Flora of China
  FOC Vol.5 (2003)              | Family List  Olacaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Olacaceae  Mirbel ex Candolle
铁青树科   tie qing shu ke
Authors:Qiu Huaxing (邱华兴 Chiu Hua-hsing, Kiu Hua-xing) ; Michael G. Gilbert

  • Qiu Huaxing -- Department of Taxonomy, South China Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wushan, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510650, People’s Republic of China.
  • Michael G. Gilbert -- Missouri Botanical Garden, c/o Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, England, United Kingdom.


    Shrubs, scandent shrubs, trees, or lianas, sometimes hemiparasitic, often glabrous. Lateral shoots sometimes with bud scales at base. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite; petiole well developed; leaf blade simple, margin entire; veins usually pinnate, sometimes palmate and 3-5-veined. Inflorescences axillary, rarely also terminal, cymose, fasciculate, racemelike, spikelike, or umbellate, mostly small; bracts small and inconspicuous. Flowers usually bisexual, actinomorphic, 3-7-merous, sometimes heterostylous. Calyx small at anthesis, cupular, discoid, or lobed, sometimes accrescent to partly or wholly covering fruit, sometimes fused to fruit (in Schoepfia). Petals free or basally connate, valvate. Disk cuplike or annular, rarely free glands, sometimes accrescent and covering fruit apex (in Schoepfia). Stamens 3-15, rarely in part staminodes, epipetalous; anthers basi- or medi-fixed, usually 2-loculed, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary usually superior, rarely semisuperior but sometimes apparently inferior through fusion with calyx, 2-5-loculed or semiloculed with apex of ovary 1-loculed; ovules solitary in each locule or semilocule, pendent from apex of free central placenta, usually anatropous, integuments 1 or 2. Style terminal, simple; stigma 2-5-lobed. Fruit a drupe, sometimes with an accrescent calyx. Seed solitary; testa thin; endosperm abundant; embryo small; cotyledons 2-4.

    Between 23 and 27 genera and 180–250 species: tropical and warm-temperate regions worldwide; five genera (one endemic) and ten species (three endemic) in China.

    Ling Yeou-ruenn. 1988. Olacaceae. In: Kiu Hua-shing & Ling Yeou-ruenn, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 24: 30–46.

    1Leaves palmately 3-5-veined, usually narrowly but distinctly peltate; liana, sometimes with axillary tendrils; inflorescences a dichotomous cyme, often very lax; fruiting pedicel accrescent to 1.5-2.5 cm; fruit dehiscent.4  Erythropalum    赤苍藤属
    +Leaves pinnately veined, not peltate; tendrils absent; inflorescences fasciculate, racemelike, spikelike, or umbellate; fruiting pedicel to 1 cm, often ± absent; fruit indehiscent.(2)
    2(1)Inflorescences umbellate, sometimes compound with umbels arranged along short axis; fruit oblately ± pear-shaped, 3-4.5 cm wide, wider than long.2  Malania    蒜头果属
    +Inflorescences fasciculate, racemose, or spicate (sometimes in cymes in Ximenia); fruit ± globose, ellipsoid, or ovoid, 0.5-3 cm wide, longer than wide.(3)
    3(2)Staminodes present; petals glabrous on inside; calyx enlarged, free from and partly or entirely enveloping fruit.3  Olax    铁青树属
    +Staminodes absent; petals hairy on inside; calyx not enlarged, not enclosing fruit or completely fused to fruit.(4)
    4(3)Branchlets usually spiny; stamens 8 or 10; petals with hairs more widely distributed; drupe 2-3 cm wide.1  Ximenia    海檀木属
    +Branchlets without spines; stamens 4 or 5; petals with a tuft of hairs around insertion of each stamen; drupe 0.5-1.4 cm wide.5  Schoepfia    青皮木属
       Lower Taxon
  • Erythropalum  Blume  赤苍藤属
  • Malania  W. Y. Chun & S. K. Lee  蒜头果属
  • Olax  Linnaeus  铁青树属
  • Schoepfia  Schreber  青皮木属
  • Ximenia  Linnaeus  海檀木属