Flora of China
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   35. Batrachium  (de Candolle) Gray
水毛茛属   shui mao gen shu
Authors:Wang Wencai; Michio Tamura

Ranunculus sect. Batrachium de Candolle, Syst. Nat. 1: 233. 1817.


Herbs perennial or annual, aquatic or semiterrestrial, with stems and leaves often submersed. Leaves alternate, subsessile to long petiolate, leaf blade usually submersed, 2--5 × dissected, ultimate segments filiform or narrowly linear, sometimes floating and then blade 3-lobed, not finely dissected. Inflorescence a solitary, leaf-opposed flower. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic. Receptacle conical or subulate. Sepals (4 or)5, caducous. Petals (4 or)5, usually white, with yellow base, rarely entirely yellow, obovate, base shortly clawed, with a nectary pit above claw, apex rounded. Stamens few or numerous; anthers latrorse. Carpels numerous; ovule 1 per carpel. Style with adaxial stigmatic surface. Aggregate fruit ovoid or globose; achenes obovoid, slightly bilaterally compressed, transversely rugose.

About 20 species: S Africa, Asia, SE Australia, Europe, North and South America; eight species (one endemic) in China.

The separation of Batrachium from Ranunculus is not clear-cut and many botanists prefer to include the former genus within the latter. All species are aquatic or grow on wet mud.

1Leaves dimorphic: submerged leaves 3--4 × sect with filiform segments, floating leaves ca. 2 × sect with linear- lanceolate segments1  B. pekinense    北京水毛茛
+Leaves all similar, usually submerged, with filiform segments.(2)
2(1)Receptacle glabrous2  B. kauffmanii    长叶水毛茛
+Receptacle puberulent.(3)
3(2)Receptacle subulate in fruit8  B. rionii    钻托水毛茛
+Receptacle conical in fruit.(4)
4(3)Ultimate leaf segments soft, collapsing out of water4  B. bungei    水毛茛
+Ultimate leaf segments rigid, ± divaricate out of water.(5)
5(4)Leaf blade orbicular in outline7  B. foeniculaceum    硬叶水毛茛
+Leaf blade flabellate or semiorbicular in outline.(6)
6(5)Herbs terrestrial or growing in shallow water, not submersed, ± erect; stems 1.5--14 cm6  B. eradicatum    小水毛茛
+Herbs submerged; stems up to 40 cm.(7)
7(6)Stem usually sparsely puberulent; petiole sheath abaxially strigose5  B. trichophyllum    毛柄水毛茛
+Stem and petiole sheath glabrous3  B. divaricatum    歧裂水毛茛
   List of lower taxa