Flora of China
  FOC Vol.13 (2007)              | Family List  Dipterocarpaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   2. Dipterocarpaceae  Blume
龙脑香科   long nao xiang ke
Authors:Li Xiwen (李锡文 Li Hsi-wen), Li Jie (李捷); Peter S. Ashton


Trees, evergreen or semievergreen, rarely deciduous in dry season. Xylem with aromatic resin in intercellular resin canals. Branchlets with stipular scars, sometimes annular. Leaves simple, alternate; stipules persistent or caducous, large or small; leaf blade with lateral veins pinnate, margin entire or sinuate-crenate. Inflorescences few- or many-flowered, terminal or axillary racemes or panicles; flowers usually sweetly scented; bracts usually fugacious and minute, rarely persistent and large. Inflorescences, calyces, petals, ovary, and other parts usually with stellate, squamate, fascicled or free-standing hairs. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, contorted. Calyx lobes 5, free or united at base, imbricate in bud if not united. Petals 5, adnate or connate at base. Stamens (10-)15 to many, free from or connate to petals; filaments usually dilated at base; anthers 2-celled, with 2 pollen sacs per cell (Chinese species); connective appendages aristate, filiform or stout. Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior, slightly immersed in torus, usually 3-loculed, each locule 2-, rarely many ovuled; ovules pendulous, lateral or anatropous. Fruit usually nutlike, sometimes capsular and 3-valved, 1(to many)-seeded, with persistent, variously accrescent calyx of which 2 or more lobes are usually developed into lorate wings. Seed exalbuminous; cotyledons fleshy, equal or unequal, applanate or ± folded or cerebriform, entire or laciniate; radicle directed toward hilum, usually included between cotyledons.

About 17 genera and 550 species: tropical Africa, Asia, and South America (in Asia, most species and genera in NW Borneo); five genera and 12 species (one endemic, one introduced) in China.

Tong Shaoquan & Tao Gouda. 1990. Dipterocarpaceae. In: Li Hsiwen, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 50(2): 113-131.

1Calyx in fruit with a distinct tube, free; leaf venation plicate.1  Dipterocarpus    龙脑香属
+Calyx in fruit without a tube; leaf venation not plicate(2)
2(1)Fruit sepals without basal thickening; leaf tertiary veins reticulate.5  Vatica    青梅属
+Flower sepals with basal thickening appressed to nut; leaf tertiary veins generally scalariform(3)
3(2)Ovary with distinct stylopodium; 2 calyx segments enlarged into wings or all calyx segments not enlarged into wings.2  Hopea    坡垒属
+Ovary without distinct stylopodium; 3 or all calyx segments enlarged into wings(4)
4(3)Fruit sepals subequal, imbricate; bark, crest of buttresses and bases of fissures prominently pale corky lenticellate.3  Parashorea    柳安属
+Fruit sepals unequal, 3 long, aliform; bark, crest of buttresses and bases of fissures scarcely lenticellate.4  Shorea    娑罗双属
   Lower Taxon
  • Dipterocarpus  C. F. Gaertner  龙脑香属
  • Hopea  Roxburgh  坡垒属
  • Parashorea  Kurz  柳安属
  • Shorea  Roxburgh ex C. F. Gaertner  娑罗双属
  • Vatica  Linnaeus  青梅属