Flora of China
  FOC Vol.13 (2007)              | Family List  Myrtaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   27. Myrtaceae  A. L. Jussieu
桃金娘科   tao jin niang ke
Authors:Chen Jie (陈介 Chen Cheih); Lyn A. Craven


Trees or shrubs, evergreen, usually with essential oils-containing cavities in foliage, branchlets, and flowers. Stipules absent or small and caducous. Leaves opposite, occasionally alternate, occasionally ternate or pseudo-whorled; leaf blade with secondary veins pinnate or basal, often with intramarginal veins near margin, margin usually entire. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, cymose but variously arranged, 1- to many-flowered. Flowers bisexual, sometimes polygamous, actinomorphic. Hypanthium usually adnate to ovary and prolonged above it. Calyx lobes (3 or)4 or 5 or more, distinct or connate into a calyptra. Petals 4 or 5, sometimes absent, distinct or connate into a calyptra, sometimes coherent and pseudocalyptrate. Stamens usually numerous, in 1 to several whorls; filaments distinct or connate into 5 bundles opposite petals; anthers 2-celled, dorsifixed or basifixed, dehiscing longitudinally or rarely terminally; connectives usually terminating in 1 or more apical glands. Ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or very rarely superior, carpels 2 to more, locules 1 to many, pseudoseptum sometimes present, placentation usually axile but occasionally parietal; ovules 1 to several per locule. Style single; stigma single. Fruit a capsule, berry, drupaceous berry, or drupe, 1- to many-seeded. Seeds without endosperm or endosperm sparse and thin; testa cartilaginous or thinly membranous, sometimes absent; embryo straight or curved.

About 130 genera and 4500-5000 species: Mediterranean region, sub-Saharan Africa, Madagascar, tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, Pacific islands, tropical and South America; 10 genera (five introduced) and 121 species (50 endemic, 32 introduced treated here) in China.

The classification adopted here is that of Wilson et al. (Pl. Syst. Evol. 251: 3-19. 2005). The conventional classification of Myrtaceae sensu stricto in which the primary division is into two subfamilies based on the fruit being dry or fleshy (e.g., Niedenzu in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3(7): 57-105. 1893) results in an association of genera that is less natural than that proposed by Wilson et al.

Many Myrtaceae are cultivated garden ornamentals, street trees, or plantation trees. Some members of tribe Syzygieae are grown as fruit crops. In addition to the cultivated members of the family treated here, some others grown in China include Acca sellowiana (O. Berg) Burrett (Feijoa sellowiana (O. Berg) O. Berg), Myrtus communis Linnaeus, and Syncarpia glomulifera (Smith) Niedenzu.

Myrtus chinensis Loureiro is a synonym of Symplocos paniculata (Thunberg) Miquel in the Symplocaceae (see Fl. China 15: 252. 1996).

Chang Hung-ta & Miau Ru-hwai. 1984. Myrtaceae. In: Chen Chieh, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 53(1): 28-135.

1Fruit a capsule(2)
+Fruit a berry, drupaceous berry, or drupe(5)
2(1)Flowers usually calyptrate (tribe Eucalypteae).1  Eucalyptus    桉属
+Flowers never calyptrate(3)
3(2)Embryo with cotyledons much smaller than the hypocotyl; leaves small, often ericoid (tribe Chamelaucieae).4  Baeckea    岗松属
+Embryo with cotyledons ± as long as or longer than hypocotyl; leaves not small and ericoid(4)
4(3)Leaf venation usually longitudinal, sometimes pinnate and inflorescences then brushlike; floral units sessile, variously arranged in spikes or clusters (tribe Melaleuceae).2  Melaleuca    白千层属
+Leaf venation pinnate; floral units pedunculate, in a dichasium (tribe Lophostemoneae).3  Lophostemon    红胶木属
5(1)Plants usually glabrous, rarely with multicellular trichomes; vascular supply to ovary axial; seeds usually 1; cotyledons massive relative to hypocotyl (tribe Syzygieae).10  Syzygium    蒲桃属
+Plants with 1- or few-celled trichomes on at least some organs; vascular supply to ovary trans-septal; seeds usually numerous; cotyledons usually small but sometimes massive relative to hypocotyl (tribe Myrteae)(6)
6(5)Leaf blade triveined or tripliveined(7)
+Leaf blade pinnately veined(8)
7(6)Ovary 1-loculed; seeds not separated by either longitudinal or false transverse septa.5  Rhodamnia    玫瑰木属
+Ovary 3(or 4)-loculed; seeds separated by longitudinal septa and a false transverse septum.6  Rhodomyrtus    桃金娘属
8(6)Fruit 1-seeded; embryo globose or ovoid; cotyledons massive.7  Eugenia    番樱桃属
+Fruit several- to many-seeded; embryo reniform or horseshoe-shaped; cotyledons small(9)
9(8)Ovules numerous per locule.8  Psidium    番石榴属
+Ovules 1 or 2(-4) per locule.9  Decaspermum    子楝树属
   Lower Taxon
  • Baeckea  Linnaeus  岗松属
  • Decaspermum  J. R. Forster & G. Forster  子楝树属
  • Eucalyptus  L’Héritier  桉属
  • Eugenia  Linnaeus  番樱桃属
  • Lophostemon  Schott  红胶木属
  • Melaleuca  Linnaeus  白千层属
  • Psidium  Linnaeus  番石榴属
  • Rhodamnia  Jack  玫瑰木属
  • Rhodomyrtus  (Candolle) Reichenbach  桃金娘属
  • Syzygium  P. Browne ex Gaertner  蒲桃属