foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.8 (2001)              | Family List  Brassicaceae  PDF     |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Brassicaceae  Burnett
十字花科   shi zi hua ke
  
Authors:Zhou Taiyan (Cheo Tai-yien), Lu Lianli (Lou Lian-li), Yang Guang; Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz2

  

Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial, sometimes subshrubs or shrubs, with a pungent, watery juice. Eglandular trichomes unicellular, simple, stalked or sessile, 2- to many forked, stellate, dendritic, or malpighiaceous (medifixed, bifid, appressed), rarely peltate and scalelike; glandular trichomes multicellular, with uniseriate or multiseriate stalk. Stems erect, ascending, or prostrate, sometimes absent. Leaves exstipulate, simple, entire or variously pinnately dissected, rarely trifoliolate or pinnately, palmately, or bipinnately compound; basal leaf rosette present or absent; cauline leaves almost always alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, petiolate or sessile, sometimes absent. Inflorescence bracteate or ebracteate racemes, corymbs, or panicles, sometimes flowers solitary on long pedicels originating from axils of rosette leaves. Flowers hypogynous, mostly actinomorphic. Sepals 4, in 2 decussate pairs, free or rarely united, not saccate or lateral (inner) pair saccate. Petals 4, alternate with sepals, arranged in the form of a cross (cruciform; hence the earlier family name Cruciferae), rarely rudimentary or absent. Stamens 6, in 2 whorls, tetradynamous (lateral (outer) pair shorter than median (inner) 2 pairs), rarely equal or in 3 pairs of unequal length, sometimes stamens 2 or 4, very rarely 8-24; filaments slender, winged, or appendaged, median pairs free or rarely united; anthers dithecal, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Pollen grains 3-colpate, trinucleate. Nectar glands receptacular, highly diversified in number, shape, size, and disposition around base of filaments, always present opposite bases of lateral filaments, median glands present or absent. Pistil 2-carpelled; ovary superior, sessile or borne on a distinct gynophore, mostly 2-locular and with a false septum connecting 2 placentae; placentation parietal, rarely apical; ovules anatropous or campylotropous, bitegmic, 1 to many per locule. Fruit typically a 2-valved capsule, generally termed silique (siliqua) when length 3 × or more than width, or silicle (silicula) when length less than 3 × width, dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes schizocarpic, nutletlike, lomentaceous, or samaroid, segmented or not, terete, angled, or flattened parallel to septum (latiseptate) or at a right angle to septum (angustiseptate); valves 2(or 3-6); replum (persistent placenta) rounded, rarely flattened or winged; septum complete, perforated, reduced to a rim, or lacking; style 1, distinct, obsolete, or absent; stigma capitate or conical, entire or 2-lobed, sometimes lobes decurrent and free or connate. Seeds without endosperm, uniseriately or biseriately arranged in each locule, aseriate when 1, winged or wingless, mucilaginous or not when wetted; cotyledons incumbent (embryo notorrhizal: radicle lying along back of 1 cotyledon), accumbent (embryo pleurorrhizal: radicle applied to margins of both cotyledons), or conduplicate (embryo orthoplocal: cotyledons folded longitudinally around radicle), rarely spirally coiled (embryo spirolobal). Germination epigeal.

About 330 genera and 3500 species: all continents except Antarctica, mainly in temperate areas, with highest diversity in Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean, and W North American regions; 102 genera (eight endemic) and 412 species (115 endemic) in China.

Because of lack of a comprehensive classification based on phylogenetic relationships among genera, and in order to facilitate direct comparison between the accounts in FOC and FRPS, the sequence of genera follows Schulz (Nat. Pflanzenfam. 17b: 227-658. 1936). However, it should be emphasized that his system is largely artificial because he placed closely related genera in different tribes and remotely related genera in the same tribe. For example, Arabis, Aubrieta, Draba, and Macropodium, which are very closely related on the basis of recent molecular studies, were placed by Schulz in four different tribes, whereas the unrelated Capsella, Lepidium, and Thlaspi were placed in one tribe. The delimitation of genera is often difficult, and mature fruits are needed for reliable identification.

The Brassicaceae include many important crop plants that are grown as vegetables (Brassica, Nasturtium, Raphanus) and sources of vegetable oils (Brassica) and condiments (Armoracia, Brassica, Eutrema, Sinapis). Oils of Brassica probably rank first in terms of tonnage of the world's production of edible oils. The family includes many ornamentals in the genera Erysimum, Iberis Linnaeus, Lobularia, Malcolmia, and Matthiola. Of these, only Lobularia maritima has become naturalized in China. The family also includes more than 120 species of weeds. Arabidopsis thaliana, which is naturalized in China, has become the model organism in many fields of experimental biology.

The delimitation of genera in the Brassicaceae is often difficult because of the frequent independent evolution of what appear to be similar character states, the variability of a given character in one genus and its fixture in another, and the inadequate sampling of material by most authors. Fruit characters are essential in the identification of genera. However, a key emphasizing flowering material is given in addition to the one emphasizing fruit. The most reliable determination of genera can be achieved when the material has both fruit and flowers and when both keys are successfully used to reach the same genus.

The types of cotyledonary position, which in reality is the position of the radicle in relation to the cotyledons (e.g., radicle accumbent, incumbent, or conduplicate, though radicle referred to as "cotyledon" throughout) are important in the separation of many genera, and a cross section of the seed provides the easiest and simplest way of determining that position. The exact number of ovules per ovary can easily be determined from the fruit because aborted ovules persist through fruit dehiscence. However, it is more laborious to determine the ovule number from pistils and young fruit.

Cheo Tai-yien, Guo Rong-lin, Lan Young-zhen, Lou Lian-li, Kuan Ke-chien & An Zheng-xi. 1987. Cruciferae. In: Cheo Tai-yien, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 33: 1-483.

Leads marked with a "double asterisk" (**) indicate that mature fruits are necessary for the identification of genera in the subordinate couplet(s).

  
1(0)Flowers on solitary pedicels originating from basal rosette.(2)
+Flowers in racemes, corymbs, or panicles.(13)
   
2(1)Stigma conical, with prominent, decurrent, connivent lobes; lateral sepals strongly saccate.(3)
+Stigma capitate, entire, if 2-lobed (Desideria) then lobes neither decurrent not connivent; lateral sepals not saccate.(4)
   
3(2)Plants with glandular trichomes; leaves pinnatisect or pinnatipartite68  Chorispora    离子芥属
+Plants eglandular; leaves entire or dentate72  Leiospora    光籽芥属
   
4(3)Stigma distinctly 2-lobed; leaves subapically 3-9-toothed57  Desideria    扇叶芥属
+Stigma entire; leaves entire or laterally toothed, if subapically toothed then sepals united or petals yellow.(5)
   
5(4)Plants with branched trichomes.(6)
+Plants glabrous or with simple trichomes.(8)
   
6(5)Annuals with submalpighiaceous trichomes; petals yellow; filaments of median stamens broadly winged62  Lepidostemon    鳞蕊芥属
+Perennials without submalpighiaceous trichomes; petals white, pink, or purple; filaments of median stamens slender.(7)
   
7(6)Leaves entire; petals 3-4 mm; sepals free; dendritic trichomes absent86  Baimashania    白马芥属
+Leaves dentate; petals 6-13 mm; sepals united; dendritic trichomes present84  Pycnoplinthopsis    假簇芥属
   
8(4)Sepals united.(9)
+Sepals free.(10)
   
9(8)Petioles ciliate; calyx lobes sparsely pilose; pedicels less than 1 cm64  Solms-laubachia    丛菔属
+Petioles and calyx lobes glabrous; pedicels 1.5-4 cm85  Pycnoplinthus    簇芥属
   
10(9)Leaf margin with distinct, mucronate callosities at vein endings47  Neomartinella    堇叶芥属
+Leaf margin without mucronate callosities.(11)
   
11(10)Leaves palmately veined; ovary subdidymous, 2-ovuled; nectar glands 417  Megadenia    双果荠属
+Leaves pinnately veined; ovary not didymous, more than 2-ovuled; nectar glands 2 and lateral, or confluent and subtending bases of all stamens.(12)
   
12(11)Petals 1-2.5 cm; leaves entire; nectar glands 2, lateral64  Solms-laubachia    丛菔属
+Petals usually less than 1 cm (rarely to 1.5 cm in P. scapiflorum subsp. robustum); leaves dentate, if entire then sepals to 3 mm; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all stamens44  Pegaeophyton    单花荠属
   
13(8)Plants glabrous or with simple trichomes only.(14)
+Plants with branched trichomes.(90)
   
14(13)Stamens (8-)12-16(-24)16  Megacarpaea    高河菜属
+Stamens 2, 4, or 6.(15)
   
15(14)Stamens 2.(16)
+Stamens 6 or rarely 4.(17)
   
16(13)Fruit not didymous; lateral racemes absent10  Lepidium    独行菜属
+Fruit didymous even when immature; lateral racemes present, leaf-opposed11  Coronopus    臭荠属
   
17(16)Petals absent.(18)
+Petals present.(20)
   
18(17)Ovules 1 or 2 per ovary; pistil or fruit as long as wide10  Lepidium    独行菜属
+Ovules more than 16 per ovary; pistil or fruit considerably longer than broad.(19)
   
19(16)Plants glaucous; rachis of raceme flexuous; leaves linear to linear-oblanceolate97  Thellungiella    盐芥属
+Plants not glaucous; rachis of raceme straight; leaves differently shaped60  Rorippa    蔊菜属
   
20(19)Filaments of median stamens united63  Dontostemon    花旗杆属
+Filaments of median stamens free.(21)
   
21(3)Plants with glandular trichomes.(22)
+Plants without glandular trichomes.(29)
   
22(21)Stigma entire or subentire; lateral sepals not saccate.(23)
+Stigma strongly 2-lobed, capitate, conical, or linear; lateral sepals strongly saccate.(24)
   
23(22)Leaves entire; ovary globose; pedicels articulate at base33  Litwinowia    脱喙荠属
+Leaves dentate, serrate, or pinnatifid; ovary linear; pedicels not articulate at base63  Dontostemon    花旗杆属
   
24(22)Stigma capitate; lobes neither connivent nor decurrent.(25)
+Stigma conical or linear; lobes strongly decurrent and connivent.(26)
   
25(21)Petals oblanceolate, 0.7-1 cm; style usually more than 2 mm69  Diptychocarpus    异果芥属
+Petals obovate, 1.1-2.5 mm; style less than 2 mm76  Clausia    香芥属
   
26(25)Petals yellow, if purple then to 1 cm; anthers oblong, 0.5-1.5(-2) mm68  Chorispora    离子芥属
+Petals purple; anthers linear or rarely oblong-linear, (2.5-)3-5 mm.(27)
   
27(26)Perennials; flowering stems leafless70  Parrya    条果芥属
+Annuals or biennials; flowering stems leafy.(28)
   
28(27)Petals obovate, 5-10 mm wide; glandular trichomes on few-celled, uniseriate stalks75  Hesperis    香花芥属
+Petals linear or linear-oblanceolate, 1.5-3 mm wide; glandular trichomes on multicellular, multiseriate stalks77  Pseudoclausia    假香芥属
   
29(28)Stigma conical, with decurrent, connivent lobes.(30)
+Stigma capitate, entire, if lobed then lobes neither connivent nor decurrent (rarely slightly decurrent in Eruca and Orychophragmus).(35)
   
30(26)Annuals or biennials, rarely rhizomatous perennials; flowering stems several to many leaved; basal leaves not rosulate.(31)
+Perennials with a distinct caudex; flowering stems leafless, rarely 1- or 2-leaved; basal leaves rosulate.(33)
   
31(30)Terminal lobe of basal and lowermost cauline leaves about same size as lateral lobes; filaments of median stamens flattened, sometimes 1-toothed63  Dontostemon    花旗杆属
+Terminal lobe of basal and lowermost cauline leaves considerably larger than lateral lobes, sometimes lateral lobes absent; filaments of median stamens slender, not toothed.(32)
   
32(31)Petals yellow with dark brown or purple veins; anthers obtuse; uppermost leaves subsessile5  Eruca    芝麻菜属
+Petals white, lavender, or purple, without darker veins; anthers apiculate; uppermost cauline leaves petiolate, sometimes also auriculate8  Orychophragmus    诸葛菜属
   
33(30)Style absent; leaf blade about as long as broad72  Leiospora    光籽芥属
+Style distinct; leaf blade much longer than broad.(34)
   
34(33)Ovaries and fruit torulose; petal claws to 8 mm; seeds wingless68  Chorispora    离子芥属
+Ovaries and fruit not torulose; petals claws longer; seeds winged even at early stages of development70  Parrya    条果芥属
   
35(34)Lateral pair of sepals slightly to strongly saccate.(36)
+Lateral pair of sepals not saccate.(44)
   
36(25)Sepals united; developing and mature fruit winged and/or spiny15  Pugionium    沙芥属
+Sepals free; fruit wingless, not spiny.(37)
   
37(36)Petals yellow.(38)
+Petals purple, lavender, pink, or white.(41)
   
38(37)Cauline leaves sessile, auriculate or amplexicaul; petals without darker colored veins.(39)
+At least some cauline leaves petiolate, not auriculate or amplexicaul; petals with darker colored veins.(40)
   
39(37)Cauline leaves entire; petals (7-)9-30 mm2  Brassica    芸苔属
+Cauline leaves coarsely dentate, pinnatifid, or pinnatisect; petals 3-6(-7) mm46  Barbarea    山芥属
   
40(39)Stigma 2-lobed, lobes slightly decurrent; pistil sessile5  Eruca    芝麻菜属
+Stigma entire; pistil short stipitate on a sterile lower segment6  Raphanus    萝卜属
   
41(36)Pedicels articulate at base; ovaries and young fruit ovoid to oblong.(42)
+Pedicels not articulate at base; ovaries and young fruit linear.(43)
   
42(41)Cauline leaves entire or rarely dentate, auriculate; style obsolete82  Goldbachia    四棱荠属
+Cauline leaves dentate, sinuate, or pinnately lobed, not auriculate; style prominent30  Spirorhynchus    螺果荠属
   
43(42)Stigma entire; pistil short stipitate on a sterile lower segment6  Raphanus    萝卜属
+Stigma 2-lobed, lobes slightly decurrent; pistil sessile8  Orychophragmus    诸葛菜属
   
44(42)Petals yellow.(45)
+Petals purple, lavender, pink, or white.(55)
   
45(41)Cauline leaves sessile, auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul.(46)
+Cauline leaves petiolate, if sessile then not auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul.(50)
   
46(45)Leaves strongly dimorphic, basal and lowermost cauline ones 2- or 3- pinnatifid or -pinnatisect, uppermost entire10  Lepidium    独行菜属
+Leaves usually monomorphic, undivided, if divided than basal and lowermost cauline ones not as above.(47)
   
47(46)At least some cauline leaves coarsely dentate to pinnately divided; ovaries and young fruit with numerous ovules60  Rorippa    蔊菜属
+Cauline leaves entire; ovaries and young fruit 1(or 2)-ovuled.**(48)
   
48(45)Racemes few, not grouped in panicles; young or mature fruit navicular, with incurved margins31  Tauscheria    舟果荠属
+Racemes often many, grouped in panicles; fruit flat, not navicular.(49)
   
49(48)Fruit margin thickened; petals to 2 mm14  Pachypterygium    厚壁荠属
+Fruit margin not thickened; petals more than 2 mm, if shorter (Isatis minima) then pistils and developing fruit distinctly longer than broad13  Isatis    菘蓝属
   
50(49)Cespitose perennials (2-)3-12(-17) cm tall; ovaries and young fruit ovoid96  Braya    肉叶荠属
+Annuals or biennials, rarely noncespitose perennials, often much taller; ovaries and young fruit linear.(51)
   
51(49)Stigma entire.(52)
+Stigma 2-lobed.(53)
   
52(51)Stems often leafless, rarely few leaved; nectar glands 4, separated4  Diplotaxis    二行芥属
+Stems leafy; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments60  Rorippa    蔊菜属
   
53(51)Nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments; seeds oblong; cotyledons incumbent90  Sisymbrium    大蒜芥属
+Nectar glands 4, not confluent; seeds globose; cotyledons conduplicate.**(54)
   
54(53)Fruit valves obscurely veined or with a prominent midvein2  Brassica    芸苔属
+Fruit valves with 3-7, prominent longitudinal veins3  Sinapis    白芥属
   
55(53)Racemes bracteate throughout or along proximal half.(56)
+Racemes ebracteate.(66)
   
56(55)Leaves and bracts palmately veined or trifoliolate.(57)
+Leaves and bracts pinnately veined.(61)
   
57(56)Bracts and/or uppermost leaves trifoliolate26  Yinshania    阴山荠属
+Bracts and uppermost leaves simple.(58)
   
58(57)Petals purple or rarely pink; pedicels puberulent adaxially along entire length28  Lignariella    弯梗芥属
+Petals white; pedicels glabrous.(59)
   
59(1)Filaments of median stamens strongly flattened, 1-toothed; stigma 2-lobed25  Platycraspedum    宽框荠属
+Filaments of median stamens slender, toothless; stigma entire.(60)
   
60(59)Leaf margin with mucronate callosities at vein endings; ovules 6-10 per ovary89  Eutrema    山(艹俞)菜属
+Leaf margin without mucronate callosities; ovules more than 14 per ovary43  Cardamine    碎米荠属
   
61(60)Filaments of median stamens winged, toothed, or appendaged.(62)
+Filaments of median stamens slender, not toothed or appendaged.(63)
   
62(61)Petals obtuse; ca. 2.5 mm wide; ovules ca. 8 per ovary62  Lepidostemon    鳞蕊芥属
+Petals emarginate, 4-5.5 mm wide; ovules 2 per ovary22  Hemilophia    半脊荠属
   
63(62)Plants with a distinct caudex; stigma 2-lobed.(64)
+Plants with a fleshy, obconical to fusiform taproot; stigma entire.(65)
   
64(63)Leaves entire; ovules 4-8 per ovary; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments45  Phaeonychium    藏芥属
+Leaves dentate; ovules 14-26 per ovary; nectar glands 2, lateral57  Desideria    扇叶芥属
   
65(63)Cauline leaves sessile; racemes not elongated in fruit; anthers distinctly apiculate at apex24  Dilophia    双脊荠属
+Cauline leaves petiolate; racemes often elongated in fruit; anthers obtuse at apex88  Taphrospermum    沟子荠属
   
66(65)Some or all leaves trifoliolate, pinnately compound, or pinnatisect.(67)
+Leaves simple, entire, dentate, lyrate, or rarely pinnatifid.(70)
   
67(66)Petals purple or pink; ovaries and fruit didymous; ovules 2 per ovary; taproot thick, 1-4 cm in diam.16  Megacarpaea    高河菜属
+Petals white (purple in some Cardamine); ovaries and fruit not didymous; ovules more than 2 per ovary (except some Yinshania); taproot almost always not fleshy.(68)
   
68(67)Sepals, petals, and stamens spreading; petals 1.5-3.5(-4) mm; ovules often 10 or less per ovary26  Yinshania    阴山荠属
+Sepals, petals, and stamens usually erect to ascending; petals more than 4 mm (except in weedy spp. of Cardamine); ovules more than 14 per ovary.**(69)
   
69(68)Fruit latiseptate, valves coiled during dehiscence; seeds uniseriate43  Cardamine    碎米荠属
+Fruit terete, valves not coiled during dehiscence; seeds (ours) biseriate61  Nasturtium    豆瓣菜属
   
70(69)Ovules 2 per ovary.(71)
+Ovules 4 or more per ovary.(76)
   
71(68)Filaments of median stamens with a lateral tooth 0.5-1 mm; pistil 2-segmented7  Crambe    两节荠属
+Filaments of median stamens toothless; pistil unsegmented.(72)
   
72(71)Leaves palmately veined89  Eutrema    山(艹俞)菜属
+Leaves pinnately veined.(73)
   
73(72)Nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments.(74)
+Nectar glands 4 or 6, distinct.**(75)
   
74(72)Racemes many, grouped in corymbose panicles; plants often densely pubescent12  Cardaria    群心菜属
+Racemes few, not grouped in panicles; plants glabrous or sparsely pilose35  Bunias    匙荠属
   
75(74)Fruit 4-angled; caudex thick, with petiolar remains of previous years; racemes grouped in panicles27  Stroganowia    革叶荠属
+Fruit flat; caudex often thin, with or without petiolar remains of previous years; racemes simple, rarely grouped in corymbose panicles10  Lepidium    独行菜属
   
76(75)Leaves palmately veined.(77)
+Leaves pinnately veined.(80)
   
77(67)Leaf margin with apiculate callosities at vein endings, if without then ovules 10 or less.(78)
+Leaf margin without apiculate callosities at vein endings.(79)
   
78(77)Pistil linear; ovules (20-)30-40 per ovary47  Neomartinella    堇叶芥属
+Pistil oblong; ovules 4-10 per ovary89  Eutrema    山(艹俞)菜属
   
79(78)Perennials; fruit flattened; seeds reticulate43  Cardamine    碎米荠属
+Biennials; fruit quadrangular-subterete; seeds longitudinally striate87  Alliaria    葱芥属
   
80(79)Cauline leaves auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul at base, if not (Thellungiella parvula) then petals to 1.5 mm and racemes flexuous.(81)
+Cauline leaves not auriculate or sagittate, or absent.(84)
   
81(79)Petals purple, 10-17 mm; perennials with stout rhizomes43  Cardamine    碎米荠属
+Petals white, lavender, pink, or rarely purple, 1.5-7 mm; annuals, biennials, or perennials with a slender caudex.(82)
   
82(81)Plants not glaucous; pistil and young fruit angustiseptate18  Thlaspi    菥(艹冥)属
+Plants glaucous; pistil and young fruit terete or latiseptate.(83)
   
83(78)Petals 5-7 mm, with purple veins extending to apex; leaves deeply cordate-amplexicaul9  Conringia    线果芥属
+Petals 1.5-3 mm, without purple veins; leaves auriculate or not, rarely deeply sagittate-amplexicaul97  Thellungiella    盐芥属
   
84(83)Cauline leaves absent or 1 or 2, entire.(85)
+Cauline leaves several, dentate, crenate, or pinnatifid.(87)
   
85(84)Cauline leaves absent, basal ones setose ciliate; stigma 2-lobed; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all stamens45  Phaeonychium    藏芥属
+Cauline leaves 1 or 2, rarely absent, basal ones pilose or crisped pubescent; stigma entire; nectar glands 2 or 4, lateral.(86)
   
86(85)Petals 10-17 mm; fruit flat, prominently veined, 10-30 mm64  Solms-laubachia    丛菔属
+Petals 4-6 mm; fruit terete, not veined, 4-7 mm96  Braya    肉叶荠属
   
87(86)Racemes in large corymbose panicles; fruit angustiseptate; leaves polymorphic on same plant42  Armoracia    辣根属
+Racemes simple; fruit latiseptate; leaves not polymorphic.(88)
   
88(84)Stigma 2-lobed; petals purple, 10-15 mm57  Desideria    扇叶芥属
+Stigma entire; petals white, 2.5-8(-10) mm.**(89)
   
89(88)Anthers obtuse at apex; fruit with a prominent midvein and marginal veins; cotyledons accumbent49  Sisymbriopsis    假蒜芥属
+Anthers apiculate at apex; fruit obscurely veined or only with a distinct midvein; cotyledons incumbent56  Christolea    高原芥属
   
90(89)Petal claws crisped pilose; filaments of median stamens united at base95  Synstemon    连蕊芥属
+Petal claws glabrous or petals absent; filaments of median stamens free, if united then stigma strongly 2-lobed.(91)
   
91(90)Cauline leaves 1-3-pinnatisect, narrowly trifid, or 3-5-foliolate.(92)
+Cauline leaves undivided, lyrate, or pinnatifid.(100)
   
92(83)Pulvinate perennials with thick caudices covered with petiolar remains of previous years101  Smelowskia    芹叶荠属
+Annuals, biennials, or non-pulvinate perennials, without petiolar remains of previous years.(93)
   
93(92)Flowers yellow.(94)
+Flowers white, pink, or lavender.(95)
   
94(93)Pistil and fruit linear; ovules 20-40 per ovary; raceme ebracteate99  Descurainia    播娘蒿属
+Pistil and fruit obovoid to ellipsoid; ovules 16 or less per ovary; raceme bracteate, if not then ovules 4-8 per ovary100  Sophiopsis    羽裂叶荠属
   
95(94)Racemes bracteate throughout or at least along proximal half.(96)
+Racemes ebracteate.(97)
   
96(94)Pistil oblong to suborbicular; fruit angustiseptate20  Hedinia    藏荠属
+Pistil linear; fruit terete102  Sinosophiopsis    华羽芥属
   
97(96)Stigma conical, 2-lobed; filaments of median stamens united73  Leptaleum    丝叶芥属
+Stigma capitate, entire; filaments of median stamens free.(98)
   
98(93)Racemes grouped in panicles; ovary and fruit ellipsoid26  Yinshania    阴山荠属
+Racemes simple; ovary and fruit linear.(99)
   
99(98)Rachis of raceme flexuous; ovules 6-20 per ovary; trichomes exclusively dendritic; uppermost leaves narrowly trifid91  Ianhedgea    葶芥属
+Rachis of raceme straight; ovules 20-40 per ovary; trichomes simple and forked; uppermost cauline leaves pinnatisect102  Sinosophiopsis    华羽芥属
   
100(99)Plants exclusively or at least uppermost parts with malpighiaceous trichomes.(101)
+Plants without malpighiaceous trichomes.(106)
   
101(100)Flowers yellow.(102)
+Flowers white, lavender, pink, or purple.(103)
   
102(101)Pistil and fruit oblong; seeds biseriate; cotyledons accumbent41  Draba    葶苈属
+Pistil and fruit linear; seeds uniseriate; cotyledons incumbent83  Erysimum    糖芥属
   
103(101)Raceme bracteate throughout; rhizomatous perennials; filaments of median stamens inflated basally22  Hemilophia    半脊荠属
+Raceme ebracteate; annuals; filaments of median stamens not inflated basally.(104)
   
104(103)At least lowermost parts with simple and stalked forked trichomes; fruit indehiscent, breaking at maturity into 1-seeded segments; stigma 2-lobed; seeds 2.5-3.5 mm79  Cryptospora    隐子芥属
+Trichomes exclusively malpighiaceous; fruit dehiscent; stigma entire; seeds 0.7-1.4(-2) mm.(105)
   
105(104)Pistil and fruit lenticular, ovate, or suborbicular; anthers of median stamens 2-lobed; ovules 2 per ovary; raceme many flowered38  Lobularia    香雪球属
+Pistil and fruit linear; anthers of median stamens 1-lobed; ovules 10-25 per ovary; raceme 2-5-flowered78  Atelanthera    异药芥属
   
106(100)Sepals united57  Desideria    扇叶芥属
+Sepals free.(107)
   
107(106)Cauline leaves auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul.(108)
+Cauline leaves petiolate, tapered to a petiolelike base, or sessile but not auriculate or sagittate, sometimes absent and flowering stems leafless.(116)
   
108(107)Ovary and fruit oblong to ovate; seeds biseriate41  Draba    葶苈属
+Ovary and fruit of other shapes; seeds uniseriate.(109)
   
109(108)Flowers pale to bright yellow.(110)
+Flowers white, pink, or purple.(113)
   
110(109)Ovary and fruit globose, sublenticular, or obpyriform; nectar glands 2 or 4, lateral, median glands absent.(111)
+Ovary and fruit linear; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments.(112)
   
111(109)Fruit globose or sublenticular, 1.7-2.2 mm; ovules 2-4 per ovary; stamens slightly tetradynamous34  Neslia    球果荠属
+Fruit obpyriform, larger; ovules numerous per ovary; stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length98  Camelina    亚麻荠属
   
112(111)Plants pubescent with short-stalked or subsessile stellate trichomes; fruit pubescent; pedicels divaricate52  Olimarabidopsis    无苞芥属
+Plants glabrous and glaucous distally, pubescent with simple and forked trichomes basally; fruit glabrous; pedicels appressed to rachis59  Turritis    旗杆芥属
   
113(108)Pistil and fruit obdeltoid to obcordate-obdeltoid19  Capsella    荠属
+Pistil and fruit linear.(114)
   
114(113)Plants with exclusively stellate, appressed, sessile trichomes53  Pseudoarabidopsis    假鼠耳芥属
+Plants with more than 1 kind of trichomes.**(115)
   
115(113)Fruit latiseptate; cotyledons accumbent48  Arabis    南芥属
+Fruit terete; cotyledons incumbent51  Crucihimalaya    须弥芥属
   
116(107)Shrubs or subshrubs48  Arabis    南芥属
+Herbs.(117)
   
117(116)Filaments of median stamens united to apex or rarely only to middle.(118)
+Filaments of median stamens free.(119)
   
118(117)Plants without glandular trichomes; lateral sepals not saccate; fruit indehiscent, breaking at maturity into 1-seeded segments80  Sterigmostemum    棒果芥属
+Plants sparsely to densely covered with glandular trichomes; lateral sepals saccate; fruit tardily dehiscent81  Oreoloma    爪花芥属
   
119(116)Petals deeply bifid.(120)
+Petals undivided, entire or emarginate, or absent.(121)
   
120(119)Perennials with a distinct caudex; trichomes exclusively stellate, appressed; lateral sepals saccate37  Galitzkya    翅籽荠属
+Annuals or biennials; trichomes a mixture of simple, forked, and stellate; lateral sepals not saccate39  Berteroa    团扇荠属
   
121(77)Ovaries and fruit about as long as broad or slightly longer, rarely to 3 × longer.(122)
+Ovaries and fruit at least 5 × longer than broad.(137)
   
122(121)Raceme bracteate throughout or rarely along proximal half.(123)
+Raceme ebracteate.(126)
   
123(122)Plants stoloniferous; ovules 2 or 4 per ovary.(124)
+Plants cespitose perennials or annuals; ovules more than 10 per ovary.(125)
   
124(123)Leaves entire; filaments of median stamens appendaged; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all stamens22  Hemilophia    半脊荠属
+Leaves dentate; filaments of median stamens unappendaged; nectar glands 4, lateral, median glands absent23  Dipoma    蛇头荠属
   
125(123)Petals yellow; plants coarsely pilose; cotyledons accumbent41  Draba    葶苈属
+Petals purple or white; plants minutely puberulent; cotyledons incumbent92  Aphragmus    寒原荠属
   
126(125)Lateral sepals saccate; stigma 2-lobed; petals linear, strongly differentiated into claw and limb, 0.7-1.5 cm.(127)
+Lateral sepals not saccate; stigma entire, if 2-lobed (Euclidium) then petals less than 1.5 mm; petals variously shaped and often smaller, if linear then not differentiated into claw and limb, sometimes absent.(128)
   
127(126)Petals pink, 7-10 mm; plants without glandular trichomes; fruiting pedicels erect-ascending; fruit densely white silky29  Lachnoloma    绵果荠属
+Petals yellowish to creamy white, 10-15 mm; plants often with glandular trichomes; fruiting pedicels reflexed; fruit not silky67  Microstigma    小柱芥属
   
128(127)Plant with glandular trichomes35  Bunias    匙荠属
+Plant without glandular trichomes.(129)
   
129(121)Filaments winged, appendaged, toothed, or papillate36  Alyssum    庭荠属
+Filaments slender, unappendaged, toothless, glabrous.(130)
   
130(129)Annuals.(131)
+Perennials.(134)
   
131(130)Stigma 2-lobed; petals less than 1.5 mm; fruit indehiscent32  Euclidium    鸟头荠属
+Stigma entire; petals more than 1.5 mm, if less or absent then ovary more than 6-ovuled; fruit dehiscent.(132)
   
132(131)Ovules 4 per ovary or fruit36  Alyssum    庭荠属
+Ovules 8 or more per ovary or fruit.(133)
   
133(131)Petals 0.6-1.2 mm; fruit angustiseptate; cotyledons incumbent21  Hornungia    薄果荠属
+Petals larger, rarely absent; fruit latiseptate; cotyledons accumbent41  Draba    葶苈属
   
134(130)Plants stoloniferous; bases of median filaments broadly dilated40  Coelonema    穴丝荠属
+Plants cespitose, often with a distinct caudex; bases of median filaments not dilated.**(135)
   
135(134)Fruit 5-10 mm wide; style conical or subconical58  Eurycarpus    宽果芥属
+Fruit rarely to 4 mm wide, if wider then stems leafy; style obsolete or cylindric.(136)
   
136(135)Fruit torulose; cotyledons incumbent96  Braya    肉叶荠属
+Fruit not torulose; cotyledons accumbent41  Draba    葶苈属
   
137(134)Stigma conical, lobes decurrent, connivent; sepals erect.(138)
+Stigma capitate, entire, if lobed then lobes neither decurrent nor connivent; sepals ascending or slightly spreading.(141)
   
138(137)Annuals; anthers 0.3-1.2 mm.(139)
+Perennials or biennials; anthers 2.5-4 mm.(140)
   
139(138)Lateral sepals not saccate; fruit 0.5-1.7 mm wide; seeds wingless74  Malcolmia    涩芥属
+Lateral sepals strongly saccate; fruit 3-6 mm wide; seeds winged71  Cithareloma    对枝菜属
   
140(139)Petals linear, circinately involute; seeds winged; cotyledons accumbent66  Matthiola    紫罗兰属
+Petals obovate, flat; seeds wingless; cotyledons incumbent75  Hesperis    香花芥属
   
141(140)Petals less than 1.5 mm; mature ovaries and young fruits with 4, subapical horns65  Tetracme    四齿芥
+Petals more than 1.8 mm; ovaries and fruits without horns.(142)
   
142(137)Stems leafless.(143)
+Stems leafy.(146)
   
143(142)Petals yellow; nectar glands 2 or 4, lateral.**(144)
+Petals white, lavender, or pink; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments.**(145)
   
144(143)Biennial, perennial, or rarely annual; seeds biseriate; fruit valves obscurely veined41  Draba    葶苈属
+Annuals; seeds uniseriate; fruit valves with a distinct midvein55  Drabopsis    假葶苈属
   
145(144)Fruit valves with prominent midvein and marginal veins; cotyledons incumbent45  Phaeonychium    藏芥属
+Fruit valves obscurely veined or only midvein distinct; cotyledons accumbent48  Arabis    南芥属
   
146(143)Pistils and fruit on a distinct gynophore to 5 mm; petals linear to linear-oblanceolate, length 9-12 × width1  Macropodium    长柄芥属
+Pistil and fruit sessile; petals suborbicular, spatulate, oblanceolate, or rarely oblong, length-width ratio much less.(147)
   
147(146)Petals yellow41  Draba    葶苈属
+Petals white, lavender, or purple.(148)
   
148(147)All cauline leaves entire.(149)
+At least some cauline leaves dentate or lobed.(152)
   
149(148)Annuals; cotyledons incumbent.(150)
+Perennials; cotyledons accumbent.(151)
   
150(148)Trichomes simple and forked; style to 0.5 mm; ovules 40-70 per ovary50  Arabidopsis    鼠耳芥属
+Trichomes mostly stellate, 4-6-rayed; style (1-)1.5-2.5 mm; ovules 6-14 per ovary93  Berteroella    锥果芥属
   
151(150)Trichomes a mixture of simple, forked, or stellate41  Draba    葶苈属
+Trichomes exclusively stellate54  Stevenia    曙南芥属
   
152(147)Filaments of median stamens winged basally; valves with thickened margin, base united persistently with replum62  Lepidostemon    鳞蕊芥属
+Filaments of median stamens not winged; fruit valves not thickened at margin, base readily separated from replum at dehiscence.(153)
   
153(152)Pistil or fruit glabrous.(154)
+Pistil or fruit pubescent.(157)
   
154(153)Trichomes exclusively simple and forked50  Arabidopsis    鼠耳芥属
+At least some trichomes stellate or dendritic.**(155)
   
155(152)Fruit terete; cotyledons incumbent51  Crucihimalaya    须弥芥属
+Fruit latiseptate; cotyledons accumbent.(156)
   
156(155)Seeds biseriate, wingless41  Draba    葶苈属
+Seeds uniseriate, winged or margined at least distally48  Arabis    南芥属
   
157(156)Nectar glands 2 or 4, lateral, median glands absent; stigma often entire.**(158)
+Nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments; stigma often 2-lobed.(159)
   
158(146)Fruits latiseptate, not torulose; cotyledons accumbent; seeds biseriate41  Draba    葶苈属
+Fruits terete, torulose; cotyledons incumbent; seeds uniseriate94  Neotorularia    念珠芥属
   
159(158)Petals 6-9 mm; cotyledons incumbent45  Phaeonychium    藏芥属
+Petals 2-4 mm (unknown in Desideria stewartii); cotyledons accumbent.**(160)
   
160(159)Valve apex readily separated from replum during dehiscence; fruiting pedicels appressed to rachis49  Sisymbriopsis    假蒜芥属
+Valve apex persistently united with replum; fruiting pedicels not appressed to rachis57  Desideria    扇叶芥属
   
List of Keys
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