Flora of China
  FOC Vol.18 (1998)              | Family List  Orobanchaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Orobanchaceae  Ventenat
列当科   lie dang ke
Authors:Zhang Zhi-yun; Nikolai N. Tzvelev


Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial parasites, without chlorophyll. Stems unbranched or sometimes branched. Leaves scalelike, spirally or subimbricately arranged. Inflorescences racemose, spicate, or subcapitate, rarely 1-flowered; bract 1, usually similar to leaves; bractlets 2, adnate to base of calyx or pedicel. Flowers bisexual, subsessile or pedicelled. Calyx tubular, cupular, or campanulate, (3 or)4-6-lobed, 2-6-parted, 6-toothed, or spathelike, sometimes absent or of 3 free sepals. Corolla bilabiate, usually curved, sometimes tubular-campanulate or funnelform with 5 subequal lobes; upper lip entire, emarginate, or 2-lobed; lower lip 3-lobed. Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted at base of corolla tube; filaments slender; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally, sometimes 1 cell fertile and another sterile or reduced to spur. Pistil 2- or 3-carpellate; ovary superior; placentas 2-4 or 6(-10), parietal or sometimes axile at ovary base; ovules 2-4 or numerous, anatropous. Style long; stigma inflated, discoid, peltate, or 2-4-lobed. Capsule usually dehiscing loculicidally by 2 or 3(or 4) valves. Seeds minute, testa pitted or reticulate.

About 15 genera and 150 species: North Temperate regions, less represented in Africa, America, Asia, and Australia; nine genera and 42 species (nine endemic) in China.

Genera 1-4 are assigned to the tribe Orobancheae (inflorescences racemose or spicate, rarely branched or flowers solitary, borne well above soil surface; mechanical tissue in 1 or 2 rings), whereas genera 5-8 are placed in the tribe Gleadovieae Popov (inflorescences subcapitate or subcorymbose, borne near soil surface; mechanical tissue absent). Although Lathraea has traditionally been placed in the Orobanchaceae (see Beck in Engler, Pflanzenr. IV. 261(Heft 96): 1-348. 1930), more recent authors (e.g.,Tzvelev, Fl. URSS 23: 19-117. 1958; Webb, Fl. Europ. 3: 281. 1972; Teryokhin et al., Determinator of broomrapes of the USSR Flora. 1993; Yamazaki, Fl. Japan 3a: 373. 1993) exclude the genus from the Orobanchaceae and place it in the Scrophulariaceae. In fact, one of us, N. N. Tzvelev, believes that Lathraea should be placed near Tozzia Linnaeus of the Scrophulariaceae. The genus is tentatively placed here as a link with the Scrophulariaceae.

Zhang Zhiyun. 1990. Orobanchaceae. In: Wang Wentsai, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 69: 69-124.

1Calyx spathelike, entire; flowers solitary or few, on pedicels 2-50 cm4  Aeginetia    野菰属
+Calyx not spathelike, cupular, campanulate, tubular, or of 2 or 3 deciduous sepals, rarely absent; flowers in distinct inflorescences, sessile or on pedicels to 2 cm.(2)
2(1)Inflorescences spicate or racemose, rarely branched, borne well above soil surface; stems aboveground, with 1 or 2 rings of mechanical tissue.(3)
+Inflorescences subcapitate or subcorymbose, borne near soil surface; stems usually underground, without a mechanical tissue.(6)
3(2)Stamens exserted from corolla; calyx cupular, irregularly and obtusely 2-5-lobed or toothed, lobes or teeth deciduous3  Boschniakia    草苁蓉属
+Stamens included in corolla; calyx campanulate, if cupular then teeth acute and not deciduous.(4)
4(3)Corolla tubular-campanulate to funnelform, lobes subequal1  Cistanche    肉苁蓉属
+Corolla bilabiate, lobes unequal.(5)
5(4)Placentas 4; calyx cupular or rarely campanulate, 4- or 5-toothed, often divided into 2 lateral, entire or divided segments2  Orobanche    列当属
+Placentas 2; calyx campanulate, usually regularly 4-toothed9  Lathraea    齿鳞草属
6(2)Calyx segments 2(or 3), sometimes absent, soon deciduous; bractlets absent8  Phacellanthus    黄筒花属
+Calyx lobes (4 or)5, persistent; bractlets usually present.(7)
7(6)Anthers with 1 fertile cell, another cell absent, reduced, or modified to a spur7  Christisonia    假野菰属
+All anthers with 2 fertile cells.(8)
8(7)Pedicel to 1 cm; parietal placentas 45  Mannagettaea    豆列当属
+Pedicel 1-9 cm; parietal placentas 26  Gleadovia    寄生属
   Lower Taxon
  • Aeginetia  Linnaeus  野菰属
  • Boschniakia  C. A. Meyer  草苁蓉属
  • Christisonia  Gardner  假野菰属
  • Cistanche  Hoffmannsegg & Link  肉苁蓉属
  • Gleadovia  Gamble & Prain  寄生属
  • Lathraea  Linnaeus  齿鳞草属
  • Mannagettaea  Harry Smith  豆列当属
  • Orobanche  Linnaeus  列当属
  • Phacellanthus  Siebold & Zuccarini  黄筒花属