Flora of China
  FOC Vol.5 (2003)              | Family List  Polygonaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Polygonaceae  A. L. Jussieu
蓼科   liao ke
Authors:Li Anjen (李安仁 Li An-ren) , Bao Bojian (包伯坚)1; Alisa E. Grabovskaya-Borodina , Suk-pyo Hong , John McNeill , Sergei L. Mosyakin , Hideaki Ohba , Chong-wook Park


Herbs, shrubs, or small trees, sometimes monoecious or dioecious. Stems erect, prostrate, twining, or scandent, often with swollen nodes, striate, grooved, or prickly. Leaves simple, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, petiolate or subsessile; stipules often united to a sheath (ocrea). Inflorescence terminal or axillary, spicate, racemose, paniculate, or capitate. Pedicel occasionally articulate. Flowers small, actinomorphic, bisexual, rarely unisexual. Perianth 3-6-merous, in 1 or 2 series, herbaceous, often enlarged in fruit or inner tepals enlarged, with wings, tubercles, or spines. Stamens usually (3-)6-9, rarely more; filaments free or united at base; anthers 2-loculed, opening lengthwise; disk annular (often lobed). Ovary superior, 1-loculed; styles 2 or 3, rarely 4, free or connate at lower part. Fruit a trigonous, biconvex, or biconcave achene; seed with straight or curved embryo and copious endosperm.

About 50 genera and 1120 species: worldwide, but primarily N temperate with a few species in tropical regions; 13 genera (two endemic) and 238 species (65 endemic) in China.

All Chinese genera belong to the Polygonoideae, a subfamily of some 790 species defined by the presence of ocreae, a monopodial branching pattern, and the lack of an involucre. The Eriogonoideae (330 species) are found only in the New World.

Chinese genera of economic importance include Rheum, which has medicinal uses and is also a food plant (rhubarb) in many other regions, and Fagopyrum, which produces a grain (buckwheat).

Fallopia nervosa Loureiro is Microcos paniculata Linnaeus (Tiliaceae).

Li Anjen, Kao Tsoching, Mao Zumei & Liu Yulan. 1998. Polygonaceae. In: Li Anjen, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 25(1): 1–209.

1Shrub, rarely a subshrub.(2)
+Annual or perennial herb.(7)
2(1)Leaves small, scaly; stamens 12-18; styles 4.8  Calligonum    沙拐枣属
+Leaves large, not scaly; stamens 6-8; styles 2 or 3.(3)
3(2)Tepals 6; stigmas penicillate.12  Rumex    酸模属
+Tepals 5; stigmas capitate.(4)
4(3)Achenes with wings.10  Parapteropyrum    翅果蓼属
+Achenes without wings.(5)
5(4)Stems twining.3  Fallopia    首乌属
+Stems erect.(6)
6(5)Tepals: inner 3(or 2) enlarged in fruit.9  Atraphaxis    木蓼属
+Tepals not enlarged in fruit.2  Polygonum    蓼属
7(1)Achenes with wings.(8)
+Achenes without wings.(10)
8(7)Tepals 4; achenes biconvex, margin with wings.11  Oxyria    山蓼属
+Tepals 5 or 6; achenes trigonous, angles with wings.(9)
9(8)Tepals 5; achenes 3-horned at base; stems scandent.7  Pteroxygonum    红药子属
+Tepals 6; achenes not horned at base; stems erect.13  Rheum    大黄属
10(7)Tepals 3.1  Koenigia    冰岛蓼属
+Tepals 5 or 6, rarely 4.(11)
11(10)Tepals 6, rarely 4, stigmas penicillate.12  Rumex    酸模属
+Tepals 5, rarely 4; stigmas capitate or fimbriate.(12)
12(11)Styles 2, persistent, indurate, elongate in fruit, hooked at apex.5  Antenoron    金线草属
+Styles 3, rarely 2, usually deciduous, neither indurate nor elongate in fruit, never hooked at apex.(13)
13(12)Stems twining or erect, tepals: outer 3, enlarged in fruit, abaxial surface with wings or keels, rarely not enlarged, without wings or keels.(14)
+Stems erect; tepals not enlarged in fruit, rarely enlarged, becoming fleshy.(15)
14(13)Stems twining; flowers bisexual; stigmas capitate.3  Fallopia    首乌属
+Stems erect; flowers unisexual, plant dioecious; stigmas fimbriate.4  Reynoutria    虎杖属
15(13)Achenes trigonous, much longer than or rarely equaling persistent perianth.6  Fagopyrum    荞麦属
+Achenes trigonous or biconvex, shorter than or rarely longer than persistent perianth.2  Polygonum    蓼属
   List of lower taxa