
79(78)Leaf blade cordate-pentagonal, palmately 5-lobed3  C. acerifolia    槭叶铁线莲
+Leaf blade lanceolate or linear, undivided or pinnatisect.(80)
80(79)Leaves opposite only, undivided, margin entire; anthers 3.2--5.5 mm60  C. lancifolia    披针铁线莲
+Leaves both opposite and fasciculate, undivided or pinnatisect, margin dentate or entire; anthers 2--3 mm61  C. songorica    准噶尔铁线莲
81(71)Anther apex conspicuously apiculate, apiculus (0.4--)1 mm or more.(82)
+Anther apex not apiculate or minutely apiculate, apiculus ca. 0.1 mm.(90)
82(81)Leaves simple.(83)
+Leaves ternate or pinnate.(85)
83(82)Leaf blade reticulate on both surfaces; sepals 6, both surfaces velutinous81  C. fulvicoma    滇南铁线莲
+Leaf blade abaxially slightly reticulate, adaxially with flat veins; sepals 4 or 5, adaxially glabrous.(84)
84(83)Pedicel rusty puberulous; sepals 4 or 5, purple; staminodes absent79  C. smilacifolia    菝葜叶铁线莲
+Pedicel glabrous; sepals 4, yellow; staminodes present, linear80  C. metuoensis    墨脱铁线莲
85(82)Leaves ternate.(86)
+Leaves pinnate.(87)
86(85)Leaflet blades leathery; sepals purple; staminodes absent82  C. crassipes    粗柄铁线莲
+Leaflet blades papery; sepals white; staminodes present, linear87  C. loureiroana    丝铁线莲
87(85)Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate; anther apiculus ca. 0.4 mm83  C. menglaensis    勐腊铁线莲
+Leaves 1-pinnate; anther apiculus 0.5--2.8 mm.(88)
88(87)Petiole base not dilated; leaflet blade base usually broadly cuneate; sepals 4, yellow; anther apiculus 2.2--2.8 mm84  C. pianmaensis    片马铁线莲
+Petiole base dilated into stipulelike projections; leaflet blade base rounded or subcordate; sepals white or dark purple; anther apiculus 0.5--1 mm.(89)
89(88)Branches and petiolar stipulelike projections furfuraceous; leaves 7-foliolate; sepals 4, white85  C. fengii    国楣铁线莲
+Branches and petiolar stipulelike projections not furfuraceous; leaves 5-foliolate; sepals 4--6, dark purple86  C. tashiroi    长萼铁线莲
90(81)Flowers arising from axillary buds of old branches, base of pedicel or peduncle surrounded by persistent bud scales.(91)
+Flowers in axillary or terminal, pedunculate cymes, or pedicellate only and arising from leaf axils or apex of current year’s branches, or solitary and terminal on current year’s branches.(107)
91(90)Flowers in pedunculate and 2-bracteate or involucrate cymes.(92)
+Flowers pedicellate only, peduncles and bracts absent.(95)
92(91)Flowers in 1-flowered cymes with cupular, 2-lobed involucres; sepals erect16  C. napaulensis    合苞铁线莲
+Flowers in often paniclelike, (1 to)many-flowered, 2-bracteate cymes; sepals spreading.(93)
93(92)Leaves pinnate or ternate, leaflet blades narrowly lanceolate59  C. zygophylla    对叶铁线莲
+Leaves ternate, leaflet blades ovate.(94)
94(93)Bud scales 5--12 mm; leaflet blades reticulate on both surfaces; sepals yellow; anthers 2.5--2.8 mm57  C. lingyunensis    凌云铁线莲
+Bud scales 8--20 mm; leaflet blades not reticulate; sepals white or pinkish; anthers 3--4.5 mm58  C. armandii    小木通
95(91)Sepals 614  C. glabrifolia    光叶铁线莲
+Sepals 4.(96)
96(95)Pedicels 0.5--2.4 cm; sepals erect; achenes lanceolate15  C. fasciculiflora    滑叶藤
+Pedicels usually more than 3 cm; sepals spreading; achenes ovate or elliptic.(97)
97(96)Leaves mostly pinnate.(98)
+Leaves ternate.(99)
98(97)Leaflet blades papery or herbaceous, ± hairy, margin denticulate; sepals obovate or oblong; ovaries glabrous5  C. gracilifolia    薄叶铁线莲
+Leaflet blades thinly leathery, glabrous, margin entire; sepals oblanceolate; ovaries pubescent13  C. hastata    戟状铁线莲
99(97)Terminal leaflet 3-parted.(100)
+Terminal leaflet undivided, 3-lobulate, or 3-lobed.(101)
100(99)Leaflet blades adaxially glabrous; sepals purple-red, obovate or narrowly so, 8--13.5 mm wide; ovaries glabrous6  C. ningjingshanica    宁静山铁线莲
+Leaflet blades adaxially puberulous; sepals oblong or obovate-oblong, 4--6 mm wide; ovaries pubescent9  C. tripartita    深裂铁线莲
101(99)Sepals adaxially appressed puberulous10  C. tongluensis    软萼铁线莲
+Sepals adaxially glabrous.(102)
102(101)Leaflet blades lanceolate, undivided, margin usually entire, rarely 1- or 2-denticulate8  C. venusta    丽叶铁线莲
+Leaflet blades ovate or narrowly so, undivided, 2- or 3-lobulate or 2- or 3-lobed, margin dentate.(103)
103(102)Sepals ovate-oblong, abaxially with a very narrow, velutinous strip at margin, apex attenuate and shortly cuspidate11  C. wenshanensis    文山铁线莲
+Sepals obovate or narrowly so, abaxially without a velutinous strip at margin, apex rounded or obtuse.(104)
104(103)Ovaries and achenes glabrous4  C. montana    绣球藤
+Ovaries and achenes puberulous.(105)
105(104)Leaflet blades yellow pubescent7  C. chrysocoma    金毛铁线莲
+Leaflet blades white puberulous.(106)
106(105)Leaflet blades 1.8--6 × 1.5--3 cm; pedicels 4--9 cm; sepals 1.5--2.5 × 1--1.4 cm4  C. montana    绣球藤
+Leaflet blades 5--12 × 3--5 cm; pedicels 10--16.5 cm; sepals 2.5--3.4 × 1.5--2.5 cm4  C. montana    绣球藤
107(90)Sepals ascending.(108)
+Sepals spreading.(109)
108(107)Leaflet blades (2.5--)5--12 × (1.5--)3--7.5 cm, margin dentate; axillary cymes 5- to many flowered; style villous89  C. pinnata    羽叶铁线莲
+Leaflet blades 1--5 × 0.7--3 cm, margin entire; axillary cymes (1--)3-flowered; style pubescent101  C. huchouensis    吴兴铁线莲
109(107)Flowers 4--16 cm in diam.(110)
+Flowers less than 4 cm in diam.(126)
110(109)Flowers solitary, terminal.(111)
+Flowers in axillary, pedunculate, 1(--4)-flowered, 2-bracteate cymes, or pedicellate only, 1 or 2 arising from leaf axils or apex of current year’s branches (if terminal, then not solitary).(112)
111(110)Leaf or leaflet blades abaxially velutinous or densely puberulous; sepals (5 or)6, purplish94  C. lanuginosa    毛叶铁线莲
+Leaf or leaflet blades abaxially sparsely puberulous on veins; sepals 5--8, white or yellowish white95  C. patens    转子莲
112(110)Filaments rugose39  C. crassifolia    厚叶铁线莲
+Filaments not rugose.(113)
113(112)Anthers oblong or narrowly so.(114)
+Anthers linear or narrowly so (sometimes narrowly oblong in C. florida); cymes axillary, 1-flowered.(120)
114(113)Leaflet blade margin dentate or serrate.(115)
+Leaflet blade margin entire.(117)
115(114)Sepals 4; anthers 1--1.5 mm35  C. parviloba    裂叶铁线莲
+Sepals 5 or 6(or 7); anthers 2--3 mm.(116)
116(115)Leaves ternate; axillary cymes 1-flowered, peduncle 3--4 cm, pedicels 1--1.5 cm; sepals 6, linear-lanceolate, abaxially densely covered with hairs 1.6--3 mm38  C. baominiana    多毛铁线莲
+Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate; axillary cymes (1--)3(or 4)-flowered, peduncle 5.5--15 cm, pedicels 3--9.8 cm; sepals 5 or 6(or 7), obovate, abaxially densely covered with hairs ca. 0.3 mm2  C. potaninii    美花铁线莲
117(114)Plants turning black on drying.(118)
+Plants not turning black on drying.(119)
118(117)Leaves ternate, leaflet blades leathery; axillary cymes 1-flowered19  C. mashanensis    马山铁线莲
+Leaves 2-ternate or pinnate, leaflet blades papery; axillary cymes (1--)3--9-flowered35  C. parviloba    裂叶铁线莲
119(117)Leaflet blades ovate, papery, abaxially densely puberulous47  C. shensiensis    陕西铁线莲
+Leaflet blades linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, papery or thinly leathery, both surfaces glabrous48  C. quinquefoliolata    五叶铁线莲
120(113)Sepals 4.(121)
+Sepals 5 or 6 (occasionally 4 in C. longistyla).(123)
121(120)Leaves ternate; flowers axillary, pedicellate only12  C. laxistrigosa    糙毛铁线莲
+Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate, rarely ternate; flowers in axillary, pedunculate, 1(--4)-flowered, 2-bracteate cymes.(122)
122(121)Bracts lanceolate, 2--2.2 × 0.5--0.6 cm; sepals yellowish white; anthers linear, 2.8--3 mm35  C. parviloba    裂叶铁线莲
+Bracts broadly ovate or orbicular-ovate, 2--4 × 1.8--2.8 cm; sepals purple-red; anthers narrowly linear, 6--7.2 mm96  C. hancockiana    毛萼铁线莲
123(120)Style appressed puberulous, not elongated after anthesis100  C. cadmia    短柱铁线莲
+Style villous or spreading pubescent, elongated and ± plumose after anthesis.(124)
124(123)Style ca. 3.5 mm, pubescent proximally, glabrous distally, after anthesis elongated to ca. 8 mm, spreading pubescent99  C. florida    铁线莲
+Style 4--7.5 mm, densely villous, after anthesis elongated to 12--30 mm, plumose.(125)
125(124)Style glabrous above middle97  C. longistyla    光柱铁线莲
+Style densely villous from base to near apex98  C. courtoisii    大花威灵仙
126(109)Filaments rugose39  C. crassifolia    厚叶铁线莲
+Filaments not rugose.(127)
127(126)Achenes subulate-terete56  C. uncinata    柱果铁线莲
+Achenes ± bilaterally compressed, ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate.(128)
128(127)Leaves ternate, rarely simple.(129)
+Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate or 2-ternate, sometimes distal leaves 1-ternate.(144)
129(128)Anthers oblong or narrowly so, 0.8--2 mm, apex obtuse, rarely minutely apiculate.(130)
+Anthers linear, narrowly oblong, or rarely oblong, 2.5--6.5 mm, apex often minutely apiculate.(135)
130(129)Sepals adaxially puberulous.(131)
+Sepals adaxially glabrous.(132)
131(130)Leaflet blade margin dentate; axillary cymes 7- to many flowered; anthers 1.5--1.8 mm; style 4--6 mm18  C. apiifolia    女萎
+Leaflet blade margin entire, rarely sparsely denticulate; axillary cymes 1--3-flowered; anthers 2--2.6 mm; style 7--9 mm23  C. vaniotii    云贵铁线莲
132(130)Axillary cymes 1-flowered; anther apex minutely apiculate20  C. tenuipes    细梗铁线莲
+Axillary cymes 3- to many flowered; anther apex not apiculate.(133)
133(132)Leaflet blades lanceolate or narrowly ovate22  C. formosana    宝岛铁线莲
+Leaflet blades ovate.(134)
134(133)Leaflet blade margin denticulate or entire; cymes 3--7-flowered; style ca. 6 mm, pubescent proximally, puberulous near middle, not elongated after anthesis17  C. tinghuensis    鼎湖铁线莲
+Leaflet blade margin entire; cymes many flowered; style ca. 5 mm, densely villous, after anthesis strongly elongated to ca. 3.5 cm21  C. burmanica    缅甸铁线莲
135(129)Leaflet blades abaxially densely puberulous47  C. shensiensis    陕西铁线莲
+Leaf or leaflet blades abaxially sparsely puberulous or glabrous.(136)
136(135)Leaves simple, rarely ternate.(137)
+Leaves ternate.(138)
137(136)Petioles 1.5--2 cm; peduncles 10--18 cm; sepals abaxially glabrous; anthers linear, ca. 4 mm, apex obtuse40  C. xinhuiensis    新惠铁线莲
+Petioles 3--6 cm; peduncles ca. 7 cm; sepals abaxially puberulous; anthers narrowly oblong, 3--3.2 mm, apex minutely apiculate45  C. chekiangensis    浙江山木通
138(136)Sepals 2.2--2.6 cm; anthers narrowly oblong, 2.5--3 mm19  C. mashanensis    马山铁线莲
+Sepals 0.8--1.3 cm; anthers linear, rarely narrowly oblong, 3--6.5 mm.(139)
139(138)Axillary cymes (1--)3--7-flowered.(140)
+Axillary cymes paniclelike, many flowered.(141)
140(139)Axillary cymes 1-flowered, with 1 or 2 pairs of bracteoles44  C. meyeniana    毛柱铁线莲
+Axillary cymes usually 3--7-flowered, or 1-flowered but then without bracteoles46  C. finetiana    山木通
141(139)Leaflet blades not reticulate.(142)
+Leaflet blades reticulate on both surfaces.(143)
142(141)Leaflet blades narrowly ovate or broadly lanceolate, to 8.8 × 3.4 cm, thinly papery, apex attenuate or long acuminate; anther apex obtuse, rarely minutely apiculate43  C. sinii    辛氏铁线莲
+Leaflet blades ovate or oblong-ovate, to 14 × 9 cm, subleathery or thickly papery, apex acute or acuminate; anther apex minutely apiculate44  C. meyeniana    毛柱铁线莲
143(141)Branch nodes and base and apex of petioles and peduncles densely furfuraceous, elsewhere glabrous; leaflet blades leathery41  C. napoensis    那坡铁线莲
+Branch nodes, petioles, and peduncles puberulous, not furfuraceous; leaflet blades papery42  C. jialasaensis    加拉萨铁线莲
144(128)Anthers linear or narrowly oblong, more than 2 mm, apex often minutely apiculate.(145)
+Anthers oblong or narrowly so, 1--2 mm, apex obtuse, rarely minutely apiculate.(157)
145(144)Leaflet blades conspicuously reticulate on both surfaces.(146)
+Leaflet blades not reticulate.(148)
146(145)Petiole base strongly dilated; sepals 5 or 6(or 7); anthers 3.5--4 mm, apex minutely apiculate55  C. dilatata    舟柄铁线莲
+Petiole base not dilated; sepals 4(--6); anthers (1.5--)2--3(--3.2) mm, apex obtuse, rarely minutely apiculate.(147)
147(146)Plants not or occasionally turning black on drying; leaves 1-pinnate, leaflet blades often ovate or narrowly so, to 4.5 cm wide52  C. pashanensis    巴山铁线莲
+Plants turning black on drying; leaves 2-pinnate, sometimes 1-pinnate, leaflet blades often oblong or elliptic, to 2.8 cm wide53  C. kirilowii    太行铁线莲
148(145)Leaves 2-pinnate or 2-ternate.(149)
+Leaves 1-pinnate.(151)
149(148)Plants not turning black on drying; sepals obovate2  C. potaninii    美花铁线莲
+Plants turning black on drying; sepals oblong, ovate-oblong, or lanceolate.(150)
150(149)Sepals 4; anthers narrowly oblong, 2.2--2.5 mm, apex obtuse35  C. parviloba    裂叶铁线莲
+Sepals (4 or)5 or 6(or 7); anthers linear, 3.8--4.5 mm, apex minutely apiculate54  C. obscura    秦岭铁线莲
151(148)Sepals adaxially densely puberulous23  C. vaniotii    云贵铁线莲
+Sepals adaxially glabrous.(152)
152(151)Leaflet blades abaxially densely puberulous47  C. shensiensis    陕西铁线莲
+Leaflet blades abaxially glabrous or sparsely puberulous.(153)
153(152)Axillary cymes paniclelike, many flowered.(154)
+Axillary cymes 1--5(--7)-flowered.(155)
154(153)Achenes strongly compressed, distinctly marginate; plants not turning black on drying50  C. terniflora    圆锥铁线莲
+Achenes not strongly compressed, not marginate; plants turning black on drying49  C. chinensis    威灵仙
155(153)Leaflet blades linear-lanceolate or lanceolate48  C. quinquefoliolata    五叶铁线莲
+Leaflet blades ovate.(156)
156(155)Leaflet blades papery, sparsely puberulous; sepals 449  C. chinensis    威灵仙
+Leaflet blades subleathery, glabrous; sepals (5 or)651  C. akoensis    屏东铁线莲
157(144)Leaflet blades leathery, both surfaces reticulate.(158)
+Leaflet blades papery, rarely thinly leathery, not reticulate.(159)
158(157)Leaves 1-pinnate52  C. pashanensis    巴山铁线莲
+Leaves 2-pinnate53  C. kirilowii    太行铁线莲
159(157)Achenes lanceolate or fusiform, apex ± tapering.(160)
+Achenes ovate or elliptic, apex acute, not tapering.(162)
160(159)Leaves pinnate or 1- or 2-ternate, leaflet blade margin dentate31  C. javana    台湾铁线莲
+Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate, leaflet blade margin entire, rarely 1-dentate.(161)
161(160)Leaves 1-pinnate, leaflet blades glabrous or sparsely puberulous only on midvein29  C. gouriana    小蓑衣藤
+Leaves 1- or 2-pinnate; leaflet blades abaxially densely puberulous32  C. subumbellata    细木通
162(159)Leaves usually 2-pinnate or 2-ternate.(163)
+Leaves 1-pinnate.(169)
163(162)Sepals 5 or 6(or 7), obovate2  C. potaninii    美花铁线莲
+Sepals 4, oblong or narrowly so.(164)
164(163)Achenes strongly compressed, with conspicuous, winglike margin37  C. puberula    短毛铁线莲
+Achenes moderately compressed, without winglike margin.(165)
165(164)Bracteoles subulate, small33  C. brevicaudata    短尾铁线莲
+Bracteoles ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, conspicuous.(166)
166(165)Sepals adaxially sparsely puberulous36  C. tamurae    田村铁线莲
+Sepals adaxially glabrous.(167)
167(166)Sepal apex truncate28  C. peterae    钝萼铁线莲
+Sepal apex not truncate.(168)
168(167)Sepals thinly membranous, apex subacute35  C. parviloba    裂叶铁线莲
+Sepals thickly papery, apex rounded or obtuse34  C. wissmanniana    厚萼铁线莲
169(162)Leaflet blades linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, glabrous48  C. quinquefoliolata    五叶铁线莲
+Leaflet blades ovate or elliptic.(170)
170(169)Sepals adaxially densely puberulous23  C. vaniotii    云贵铁线莲
+Sepals adaxially glabrous (sparsely puberulous in C. grandidentata and C. peterae).(171)
171(170)Axillary cymes 1-flowered; sepals ovate1  C. brevipes    短梗铁线莲
+Axillary cymes several to many flowered; sepals oblong or narrowly so.(172)
172(171)Achenes marginate50  C. terniflora    圆锥铁线莲
+Achenes not marginate.(173)
173(172)Achenes 5--8 mm.(174)
+Achenes 2--4 mm.(175)
174(173)Sepals 4(--6), 1.3--2.4 cm47  C. shensiensis    陕西铁线莲
+Sepals 4, 0.6--1.3 cm49  C. chinensis    威灵仙
175(173)Axillary cymes 3--6-flowered; sepals 10--15 mm25  C. grandidentata    粗齿铁线莲
+Axillary cymes usually many flowered; sepals 6--10 mm.(176)
176(175)Bracteoles ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, conspicuous; leaflet blades adaxially densely puberulous24  C. gratopsis    金佛铁线莲
+Bracteoles subulate or linear, small, sometimes absent.(177)
177(176)Leaflet blades 3.5--7 cm wide, adaxially strigose.(178)
+Leaflet blades 0.9--4.6 cm wide, adaxially puberulous.(179)
178(177)Leaflet blade margin sparsely dentate26  C. chingii    两广铁线莲
+Leaflet blade margin entire27  C. tsaii    福贡铁线莲
179(177)Leaflet blades usually undivided, adaxially sparsely puberulous, base usually rounded, margin often entire or sparsely dentate28  C. peterae    钝萼铁线莲
+Leaflet blades often 3-lobed, adaxially densely puberulous, base usually cordate or subcordate, margin incised dentate or incised denticulate30  C. grata    秀丽铁线莲
   List of lower taxa