Flora of China
  FOC Vol.24 (2000)              | Family List  Liliaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   12. Liliaceae  A. L. Jussieu
百合科   bai he ke
Authors:Chen Xinqi (陈心启 Chen Sing-chi), Liang Songyun (梁松筠 Liang Song-jun), Xu Jiemei (许介眉); Minoru N. Tamura


Herbs perennial, with a rhizome, bulb, or corm, rarely shrubby or treelike. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, parallel or rarely reticulate veined. Inflorescence a raceme, panicle, spike, umbel, reduced panicle, or other, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic; bracts present or absent; bracteoles present or absent. Perianth usually corollalike, 6-merous, rarely 4- or 8-merous, in 2 whorls; segments free (tepals) or united. Stamens 6, rarely 3, 4, or 8, inserted opposite perianth segments; filaments free or adnate to perianth, rarely connate into a corona; anthers usually 2-loculed, basifixed or dorsifixed and versatile, introrse, latrorse, or extrorse, dehiscing usually by vertical slits. Carpels usually connate for most or all of their length, rarely only at base; ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior, 3-loculed, rarely 2- or 4-loculed, with axile placentae, or rarely 1-loculed with a parietal placenta; ovules usually anatropous. Nectaries septal, perigonal, or absent. Fruit a capsule or berry. Seeds with abundant endosperm and small embryo.

About 250 genera and 3500 species: worldwide, especially in temperate and subtropical regions; 57 genera (three endemic, two introduced) and 726 species (379 endemic, 11 introduced) in China.

Wang Fa-tsuan & Tang Tsin, eds. 1978; 1980. Liliaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 15: 1--280; 14: 1--308.

1Herbs saprophytic, without green leaves2  Petrosavia    无叶莲属
+Plants autotrophic, with green leaves.(2)
2(1)Plants cormous or bulbiferous.(3)
+Plants not bulbiferous or cormous, but often producing rhizomes or other underground organs.(18)
3(2)Plants cormous.(4)
+Plants bulbiferous.(5)
4(3)Perianth segments 7--10 × ca. 1 mm, straight; leaves straight at apex26  Iphigenia    山慈菇属
+Perianth segments 45--50 × ca. 8 mm, strongly reflexed; leaves with an apical tendril27  Gloriosa    嘉兰属
5(3)Styles 3; anthers reniform, with confluent locules.(6)
+Style 1, simple to 3-fid; anthers not reniform, with 2 separate locules.(7)
6(5)Pedicel pubescent; perianth segments not glandular at base4  Veratrum    藜芦属
+Pedicel glabrous; perianth segments glandular at base5  Zigadenus    棋盘花属
7(5)Inflorescence an umbel, at first wholly enveloped by a scarious spathe32  Allium    葱属
+Inflorescence generally not an umbel or, if umbellate, never wholly enveloped by a scarious spathe.(8)
8(7)Flowers more than 30, in a dense raceme or spike.(9)
+Flowers 1--20, in a lax inflorescence.(10)
9(8)Bulb cylindric; inflorescence spicate; perianth segments partly united; plants with a strong, onionlike odor33  Milula    穗花韭属
+Bulb ovoid or globose; inflorescence racemose; perianth segments free; plants without a strong, onionlike odor34  Barnardia    绵枣儿属
10(8)Leaves 2, apparently opposite; perianth segments strongly reflexed16  Erythronium    猪牙花属
+Leaves generally more than 2; perianth segments not reflexed.(11)
11(10)Leaves cordate to ovate, reticulate veined19  Cardiocrinum    大百合属
+Leaves neither cordate nor ovate, parallel veined.(12)
12(11)Bulbs with fleshy, farinaceous scales; perianth segments each with a concave nectary near base adaxially17  Fritillaria    贝母属
+Bulbs without fleshy, farinaceous scales; perianth segments without a concave nectary.(13)
13(12)Anthers pseudobasifixed; axis of seed usually straight or slightly curved; leaves basal or cauline.(14)
+Anthers dorsifixed and versatile; axis of seed moderately to strongly curved; leaves cauline or at least mostly so.(16)
14(13)Basal leaves not arising from bulb but from underground stem; bulb more than 1 cm in diam.; perianth more than 2 cm, deciduous after anthesis15  Tulipa    郁金香属
+Basal leaves arising from bulb; bulb usually 4--5 mm in diam.; perianth less than 2 cm, persistent after anthesis.(15)
15(14)Perianth segments ± hardened and enlarged after anthesis, 1.5--2 × as long as capsule13  Gagea    顶冰花属
+Perianth segments withered after anthesis, neither hardened nor enlarged, often shorter than capsule14  Lloydia    洼瓣花属
16(13)Bulb with a brown, scarious tunic; bulbels many, around roots; style 3-fid, apically recurved; seeds wingless18  Notholirion    假百合属
+Bulb naked; bulbels absent; style apically with 3 stigmatic crests; seeds winged.(17)
17(16)Perianth segments similar, usually without spots or blotches20  Lilium    百合属
+Inner perianth segments larger than outer ones, generally all segments with dark spots or blotches21  Nomocharis    豹子花属
18(2)Leaves reduced to scales; branchlets becoming leaflike (cladodes), needlelike or linear, 0.2--3 mm wide, numbering several hundred in a single plant41  Asparagus    天门冬属
+Leaves not reduced to scales; branchlets not as above, fewer than 100 in a single plant.(19)
19(18)Fruit bursting irregularly at an early stage and exposing seeds; seeds ellipsoid to globose, each resembling a berry or small drupe.(20)
+Fruit a berry or capsule, never bursting before seed maturation.(22)
20(19)Leaves subplicate veined, with transverse venation between main veins; filaments united into a ring nearly closing mouth of perianth57  Peliosanthes    球子草属
+Leaves parallel veined, without clear, transverse venation between main veins; filaments not forming a ring.(21)
21(20)Leaves longitudinally whitish striped; flowers ± nodding; ovary semi-inferior; filaments much shorter than anthers; seeds blue56  Ophiopogon    沿阶草属
+Leaves not whitish striped; flowers erect or suberect; ovary superior; filaments longer than or as long as anthers; seeds blackish55  Liriope    山麦冬属
22(19)Leaves 3--15 in 1 whorl; outer perianth segments leaflike.(23)
+Leaves not in 1 whorl; outer perianth segments not leaflike.(24)
23(22)Leaves usually 4--15 in 1 whorl; flowers 4-merous or more, inner perianth segments much narrower than outer ones9  Paris    重楼属
+Leaves 3 in a whorl; flowers 3-merous, inner perianth segments only a little narrower than outer ones10  Trillium    延龄草属
24(22)Flowers unisexual; leaves reticulate veined between 3 or 5 main veins; plants mostly shrubby climbers.(25)
+Flowers bisexual; leaves parallel veined; plants not woody climbers.(26)
25(24)Perianth segments free (except in Smilax synandra)11  Smilax    菝葜属
+Perianth segments united into a tube12  Heterosmilax    肖菝葜属
26(24)Leaves succulent29  Aloe    芦荟属
+Leaves never succulent.(27)
27(26)Stems ± woody and continuously thickened, with clear leaf scars in apical part; leaves usually crowded at or toward apex of stem or branches.(28)
+Stems not woody, without leaf scars.(29)
28(27)Petiole 10--30 cm, leaf blade with veins essentially parallel but with lateral veins branching from midvein in proximal 1/2; ovary with 2 to many ovules per locule36  Cordyline    朱蕉属
+Petiole absent to 8 cm, leaf blade with veins truly parallel from base, lateral veins absent; ovary with 1 or 2 ovules per locule42  Dracaena    龙血树属
29(27)Fruit a capsule.(30)
+Fruit a berry.(43)
30(29)Flowers clearly zygomorphic, upper 3 or 4 perianth segments much larger than lower ones8  Chionographis    白丝草属
+Flowers actinomorphic.(31)
31(30)Styles 3.(32)
+Style 1, simple to 3-parted.(33)
32(31)Leaves laterally flattened, basally equitant, sword-shaped; bracteole cupular; pedicel glabrous; anthers ovate, with 2 separate locules1  Tofieldia    岩菖蒲属
+Leaves not laterally flattened; bracteole absent; pedicel pubescent; anthers reniform, with confluent locules4  Veratrum    藜芦属
33(31)Perianth proximally adnate to semi-inferior ovary3  Aletris    粉条儿菜属
+Perianth not adnate to superior ovary.(34)
34(33)Stem elongate, ascending; leaves cauline; 3 stigma lobes each 2-parted at apex23  Tricyrtis    油点草属
+Stem very short; leaves basal or nearly so; stigma not as above.(35)
35(34)Stamens 340  Anemarrhena    知母属
+Stamens 6.(36)
36(35)Perianth segments united.(37)
+Perianth segments free.(38)
37(36)Leaves basally abruptly tapered into a petiole; flowers purplish to white37  Hosta    玉簪属
+Leaves linear, basally not tapered into a petiole; flowers yellowish to reddish31  Hemerocallis    萱草属
38(36)Flowers not subtended by bracts; leaves basally gradually tapered into a petiole.(39)
+Flowers subtended by bracts; leaves ± linear or filiform, basally not tapered into a petiole.(40)
39(38)Inflorescence racemose or spicate; anthers basifixed, usually reniform, with ± confluent locules6  Ypsilandra    丫蕊花属
+Inflorescence umbellate or umbellate-racemose; anthers dorsifixed, lanceolate, with locules separate or confluent only at apex7  Heloniopsis    胡麻花属
40(38)Leaves filiform, ca. 1 mm wide; inflorescence an umbel35  Thysanotus    异蕊草属
+Leaves ± linear, more than 2 mm wide; inflorescence a raceme or a panicle.(41)
41(40)Perianth segments 1.7--4 cm; base of anthers with 2 prominent, caudate appendages 1--3 mm39  Diuranthera    鹭鸶兰属
+Perianth segments usually 1--1.5 cm; base of anthers with 2 lobes to 0.5 mm.(42)
42(41)Flowers more than 50, densely arranged in a terminal raceme; capsule globose, not angled28  Eremurus    独尾草属
+Flowers several to 20, laxly arranged in a terminal panicle or occasionally a raceme; capsule usually broadly globose, 3-angled38  Chlorophytum    吊兰属
43(29)Filaments swollen immediately below anther; leaves scabrous along midvein abaxially and at margin30  Dianella    山菅属
+Filaments not as above; leaves never scabrous along midvein abaxially, rarely so at margin.(44)
44(43)Stem elongate; leaves cauline.(45)
+Stem very short; leaves basal or nearly so.(51)
45(44)Perianth segments free.(46)
+Perianth segments united.(48)
46(45)Inflorescence racemose with pedicels less than 6 mm or paniculate, axis elongate, ± ascending; stem simple; plants not stoloniferous43  Maianthemum    舞鹤草属
+Inflorescence usually 1-flowered or umbellate, rarely racemose with pedicels more than 1 cm, axis short, nodding; stem often branched; plants sometimes stoloniferous.(47)
47(46)Perianth segments basally neither saccate nor spurred24  Streptopus    扭柄花属
+Perianth segments basally ± saccate or spurred25  Disporum    万寿竹属
48(45)Inflorescence terminating a stem (pseudoterminal leaf absent).(49)
+Leaf terminating a stem (pseudoterminal leaf present).(50)
49(48)Inflorescence only terminal, ± ascending, racemose or paniculate, pubescent; anthers positioned at perianth mouth or exserted from perianth; plants hemicryptophytic43  Maianthemum    舞鹤草属
+Inflorescences often both terminal and axillary, nodding, racemose or subumbellate, often 1- or 2-flowered, sometimes 3--6-flowered, glabrous; anthers included in perianth; plants epiphytic44  Heteropolygonatum    异黄精属
50(48)Corona absent; filaments inserted on perianth tube; rhizome never green45  Polygonatum    黄精属
+Corona present; filaments inserted on corona; rhizome mostly green46  Disporopsis    竹根七属
51(44)Perianth segments free.(52)
+Perianth segments united.(54)
52(51)Plants sympodial; anthers subextrorse; scape pubescent22  Clintonia    七筋菇属
+Plants monopodial; anthers introrse; scape glabrous.(53)
53(52)Leaves oblong to oblanceolate, 3--5 cm wide, basally tapered into a petiole; bracteole absent; anthers dorsifixed and versatile48  Speirantha    白穗花属
+Leaves grasslike, 4--12 mm wide, sessile; bracteole present; anthers basifixed47  Theropogon    夏须草属
54(51)Scape arising from a creeping rhizome, with 1 flower apically54  Aspidistra    蜘蛛抱蛋属
+Scape arising from a leaf tuft, with a several- to many-flowered inflorescence apically.(55)
55(54)Inflorescence a raceme; flowers nodding; leaf bases forming a pseudostem49  Convallaria    铃兰属
+Inflorescence a spike; flowers erect; pseudostem absent.(56)
56(55)Perianth lobes reflexed; anthers lanceolate; rhizome slender, 2--4 mm in diam.50  Reineckea    吉祥草属
+Perianth lobes spreading to inflexed; anthers ovate to suborbicular; rhizome usually stout, (2--)6--30 mm in diam.(57)
57(56)Perianth lobes very small, inflexed52  Rohdea    万年青属
+Perianth lobes 1/3--1/2 as long as tube, spreading to incurved.(58)
58(57)Anthers positioned higher than or as high as stigma; style short, 1(--3.5) mm, or absent; stigma small, 3-lobed51  Campylandra    开口箭属
+Anthers positioned lower than stigma; style long, 4--12 mm; stigma large, 2--7 mm in diam., peltate to mushroom-shaped53  Tupistra    长柱开口箭属
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