Flora of China
  FOC Vol.6 (2001)              | Family List  Ranunculaceae  PDF Anemone  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   24. Anemone  Linnaeus
银莲花属   yin lian hua shu
Authors:Wang Wencai; Svetlana N. Ziman, Bryan E. Dutton

Anemonastrum Holub; Anemonidium (Spach) Holub; Anemonoides Miller; Arsenjevia Starodubtzev; Eriocapitella Nakai.


Herbs perennial, rhizomatous. Leaves all basal, simple, palmate, ternate, or pinnate, sometimes reduced and scalelike, rarely absent. Scape erect or ascending; inflorescences cymose, sometimes umbellate. Bracts (2 or)3 or more, forming an involucre. Flowers actinomorphic. Sepals (4 or)5 or more, petaloid, white, yellow, blue, or purple. Petals absent. Stamens usually numerous, filiform or linear. Pistils several to numerous; ovary with 1 pendent ovule; style present or absent; stigma present or absent. Achenes ovoid or subglobose, rarely strongly bilaterally compressed.

About 150 species: widespread on all continents except Antarctica, mainly in N temperate regions; 53 species (22 endemic) in China.

Anemone nutantiflora W. T. Wang & L. Q. Li (Acta Bot. Yunnan. 8: 265. 1986) was described from W Yunnan (Lushui Xian: Pianma), where it grows in bamboo thickets at ca. 3200 m. The flowers are unknown, but the fruiting pedicels are pendent. The exact placement of this taxon is problematic because of the lack of floral data. There is no reason to include it into A. narcissiflora because that species always has glabrous achenes (sometimes with solitary hairs), whereas A. nutantiflora is reported to have villous achenes. Further collections are needed.

The identities of the taxa to which the following names apply could not be ascertained. All were described from China, but none of the types has been seen by the present authors: Anemone robustostylosa R. H. Miao (Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Sunyatseni 32(4): 56. 1993), described from Guangxi, and A. wilsonii Ulbrich (Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36(Beibl. 80): 2. 1905, not Hemsley, 1906), described from W Hubei as a hybrid between A. altaica and A. baicalensis .

1Scape dichotomously branched; involucral bracts paired; pistils and achenes glabrous1  A. dichotoma    二歧银莲花
+Scape usually unbranched; involucral bracts 3 or more; pistils and achenes glabrous or pubescent.(2)
2(1)Pistils and achenes covered with very short hairs (usually 0.1--0.2 mm).(3)
+Pistils and achenes glabrous or covered with longer hairs.(18)
3(2)Rhizome long or short; leaf blade ternate or 3-sect, petiole narrow or basally sheathing; involucral bracts sessile; pistils and achenes with distinct or obscure style and small or capitate stigma.(4)
+Rhizome long and thin or shortly nodulose; leaf blade ternate, petiole narrow; involucral bracts petiolate; pistils and achenes with distinct style and small, usually linear stigma.(8)
4(3)Scalelike leaves present; leaves developing after anthesis, petiole narrow, leaf blade distinct.(5)
+Scalelike leaves absent; leaves developing before anthesis, petiole basally sheathing, leaf blade distinct.(6)
5(4)Leaves 2--4; scapes 1--3, cyme few flowered; sepals 5--10 mm, with 7--9 vein anastomoses2  A. flaccida    鹅掌草
+Leaf solitary; scape solitary, cyme 1-flowered; sepals 7--15 mm, without vein anastomoses3  A. delavayi    滇川银莲花
6(4)Leaf blade 3-lobed4  A. erythrophylla    红叶银莲花
+Leaf blade 3-sect.(7)
7(6)Rhizome 8--10 mm in diam., with long, underground stolons; sepals 10--15 mm, with few vein anastomoses5  A. baicalensis    毛果银莲花
+Rhizome 5--7 mm in diam., with long, above-ground stolons; sepals 8--10 mm, without vein anastomoses6  A. prattii    川西银莲花
8(3)Leaves several, developing before anthesis, petiole gradually dilated at base.(9)
+Leaf solitary, developing after anthesis, petiole narrow.(13)
9(8)Scapes 2 or 3, few flowered; involucral bract petiole 1--3 cm; bracteoles present, small; sepals puberulent.(10)
+Scape solitary, 1-flowered; involucral bract petiole 0.5--1.5 cm; bracteoles absent; sepals subglabrous.(11)
10(9)Sepals 5--10 mm, without vein anastomoses; staminodes present between sepals and stamens; stigma linear7  A. stolonifera    匐枝银莲花
+Sepals 15--20 mm, with 5--15 vein anastomoses; staminodes present between stamens and carpels; stigma subcapitate8  A. davidii    西南银莲花
11(9)Involucral bract petiole 3--5 mm wide, basally sheathing and connate; ovary and achenes sparsely puberulent9  A. exigua    小银莲花
+Involucral bract petiole 1--2 mm wide, free; ovary and achenes glabrous.(12)
12(11)Involucral bract blade 3-sect; style nearly absent; stigma subglobose10  A. griffithii    三出银莲花
+Involucral bract blade 3-parted to 3-lobed; style distinct; stigma linear11  A. scabriuscula    糙叶银莲花
13(8)Rhizome monomorphic, branched, usually prostrate, long, 1--3 mm in diam.; sepals 5--8(--10).(14)
+Rhizome dimorphic: short and thick (nodulose), and long and thin; sepals 5--12.(16)
14(13)Involucral bract petiole 3--5 mm wide; leaf blade central leaflet 3-sect or 3-parted; sepals 5--8, glabrous, without vein anastomoses12  A. amurensis    黑水银莲花
+Involucral bract petiole 1--2 mm wide; leaf blade central leaflet 3-lobed; sepals ca. 5, pilose or subglabrous, with or without vein anastomoses.(15)
15(14)Basal and involucral bract blade with petiolules 2--5 mm; sepals 10--18 mm, pilose, with 5--9 vein anastomoses13  A. udensis    乌德银莲花
+Basal and involucral bract blade with petiolules 1--2 mm; sepals 7--14 mm, subglabrous, without vein anastomoses14  A. umbrosa    阴地银莲花
16(13)Sepals 5--7, bent, 5--7 mm, puberulent; cyme few flowered; involucral bract petiole 1--2 mm wide15  A. reflexa    反萼银莲花
+Sepals 8--12, spreading, 12--25 mm, glabrous; cyme 1-flowered; involucral bract petiole 1--5 mm wide.(17)
17(16)Basal and involucral bractlets 3-lobed or toothed; involucral bract petiole 5--12 × 1--2 mm, basally slightly dilated; sepals 12--20 mm, with 1--3 vein anastomoses16  A. raddeana    多被银莲花
+Basal and involucral bractlets deeply 3-lobed; involucral bract petiole 10--20 × 3--5 mm, base distinctly dilated; sepals 20--25 mm, with 3--5 vein anastomoses17  A. altaica    阿尔泰银莲花
18(2)Pistils and achenes glabrous; involucral bracts petiolate.(19)
+Pistils and achenes pubescent or glabrous; involucral bracts sessile or petiolate.(20)
19(18)Sepals 5--10, 6--14 × 3--8 mm18  A. rivularis    草玉梅
+Sepals 4, 5--7 × 3--4 mm19  A. filisecta    细萼银莲花
20(18)Involucral bracts petiolate; pistils and achenes lanate.(21)
+Involucral bracts sessile; pistils and achenes pubescent.(24)
21(20)Leaf blade ternate.(22)
+Leaf blade 3-lobed or 3-sect.(23)
22(21)Leaf blade abaxially strigose20  A. hupehensis    打破碗花花
+Leaf blade abaxially tomentose21  A. tomentosa    大火草
23(21)Leaf blade 3--5-lobed, 10--20 × 10--20 cm, abaxially velutinous; involucral bract blade 3--5-lobed22  A. vitifolia    野棉花
+Leaf blade 3-sect, 2--5 × 3--8 cm, abaxially puberulent; involucral bract blade 3-sect23  A. sylvestris    大花银莲花
24(20)Filaments linear or dilated; scape axillary; rhizome simple, erect, short.(33)
+Filaments filiform; scape terminal; rhizome branched, ascending or prostrate, short or long.(25)
25(24)Pistils and achenes lanate.(26)
+Pistils and achenes pubescent or glabrous.(29)
26(25)Rhizome simple, tuberous; involucral bracts palmately parted24  A. gortschakowii    块茎银莲花
+Rhizome branched, not tuberous, short; involucral bracts 3-parted or 3-lobed.(27)
27(26)Leaf petiole narrow, leaf blade abaxially subglabrous25  A. rupicola    岩生银莲花
+Leaf petiole basally sheathing, leaf blade abaxially puberulent or villous.(28)
28(27)Leaf blade 3-sect; involucral bract blade 3-parted26  A. laceratoincisa    锐裂银莲花
+Leaf blade 3-parted; involucral bract blade 3-lobed27  A. tibetica    西藏银莲花
29(25)Pistils and achenes densely puberulent, not ribbed; style shortly subulate-terete; rhizome prostrate, long28  A. brevistyla    短柱银莲花
+Pistils and achenes glabrous, 1-ribbed; style not subulate; rhizome oblique or ascending, short.(30)
30(29)Leaf blade 3--5-lobed; involucral bract blade 3-lobed or entire.(31)
+Leaf blade 3-parted or 3-cleft; involucral bract blade entire.(32)
31(30)Leaf blade 3--8 × 2--8 cm; scape 15--40 cm; sepals white, 5--10 × 2--6 mm, with 3--5 vein anastomoses29  A. begoniifolia    卵叶银莲花
+Leaf blade 10--15 × 10--15 cm; scape 40--60 cm; sepals purple, 15--20 × 8--14 mm, with more than 10 vein anastomoses30  A. hokouensis    河口银莲花
32(30)Leaf petiole 1--2 mm wide; sepals pinkish, ca. 10 × 7 mm31  A. orthocarpa    直果银莲花
+Leaf petiole basally sheathing; sepals white, 4--5 × 2--3 mm32  A. howellii    拟卵叶银莲花
33(24)Achene body obovoid, compressed, winged, glabrous; leaf blade basally cordate or rarely subtruncate; involucral bract blade similar to that of leaves; sepal vein anastomoses usually 3--5 or rarely absent.(34)
+Achene body ovoid, sometimes slightly compressed, densely pubescent (rarely subglabrous); leaf blade basally attenuate or cordate; involucral bract blade distinctly smaller than that of leaves; sepal vein anastomoses usually absent.(42)
34(33)Inflorescence compoundly branched; leaf blade 3-parted or 3-lobed.(35)
+Inflorescence usually simply umbellate or flower solitary; leaf blade usually 3-sect.(37)
35(34)Leaf blade 3-lobed, leathery; sepals 4, 12--20 × 6--12 mm, glabrous, with vein anastomoses; achene body 8--12 mm33  A. tetrasepala    复伞银莲花
+Leaf blade 3-parted, herbaceous; sepals 5, varying in size, puberulent or glabrous, without vein anastomoses; achene body smaller.(36)
36(35)Sepals 12--20 × 6--12 mm, base cuneate, apex rounded; achene body 6--9 mm, wing 1.2--1.3 mm wide, style 1--1.5 mm34  A. elongata    加长银莲花
+Sepals 7--10 × 4--6 mm, base rounded, apex acute; achene body 5--6 mm, wing 0.5--0.6 mm wide, style 0.6--1 mm35  A. shikokiana    山东银莲花
37(34)Sepals 15--25 mm, glabrous; stem 70--120 cm; leaf blade orbicular-ovate36  A. robusta    粗壮银莲花
+Sepals smaller, ± pubescent; stem less than 70 cm; leaf blade varying in shape.(38)
38(37)Leaf blade orbicular, with subsessile segments; involucral bracts larger than leaves37  A. cathayensis    银莲花
+Leaf blade differently shaped; involucral bracts smaller than leaves.(39)
39(38)Sepals 5--10, blue or white.(40)
+Sepals 5, white or red (rarely pink).(41)
40(39)Stem usually solitary, erect; leaf blade usually orbicular-reniform, wider than long, with central segment similar to lateral ones; sepals white or yellowish, pubescent or glabrous38  A. narcissiflora    水仙银莲花
+Stems 3--5, ascending; leaf blade usually ovate, longer than wide, with central segment distinctly larger than lateral ones; sepals usually blue or pink, densely pubescent39  A. demissa    展毛银莲花
41(39)Sepals white, 7--10 × 5--6 mm; leaf blade ovate, longer than wide40  A. taipaiensis    太白银莲花
+Sepals red (rarely pink), 15--25 × 10--15 mm; leaf blade orbicular-rhombic, wider than long41  A. smithiana    红萼银莲花
42(33)Pistils and achenes ellipsoid, compressed, with distinct, lateral ribs, usually glabrous.(43)
+Pistils and achenes ovoid, not compressed (rarely sometimes slightly compressed), without lateral ribs, ± densely pubescent.(45)
43(42)Leaf blade pinnatifid, longer than wide; pistil and achene style bent basally42  A. imbricata    叠裂银莲花
+Leaf blade twice 3-sect, wider than long; pistil and achene style straight or curved apically.(44)
44(43)Leaves subglabrous; sepals 5--10 × 3--6 mm, glabrous or sparsely puberulent; filaments lanceolate; pistil and achene style straight or slightly curved43  A. rupestris    湿地银莲花
+Leaves sparsely puberulent or subglabrous; sepals 9--14 × 5--9 mm, usually puberulent; filaments linear; pistil and achene style apically thickened and uncinate44  A. polycarpa    多果银莲花
45(42)Leaf blade usually longer than wide, base attenuate or cuneate.(46)
+Leaf blade usually wider than long, base cordate or rounded.(49)
46(45)Leaf blade basally attenuate; cyme 1--3-flowered; sepal vein anastomoses sometimes present.(47)
+Leaf blade basally truncate; cyme 1-flowered; sepal vein anastomoses absent.(48)
47(46)Leaf blade 3-parted, 3-cleft, or 3-lobed, broadly lanceolate or ovate; involucral bract blade 3-lobed or 3-dentate; cyme 1--3-flowered; filaments ovate-lanceolate45  A. trullifolia    匙叶银莲花
+Leaf blade usually undivided, oblong-linear to oblanceolate; involucral bract blade undivided; cyme 1-flowered; filaments linear46  A. coelestina    蓝匙叶银莲花
48(46)Leaf blade 3-parted or 3-lobed; involucral bract blade 3-lobed; sepals 8--16 × 8--10 mm47  A. yulongshanica    玉龙山银莲花
+Leaf blade undivided or obscurely 3-lobed; involucral bract blade entire or 3-dentate; sepals 5--10 × 5--8 mm48  A. subindivisa    微裂银莲花
49(45)Leaf petiole 1--2 mm wide; involucral bract blade 3-lobed to 3-parted; cyme usually few flowered; sepals pilose; staminodes absent49  A. obtusiloba    钝裂银莲花
+Leaf petiole more than 2 mm wide; involucral bract blade undivided or sometimes 3-lobed; cyme 1-flowered; sepals glabrous or sparsely puberulent; staminodes sometimes present.(50)
50(49)Leaf blade central segment 3-sect or 3-parted, with distinct segments (leaf blade appearing pinnatifid), petiole 2--5 cm50  A. subpinnata    近羽裂银莲花
+Leaf blade central segment 3-lobed or undivided, petiole 5--20 cm.(51)
51(50)Leaf blade orbicular-ovate, all segments subsessile; filaments ovate51  A. patula    天全银莲花
+Leaf blade ovate, central segment distinctly petiolulate; filaments linear-lanceolate.(52)
52(51)Leaf blade central segment petiolule 1--2 mm; sepals 10--20 × 6--12 mm; filaments linear, 0.3--0.5 mm wide52  A. rockii    岷山银莲花
+Leaf blade central segment petiolule 5--10 mm; sepals 5--12 × 4--9 mm; filaments lanceolate, 0.5--1.0 mm wide53  A. geum    路边青银莲花
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