Flora of China
  FOC Vol.4 (1999)              | Family List  Fagaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Fagaceae  Dumortier
壳斗科   qiao dou ke
Authors:Huang Chengjiu (黄成就 Huang Ching-chieu) , Zhang Yongtian (张永田 Chang Yong-tian) ; Bruce Bartholo


Trees or rarely shrubs, monoecious, evergreen or deciduous. Stipules usually early deciduous. Leaves alternate, sometimes false-whorled in Cyclobalanopsis. Inflorescences unisexual or androgynous with female cupules at the base of an otherwise male inflorescence. Male inflorescences a pendulous head or erect or pendulous catkin, sometimes branched; flowers in dense cymules. Male flower: sepals 4-6(-9), scalelike, connate or distinct; petals absent; filaments filiform; anthers dorsifixed or versatile, opening by longitudinal slits; with or without a rudimentary pistil. Female inflorescences of 1-7 or more flowers subtended individually or collectively by a cupule formed from numerous fused bracts, arranged individually or in small groups along an axis or at base of an androgynous inflorescence or on a separate axis. Female flower: perianth 1-7 or more; pistil 1; ovary inferior, 3-6(-9)-loculed; style and carpels as many as locules; placentation axile; ovules 2 per locule. Fruit a nut. Seed usually solitary by abortion (but may be more than 1 in Castanea, Castanopsis, Fagus, and Formanodendron), without endosperm; embryo large.

Seven to 12 genera (depending on interpretation) and 900-1000 species: worldwide except for tropical and S Africa; seven genera and 294 species (163 endemic, at least three introduced) in China.

Many species are important timber trees. Nuts of Fagus, Castanea, and of most Castanopsis species are edible, and oil is extracted from nuts of Fagus. Nuts of most species of this family contain copious amounts of water soluble tannin. Members of the Fagaceae are the main element of both broad-leaved evergreen and mixed mesophytic forests from 500-3200 m.

Huang Chengchiu, Chang Yongtian, Hsu Yongchun & Jen Hsienwei. 1998. Fagaceae. In: Chun Woonyong & Huang Chengchiu, eds. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 22: 1-332.

1Male inflorescences heads, pendulous; female flowers (1 or)2; germination epigeal1  Fagus    水青冈属
+Male inflorescences elongated catkins, erect or pendulous; female flowers solitary or in spikes; germination hypogeal (epigeal in Formanodendron).(2)
2(1)Male inflorescences erect; anthers ca. 0.3 mm; stigma punctiform or a minute terminal pore.(3)
+Male inflorescences pendulous; anthers 0.5-1 mm; stigma capitate or dilated.(5)
3(2)Leaves deciduous; ovary 6(-9)-loculed2  Castanea    栗属
+Leaves evergreen; ovary 3(-6)-loculed.(4)
4(3)Cupules solitary on rachis, mostly bilaterally symmetric with abaxial and adaxial sides differing in shape and/or spines (± radially symmetric in C. calathiformis. C. cerebrina. C. uraiana, and C. sclerophylla)3  Castanopsis    锥栗属
+Cupules in cymes on rachis (often some cupules abort but still evident at base of developed cupules, except in L. fenzelianus, radially symmetric4  Lithocarpus    属
5(2)Cupules splitting into 3-5 valves; nuts angular, winged5  Formanodendron    三棱栎属
+Cupules indehiscent; nuts circular in cross section, wingless.(6)
6(5)Bracts of cupule not united, arranged spirally6  Quercus    栎属
+Bracts of cupule united, arranged in concentric rings7  Cyclobalanopsis    青冈属
   Lower Taxon
  • Castanea  Miller  栗属
  • Castanopsis  (D. Don) Spach  锥栗属
  • Cyclobalanopsis  Oersted  青冈属
  • Fagus  Linnaeus  水青冈属
  • Lithocarpus  Blume  属
  • Quercus  Linnaeus  栎属
  • Formanodendron  Nixon & Crepet  三棱栎属