Flora of China
  FOC Vol.5 (2003)              | Family List  Moraceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
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桑科   sang ke
Authors:Zhou Zhekun (周浙昆) ; Michael G. Gilbert

  • Zhou Zhekun -- Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heilongtan, Kunming, Yunnan 650204, People’s Republic of China.
  • Michael G. Gilbert -- Missouri Botanical Garden, c/o Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AE, England, United Kingdom.


    Trees, shrubs, vines, or rarely herbs, frequently with milky or watery latex, sometimes spiny. Stipules present, frequently caducous. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite; petiole often present and well-defined; leaf blade simple, sometimes with cystoliths, margin entire or palmately lobed, venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences axillary, frequently paired, racemose, spicate, capitate, or rarely cymose, sometimes a fig or syconium with flowers completely enclosed within a hollow receptacle. Flowers unisexual (plants monoecious or dioecious), small to very small. Calyx lobes (1 or)2-4(-8), free or connate, imbricate or valvate. Corolla absent. Male flowers: stamens as many as and opposite to calyx lobes (except in Artocarpus), straight or inflexed in bud; anthers 1- or 2-loculed, crescent-shaped to top-shaped; pistillode (rudimentary sterile pistil) often present. Female flowers: calyx lobes usually 4; ovary superior, semi-inferior, or inferior, 1(or 2)-loculed; ovules 1 per locule, anatropous or campylotropous; style branches 1 or 2; stigmas usually filiform. Fruit usually a drupe, rarely an achene, enveloped by an enlarged calyx and/or immersed in a fleshy receptacle, often joined into a syncarp. Seed solitary; endosperm present or absent.

    Between 37 and 43 genera and 1100–1400 species: widespread in tropical and subtropical areas, less common in temperate areas; nine genera and 144 species (26 endemic, five introduced) in China.

    Economically, the most important species are those of Morus and Maclura associated with the production of silk. Some species in Broussonetia, Maclura, and Morus are important for paper making; some species in Artocarpus, Ficus, and Morus have edible fruit; and some species of Artocarpus and Broussonetia are used for furniture or timber.

    Chang Siushih, Wu Chengyih & Cao Ziyu. 1998. Moroideae. In: Chang Siushih & Wu Chengyih, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 23(1): 1–219.

    1Herbs, without latex; inflorescences a lax cyme.1  Fatoua    水蛇麻属
    +Trees, shrubs, or vines, with latex; inflorescences usually very compact, occasionally spikelike, very rarely a cyme.(2)
    2(1)Inflorescences a fig with many minute flowers completely enclosed within a hollow receptacle opening by an apical pore closed by scale-like bracts.9  Ficus    榕属
    +Inflorescences a capitulum, spike, or raceme, rarely a cyme, or with flowers inserted on a discoid receptacle.(3)
    3(2)Material with male flowers.(4)
    +Material in fruit or with female flowers.(10)
    4(3)Stamens straight in flower buds, rarely inflexed.(5)
    +Stamens inflexed in flower buds.(7)
    5(4)Male flower calyx tubular.6  Artocarpus    波罗蜜属
    +Male flower calyx lobes free or nearly so.(6)
    6(5)Plants often armed with axillary spines, at least when young, often climbing, sometimes a small tree; flowers in a globose head.7  Maclura    柘属
    +Plants unarmed, a large freestanding tree; flowers inserted on a discoid receptacle.8  Antiaris    见血封喉属
    7(4)Plant sometimes spiny, particularly on juvenile growth; bisexual inflorescences sometimes present; pistillode absent.5  Streblus    鹊肾树属
    +Plant unarmed; bisexual inflorescences absent; pistillode often present.(8)
    8(7)Male flower calyx lobes imbricate.2  Morus    桑属
    +Male flower calyx lobes valvate.(9)
    9(8)Leaf blade clearly 3-5-veined at base, often lobed, margin conspicuously toothed.3  Broussonetia    构属
    +Leaf blade strictly pinnately veined, never lobed, margin entire or inconspicuously toothed.4  Malaisia    牛筋藤属
    10(3)Inflorescences with an involucre of several overlapping bracts.(11)
    +Inflorescences subtended by a few bracts, very small relative to flowers, or without any bracts.(12)
    11(10)Large tree; infructescences with a single (rarely 2) drupe ± enclosed within a fleshy receptacle.8  Antiaris    见血封喉属
    +Climber; infructescences with drupe clearly exserted from an almost cupule-like infructescence.4  Malaisia    牛筋藤属
    12(10)Inflorescences 1-8-flowered; mature drupe usually surrounded by persistent, ± free sepals.5  Streblus    鹊肾树属
    +Inflorescences many-flowered; fruit enclosed within a syncarp or fleshy perianth.(13)
    13(12)Leaf margins clearly toothed, rarely subentire and then with a long, slender infructescence.(14)
    +Leaf margin entire or shallowly crenate.(15)
    14(13)Stigmas 2, equal (rarely subequal); calyx lobes imbricate.2  Morus    桑属
    +Stigma solitary or with a vestigial second lobe; calyx lobes valvate.3  Broussonetia    构属
    15(13)Trees to 40 m high, rarely less than 8 m, without spines; bracteoles and perianth without glands; mature syncarp (3-)5-15 or more cm.6  Artocarpus    波罗蜜属
    +Plants climbing or if erect, a shrub or small tree less than 7 m high, often with axillary spines, at least when young; bracteoles and perianth with yellow glands; mature syncarp 1.5-2.5(-5) cm.7  Maclura    柘属
       List of lower taxa