Flora of China
  FOC Vol.4 (1999)              | Family List  Pinaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Pinaceae  Lindley
松科   song ke
Authors:Fu Liguo (傅立国 Fu Li-kuo) , Li Nan (李楠) ; Robert R. Mill


Trees or rarely shrubs, evergreen or deciduous, monoecious. Branchlets often dimorphic: long branchlets with clearly spirally arranged, sometimes scalelike leaves; short branchlets often reduced to slow growing lateral spurs bearing dense clusters of leaves at apex. Leaves solitary or in bundles of (1 or)2-5(-8) when basally subtended by a leaf sheath; leaf blade linear or needlelike, not decurrent. Cones unisexual. Pollen cones solitary or clustered, with numerous spirally arranged microsporophylls; microsporophyll with 2 microsporangia; pollen usually 2-saccate (nonsaccate in Cedrus, Larix, Pseudotsuga, and most species of Tsuga). Seed cones erect or pendulous, maturing in 1st, 2nd, or occasionally 3rd year, dehiscent or occasionally indehiscent, with many spirally arranged ovulate scales and bracts; ovulate scales usually smaller than bracts at pollination, with 2 upright ovules adaxially, free or only basally adnate with bracts, maturing into seed scales. Seed scales appressed, woody or leathery, variable in shape and size, with 2 seeds adaxially, persistent or deciduous after cone maturity. Bracts free or adnate basally with seed scales, well developed or rudimentary, exserted or included. Seeds terminally winged (except in some species of Pinus). Cotyledons 2-18. Germination hypogeal or epigeal. 2n = 24* (almost always).

Ten or eleven genera and ca. 235 species: N hemisphere; ten genera (two endemic) and 108 species (43 endemic, 24 introduced) in China.

Species of the Pinaceae are among the most valuable and commercially important plants in the world. Most species are trees, and are often excellent sources of lumber, wood products, and resins; many are cultivated for afforestation and as ornamentals.

Cheng Wan-chün, Fu Li-kuo, Law Yu-wu, Fu Shu-hsia, Wang Wen-tsai, Chu Cheng-de, Chao Chi-son & Chen Chia-jui. 1978. Pinaceae. In: Cheng Wan-chün & Fu Li-kuo, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 7: 32-281.

1Leaves evergreen, needlelike, 2-5(-7) per bundle, terminal on very short branchlets, base enclosed by sheath; seed cones maturing in 2nd or 3rd year; seed scales woody, thickened, apex differentiated into apophysis and umbo1  Pinus    松属
+Leaves evergreen or deciduous, linear or needlelike, spirally arranged or in a cluster at apex of short branchlets, not in bundles; seed cones maturing in 1st year (except in Cedrus); seed scales thin, woody or leathery, without apophysis and umbo.(2)
2(1)Lateral short branchlets present, very clearly defined, with dense bundles of many leaves.(3)
+Lateral short branchlets absent, or poorly defined (in Cathaya), with leaves all solitary, never in bundles (though in Cathaya partly so dense as to appear bundled).(5)
3(2)Leaves evergreen, needlelike, usually triangular or ± quadrangular in cross section, stiff; seed cones maturing in 2nd(or 3rd) year10  Cedrus    雪松属
+Leaves deciduous, linear-needlelike or narrowly oblanceolate-linear, flattened, flexible; seed cones maturing in 1st year.(4)
4(3)Pollen cones solitary; seed scales thin, ± leathery, persistent after maturity; leaves ca. 1.8 mm wide3  Larix    落叶松属
+Pollen cones clustered; seed scales thick, woody, shed after maturity; leaves 1.5-4 mm wide7  Pseudolarix    金钱松属
5(2)Branchlets opposite, with orbicular leaf scars; seed cones erect; seed scales deciduous at maturity, with cone rachis persistent9  Abies    冷杉属
+Branchlets irregularly alternate, leaf scars often elliptic or on peglike projections (pulvini); seed cones usually pendulous or erect; seed scales persistent at maturity.(6)
6(5)Seed cones axillary, initially erect, finally pendulous; leaves partly densely clustered4  Cathaya    银杉属
+Seed cones terminal on branchlets; leaves evenly distributed along branchlets.(7)
7(6)Seed cones erect; pollen cones terminally clustered on branchlets; seed and wing as long as seed scale8  Keteleeria    油杉属
+Seed cones usually pendulous, occasionally erect; pollen cones solitary in leaf axils; seed and wing shorter than seed scale.(8)
8(7)Leaves not borne on peglike projections, leaving slightly raised, elliptic scars, grooved adaxially; bracts distinctly exserted, 3-lobed at apex5  Pseudotsuga    黄杉属
+Leaves borne on persistent, peglike projections (pulvinus), flattened or ± rhombic in cross section; bracts rudimentary, included.(9)
9(8)Leaves sessile, quadrangular, subflattened, or flattened in cross section; seed cones usually more than 4 cm (sometimes less than 4 cm in Picea purpurea)2  Picea    云杉属
+Leaves petiolate, flattened, rarely subquadrangular in cross section; seed cones usually 1.5-3.5 cm (to ca. 6 cm in Tsuga longibracteata)6  Tsuga    铁杉属
   Lower Taxon
  • Abies  Miller  冷杉属
  • Cathaya  Chun & Kuang  银杉属
  • Cedrus  Trew  雪松属
  • Keteleeria  Carrière  油杉属
  • Larix  Miller  落叶松属
  • Picea  A. Dietrich  云杉属
  • Pinus  Linnaeus  松属
  • Pseudolarix  Gordon  金钱松属
  • Pseudotsuga  Carrière  黄杉属
  • Tsuga  (Endlicher) Carrière  铁杉属