Flora of China
  FOC Vol.4 (1999)              | Family List  Cupressaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Cupressaceae  Bartlett
柏科   bai ke
Authors:Fu Liguo (傅立国 Fu Li-kuo) , Yu Yongfu (于永福) ; Aljos Farjon


Trees or shrubs evergreen, monoecious or dioecious. Leaves decussate or in whorls of 3, scalelike and then often dimorphic with flattened facial leaves and keeled lateral leaves, or needlelike particularly in juvenile plants, often with an abaxial resin gland. Pollen cones terminal or axillary, solitary, maturing and shed annually; microsporophylls 6-16, decussate or whorled, each bearing (2 or)3-6(-9) pollen sacs; pollen wingless. Seed cones usually terminal, solitary, globose, ovoid, or oblong, dehiscent or indehiscent when mature in 1st or 2nd(or 3rd) year; cone scales developing after ovules originate in bract axils; bracts almost completely enveloped by cone scales, free only at apex; ovules 1-numerous per bract axil, erect; cone scales of mature cones 3-16, flat or peltate, woody, ± leathery, or succulent, 1-20-seeded. Seeds winged or not; wings derived from seed coat. Cotyledons usually 2, rarely 3-6. Germination epigeal.

Nineteen genera and ca. 125 species: worldwide; eight genera (one introduced) and 46 species (16 endemic, 13 introduced) in China.

In this account, the Cupressaceae is treated sensu stricto, i.e., excluding those taxa that are traditionally classified in Taxodiaceae. A merger of these two families is substantially supported by both morphological and molecular evidence (the Cupressaceae forms a clearcut monophyletic group derived from within the Taxodiaceae). No consistent characters separate them, while the homology of the reproductive organs, so fundamentally different from other conifer families, appears to unite them phylogenetically. However, the traditional family concept, as adopted in FRPS, has been maintained here for pragmatic reasons.

In FRPS, it was stated that Microbiota decussata Komarov had been said to grow in NE China, but that no material had been seen. This species is known with certainty only from the Sikhote Alin range of E Russia (Primorye), not far from the Chinese border, where it grows on mountains above the timberline. It resembles a spreading Juniperus but has minute, dehiscent, 1-seeded cones, and should be searched for in comparable areas in E Heilongjiang. One endemic species, Thuja sutchuenensis, has apparently become extinct in the wild in historic times. Sabina, which was recognized in FRPS as a distinct genus, is reduced to the synonymy of Juniperus in this account.

For the species that bear scalelike leaves, the branchlets described are those bearing such leaves.

Wang Wen-tsai, Cheng Wan-chün, Fu Li-kuo & Chu Cheng-de. 1978. Cupressaceae. In: Cheng Wan-chün & Fu Li-kuo, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 7: 313-398.

1Seed cones succulent, indehiscent or slightly dehiscent when mature; seeds wingless8  Juniperus    刺柏属
+Seed cones woody or leathery, dehiscent when mature; seeds usually winged, rarely wingless.(2)
2(1)Seed cones with flattened scales, maturing in 1st year.(5)
+Seed cones with peltate scales, maturing in 1st or 2nd year.(3)
3(2)Leaves 2-10 mm; seeds with 2 apical, unequal wings7  Fokienia    福建柏属
+Leaves up to 3 mm; seeds with lateral, narrow wings.(4)
4(3)Branchlets usually not arranged in a plane; seed cones maturing in 2nd year, fertile cone scales with 3-numerous seeds5  Cupressus    柏木属
+Branchlets arranged in a plane; seed cones maturing in 1st year, fertile cones scales with (1 or)2(-5) seeds6  Chamaecyparis    扁柏属
5(2)Lateral leaves 4-7 mm, with conspicuous, white stomatal bands abaxially; fertile cone scales each with 3-5 seeds1  Thujopsis    罗汉柏属
+Lateral leaves usually less than 4 mm, without conspicuous, white stomatal bands abaxially; fertile cone scales each with 1 or 2 seeds.(6)
6(5)Seed cones with only middle pair of scales fertile; seeds with 2 subapical, unequal wings4  Calocedrus    翠柏属
+Seed cones with middle 2 or 3 pairs of scales fertile; seeds with 2 lateral, narrow wings, a very narrow wing, or wingless.(7)
7(6)Seed cones with 8 or 10 thin scales; bracts almost completely enveloped by cone scales, free apex, a very short mucro; seeds with 2 lateral, narrow wings2  Thuja    崖柏属
+Seed cones with 6 or 8 thick scales; bracts partly enveloped by cone scales, free apex a long, recurved cusp; seeds wingless, rarely with a very narrow wing3  Platycladus    侧柏属
   Lower Taxon
  • Calocedrus  Kurz  翠柏属
  • Chamaecyparis  Spach  扁柏属
  • Cupressus  Linnaeus  柏木属
  • Fokienia  A. Henry & H. H. Thomas  福建柏属
  • Juniperus  Linnaeus  刺柏属
  • Platycladus  Spach  侧柏属
  • Thuja  Linnaeus  崖柏属
  • Thujopsis  Siebold & Zuccarini ex Endlicher  罗汉柏属