Flora of China
  FOC Vol.8 (2001)              | Family List  Brassicaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Brassicaceae  Burnett
十字花科   shi zi hua ke
Authors:Zhou Taiyan (Cheo Tai-yien), Lu Lianli (Lou Lian-li), Yang Guang; Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz2


Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial, sometimes subshrubs or shrubs, with a pungent, watery juice. Eglandular trichomes unicellular, simple, stalked or sessile, 2- to many forked, stellate, dendritic, or malpighiaceous (medifixed, bifid, appressed), rarely peltate and scalelike; glandular trichomes multicellular, with uniseriate or multiseriate stalk. Stems erect, ascending, or prostrate, sometimes absent. Leaves exstipulate, simple, entire or variously pinnately dissected, rarely trifoliolate or pinnately, palmately, or bipinnately compound; basal leaf rosette present or absent; cauline leaves almost always alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, petiolate or sessile, sometimes absent. Inflorescence bracteate or ebracteate racemes, corymbs, or panicles, sometimes flowers solitary on long pedicels originating from axils of rosette leaves. Flowers hypogynous, mostly actinomorphic. Sepals 4, in 2 decussate pairs, free or rarely united, not saccate or lateral (inner) pair saccate. Petals 4, alternate with sepals, arranged in the form of a cross (cruciform; hence the earlier family name Cruciferae), rarely rudimentary or absent. Stamens 6, in 2 whorls, tetradynamous (lateral (outer) pair shorter than median (inner) 2 pairs), rarely equal or in 3 pairs of unequal length, sometimes stamens 2 or 4, very rarely 8-24; filaments slender, winged, or appendaged, median pairs free or rarely united; anthers dithecal, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Pollen grains 3-colpate, trinucleate. Nectar glands receptacular, highly diversified in number, shape, size, and disposition around base of filaments, always present opposite bases of lateral filaments, median glands present or absent. Pistil 2-carpelled; ovary superior, sessile or borne on a distinct gynophore, mostly 2-locular and with a false septum connecting 2 placentae; placentation parietal, rarely apical; ovules anatropous or campylotropous, bitegmic, 1 to many per locule. Fruit typically a 2-valved capsule, generally termed silique (siliqua) when length 3 × or more than width, or silicle (silicula) when length less than 3 × width, dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes schizocarpic, nutletlike, lomentaceous, or samaroid, segmented or not, terete, angled, or flattened parallel to septum (latiseptate) or at a right angle to septum (angustiseptate); valves 2(or 3-6); replum (persistent placenta) rounded, rarely flattened or winged; septum complete, perforated, reduced to a rim, or lacking; style 1, distinct, obsolete, or absent; stigma capitate or conical, entire or 2-lobed, sometimes lobes decurrent and free or connate. Seeds without endosperm, uniseriately or biseriately arranged in each locule, aseriate when 1, winged or wingless, mucilaginous or not when wetted; cotyledons incumbent (embryo notorrhizal: radicle lying along back of 1 cotyledon), accumbent (embryo pleurorrhizal: radicle applied to margins of both cotyledons), or conduplicate (embryo orthoplocal: cotyledons folded longitudinally around radicle), rarely spirally coiled (embryo spirolobal). Germination epigeal.

About 330 genera and 3500 species: all continents except Antarctica, mainly in temperate areas, with highest diversity in Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean, and W North American regions; 102 genera (eight endemic) and 412 species (115 endemic) in China.

Because of lack of a comprehensive classification based on phylogenetic relationships among genera, and in order to facilitate direct comparison between the accounts in FOC and FRPS, the sequence of genera follows Schulz (Nat. Pflanzenfam. 17b: 227-658. 1936). However, it should be emphasized that his system is largely artificial because he placed closely related genera in different tribes and remotely related genera in the same tribe. For example, Arabis, Aubrieta, Draba, and Macropodium, which are very closely related on the basis of recent molecular studies, were placed by Schulz in four different tribes, whereas the unrelated Capsella, Lepidium, and Thlaspi were placed in one tribe. The delimitation of genera is often difficult, and mature fruits are needed for reliable identification.

The Brassicaceae include many important crop plants that are grown as vegetables (Brassica, Nasturtium, Raphanus) and sources of vegetable oils (Brassica) and condiments (Armoracia, Brassica, Eutrema, Sinapis). Oils of Brassica probably rank first in terms of tonnage of the world's production of edible oils. The family includes many ornamentals in the genera Erysimum, Iberis Linnaeus, Lobularia, Malcolmia, and Matthiola. Of these, only Lobularia maritima has become naturalized in China. The family also includes more than 120 species of weeds. Arabidopsis thaliana, which is naturalized in China, has become the model organism in many fields of experimental biology.

The delimitation of genera in the Brassicaceae is often difficult because of the frequent independent evolution of what appear to be similar character states, the variability of a given character in one genus and its fixture in another, and the inadequate sampling of material by most authors. Fruit characters are essential in the identification of genera. However, a key emphasizing flowering material is given in addition to the one emphasizing fruit. The most reliable determination of genera can be achieved when the material has both fruit and flowers and when both keys are successfully used to reach the same genus.

The types of cotyledonary position, which in reality is the position of the radicle in relation to the cotyledons (e.g., radicle accumbent, incumbent, or conduplicate, though radicle referred to as "cotyledon" throughout) are important in the separation of many genera, and a cross section of the seed provides the easiest and simplest way of determining that position. The exact number of ovules per ovary can easily be determined from the fruit because aborted ovules persist through fruit dehiscence. However, it is more laborious to determine the ovule number from pistils and young fruit.

Cheo Tai-yien, Guo Rong-lin, Lan Young-zhen, Lou Lian-li, Kuan Ke-chien & An Zheng-xi. 1987. Cruciferae. In: Cheo Tai-yien, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 33: 1-483.

Leads marked with a "double asterisk" (**) indicate that mature fruits are necessary for the identification of genera in the subordinate couplet(s).

1(0)Fruit silicles (less than 3 × longer than broad).(2)
+Fruit siliques (more than 3 × longer than broad).(59)
2(1)Fruit much wider than long, 2-16-spined, with prominently 3-20-veined lateral wings larger than the seed-bearing part15  Pugionium    沙芥属
+Fruit longer than wide or about as long as wide, not spiny, wingless or with veinless wings smaller than the seed-bearing part.(3)
3(2)Fruit flattened at a right angle to septum (angustiseptate).(4)
+Fruit flattened parallel to septum (latiseptate), terete, or angled.(21)
4(3)At least some of the trichomes branched.(5)
+Trichomes absent or exclusively simple.(8)
5(4)Cauline leaves sessile, auriculate or sagittate at base; fruit obdeltoid to obdeltoid-obcordate19  Capsella    荠属
+Cauline leaves petiolate or cuneate to petiolelike base, not auriculate or sagittate; fruit oblong, elliptic, obovate, or suborbicular.(6)
6(5)Fruiting pedicels strongly recurved, often forming a loop; fruit 1- or 2-seeded, often aborted on 1 side; plants rhizomatous perennials23  Dipoma    蛇头荠属
+Fruiting pedicels straight, erect, ascending, or divaricate; fruit more than 5-seeded, not aborted on 1 side; plants annual, biennial, or rarely non-rhizomatous perennials.(7)
7(6)Fruiting raceme bracteate throughout or rarely along proximal half; leaves 1- or 2-pinnatisect; fruit more than 20-seeded20  Hedinia    藏荠属
+Fruiting racemes ebracteate; leaves entire, dentate, or pinnatifid; fruit less than 20-seeded21  Hornungia    薄果荠属
8(4)Seeds (or ovules) 4-24 per fruit.(9)
+Seeds (or ovules) 1 or 2 per fruit.(13)
9(8)Fruit borne on solitary pedicels originating from basal rosette44  Pegaeophyton    单花荠属
+Fruit borne on racemes, panicles, or corymbs.(10)
10(9)Cauline leaves sessile, auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul; roots not fleshy, cylindric; fruit often winged apically18  Thlaspi    菥(艹冥)属
+Cauline leaves petiolate or sessile but not auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul; roots fleshy, fusiform or conical; fruit wingless or cristate apically.(11)
11(10)Plants 0.5-2 m tall; infructescence a large panicle; replum slender, not flattened; racemes ebracteate42  Armoracia    辣根属
+Plants rarely to 0.3 m tall; infructescence a small raceme or corymb; replum broad, flattened at least basally; racemes often bracteate throughout.(12)
12(11)Cauline leaves sessile; fruit often cristate apically; fruit valves obscurely veined; seeds minutely reticulate24  Dilophia    双脊荠属
+Cauline leaves petiolate; fruit not cristate apically; fruit valves with a prominent midvein; seeds papillate or foveolate88  Taphrospermum    沟子荠属
13(8)Fruit didymous, breaking into 2, closed, 1-seeded halves.(14)
+Fruit not didymous, dehiscent and readily releasing seeds, or indehiscent.(16)
14(13)Fruit halves broadly winged, 8-40 mm; root fleshy, 1-15 cm in diameter16  Megacarpaea    高河菜属
+Fruit halves wingless, 1-2 mm; roots not fleshy, slender, much narrower.(15)
15(14)Dwarf plants rarely more than 3 cm tall; all or most fruit on solitary pedicels originating from basal rosette; leaves palmately veined; fruit halves smooth; stamens 617  Megadenia    双果荠属
+Plants often more than 10 cm tall; fruit in racemes; leaves pinnately veined; fruit halves prominently reticulate to rugose, very rarely smooth; stamens 2 or 411  Coronopus    臭荠属
16(13)Fruit 1-seeded, obscurely differentiated into halves, without a septum, indehiscent, with thickened, central, seed-bearing part; fruiting pedicels reflexed; petals yellow.(17)
+Fruit 2-seeded, well differentiated into halves, with a well-developed septum, dehiscent or rarely indehiscent, not thickened at center; fruiting pedicels not reflexed; petals white or pink (yellow in Lepidium perfoliatum).(19)
17(16)Fruit navicular, semiovoid to semiglobose, with strongly involute wing margins bearing 1 or 2 rows of tubercles; fruiting pedicels articulate at base31  Tauscheria    舟果荠属
+Fruit oblong, elliptic, ovate, or pyriform, flat, wingless or wing margins neither involute nor tuberculate; fruiting pedicels not articulate.(18)
18(17)Fruit samaroid, more than 6 mm, wing margin not thickened13  Isatis    菘蓝属
+Fruit achenelike, rarely to 5 mm, wing margin strongly thickened14  Pachypterygium    厚壁荠属
19(16)Fruit indehiscent; nectar glands confluent; style 0.7-2 mm12  Cardaria    群心菜属
+Fruit dehiscent; nectar glands separate teeth; style (ours) absent or to 0.8(-1) mm.(20)
20(19)Fruit somewhat 4-angled; leaves leathery; caudex thick, with petiolar remains of previous years; stamens 627  Stroganowia    革叶荠属
+Fruit flat, not angled; leaves herbaceous rarely leathery; caudex absent or slender, rarely thick and with petiolar remains of previous years; stamens 2, 4, or 610  Lepidium    独行菜属
21(3)Fruit on solitary pedicels originating from basal rosette.(22)
+Fruit in racemes.(25)
22(21)Plants glabrous or with simple trichomes only; leaves entire, rarely toothed or pinnately lobed.(23)
+Plants with at least some branched trichomes; leaves subapically toothed.(24)
23(22)Fruit readily detached from pedicel; valve apex persistently united with replum; replum not flattened; valves marginal veins prominent; petals purple, pink, or blue64  Solms-laubachia    丛菔属
+Fruit not detached from pedicel; valve apex readily separated from replum at dehiscence; replum strongly flattened; valves marginal veins obscure or absent; petals white44  Pegaeophyton    单花荠属
24(22)Fruit ovate or lanceolate, not geocarpic; valves prominently veined; stigma 2-lobed57  Desideria    扇叶芥属
+Fruit oblong, geocarpic; valves obscurely veined; stigma entire84  Pycnoplinthopsis    假簇芥属
25(21)Plants glabrous or with simple trichomes only.(26)
+Plants with at least some trichomes branched.(36)
26(25)Fruit indehiscent, with a woody or corky wall, sometimes breaking transversely into segments.(27)
+Fruit dehiscent, with a papery or membranous wall.(30)
27(26)Style slender, 1.5-3.5 mm, readily caducous from a basal articulation; replum strongly expanded laterally33  Litwinowia    脱喙荠属
+Style obsolete, or fruit attenuate into a conical, persistent, stylelike beak without a basal articulation; replum not expanded laterally.(28)
28(27)Cauline leaves petiolate, not auriculate; plants 0.5-2.5 m tall; fruit rounded at apex, strongly differentiated into a seedless basal segment and a larger, 1-seeded terminal segment7  Crambe    两节荠属
+Cauline leaves sessile, auriculate to amplexicaul; plants rarely to 0.5 m tall; fruit tapered to apex, unsegmented.(29)
29(28)Fruiting pedicels divaricate, not articulate at base; fruit 2-seeded, not constricted at middle; cotyledons spirolobal; petals white35  Bunias    匙荠属
+Fruiting pedicels reflexed, articulate at base; fruit 1-3-seeded, constricted between seeds; cotyledons incumbent; petals purplish or pink82  Goldbachia    四棱荠属
30(26)At least some leaves dentate, lobed, or compound.(31)
+All leaves entire.(33)
31(30)Some or all cauline leaves auriculate or sagittate at base; seeds more than 50 per fruit; petals yellow60  Rorippa    蔊菜属
+Cauline leaves not auriculate or sagittate at base; seeds less than 25 per fruit; petals white, pink, blue, or purple.(32)
32(31)Leaves trifoliolate, pinnately compound, pinnatisect, or rarely simple; racemes ebracteate, if bracteate, then basal bracts trifoliolate; fruiting pedicels glabrous or pubescent all around; petals white26  Yinshania    阴山荠属
+Leaves palmately 3-5-lobed; racemes bracteate throughout; fruiting pedicels puberulent adaxially; petals purple, blue, or rarely pink28  Lignariella    弯梗芥属
33(30)Raceme bracteate throughout; fruit 1- or 2-seeded; valves with 3 rows of crests; filaments of median stamens appendaged22  Hemilophia    半脊荠属
+Racemes ebracteate; fruit more than 2-seeded; valves without rows of crests; filaments of median stamens unappendaged.(34)
34(33)Fruit (0.8-)1-1.7 cm wide; valves with prominent midvein and lateral and marginal veins, apex persistently united with replum64  Solms-laubachia    丛菔属
+Fruit rarely to 0.3 cm wide; valves obscurely veined or only with a prominent midvein, apex readily separated from replum at dehiscence.(35)
35(34)Fruit slightly 4-angled, on a short gynophore; stems leafy; lowermost leaves cordate to ovate, often palmately veined89  Eutrema    山(艹俞)菜属
+Fruit terete, sessile; stems leafless; lowermost leaves linear or oblong, pinnately veined96  Braya    肉叶荠属
36(25)Fruit indehiscent, often nutletlike, with woody or corky wall.(37)
+Fruit dehiscent, with papery wall.(41)
37(36)Plants with glandular trichomes, if eglandular then fruit strongly reflexed.(38)
+Plants eglandular, fruit erect to divaricate.(39)
38(37)Fruiting pedicels divaricate; trichomes simple and forked; seeds wingless, 1 or 2; cotyledons spirolobal; petals bright yellow35  Bunias    匙荠属
+Fruiting pedicels strongly reflexed; trichomes dendritic; seeds winged, often more than 2; cotyledons accumbent; petals yellowish white67  Microstigma    小柱芥属
39(37)Cauline leaves sessile, auriculate or sagittate; style less than 1 mm; stigma entire; fruit readily detached from divaricate pedicels; petals yellow34  Neslia    球果荠属
+Cauline leaves petiolate, not auriculate or sagittate; style 1-7 mm; stigma deeply 2-lobed; fruit not readily detached from erect-ascending pedicels; petals white or pink.(40)
40(39)Fruit densely covered with silky trichomes 5-8 mm; style (2.5-)4-7 mm; petals pink29  Lachnoloma    绵果荠属
+Fruit scabrous with minute trichomes less than 1 mm; style less than 2 mm; petals white32  Euclidium    鸟头荠属
41(36)Raceme bracteate throughout or at least along proximal half.(42)
+Raceme ebracteate.(45)
42(41)Fruit 1- or 2-seeded.(43)
+Fruit more than 4-seeded.(44)
43(42)Fruit valves with 3 rows of crests; fruiting pedicels straight or slightly curved, not forming a loop; leaves entire; filaments of median stamens appendaged22  Hemilophia    半脊荠属
+Fruit valves without crests; fruiting pedicels often forming a loop; at least some leaves dentate or lobed near apex; filaments of median stamens unappendaged23  Dipoma    蛇头荠属
44(42)Fruit latiseptate; trichomes forked or stellate; cotyledons accumbent41  Draba    葶苈属
+Fruit terete; trichomes dendritic; cotyledons incumbent100  Sophiopsis    羽裂叶荠属
45(41)Leaves 1- or 2-pinnatisect or 3-5-foliolate.(46)
+Leaves entire or rarely dentate.(48)
46(45)Branched trichomes forked; inflorescence paniculate, ultimate branches flexuous26  Yinshania    阴山荠属
+Branched trichomes dendritic; inflorescence non-flexuous racemes, if branched then fruit more than 10-seeded.(47)
47(46)Annuals or biennials; seeds mucilaginous when wetted; petals yellow100  Sophiopsis    羽裂叶荠属
+Pulvinate perennials; seeds not mucilaginous when wetted; petals white101  Smelowskia    芹叶荠属
48(45)Cauline leaves auriculate or sagittate at base; fruit obpyriform; valves connate at margin and hiding replum, beaklike apex caudate, extending into style98  Camelina    亚麻荠属
+Cauline leaves often neither auriculate nor sagittate at base; fruit variously shaped but not obpyriform; valve margins not connate, apex not extending into a caudate beak.(49)
49(48)Branched trichomes exclusively malpighiaceous.(50)
+Branched trichomes stellate or forked.(51)
50(49)Fruit 1- or 2- seeded; seeds orbicular; simple trichomes absent38  Lobularia    香雪球属
+Fruit more than 4-seeded; seeds oblong or ovate; simple trichomes present41  Draba    葶苈属
51(49)Branched trichomes exclusively stellate, sessile, appressed.(52)
+At least some of the branched trichomes simple or forked, stalked, not appressed.(53)
52(51)Seeds broadly winged (wing to 1 mm wide); petals deeply bifid; filaments not toothed or winged37  Galitzkya    翅籽荠属
+Seeds wingless or narrowly margined (margin to 0.1 mm wide); petals obtuse or emarginate; filaments often toothed or winged36  Alyssum    庭荠属
53(51)Cauline leaves absent.(54)
+Cauline leaves present.(55)
54(53)Style conical or subconical; fruit 5-10 mm wide; cotyledons incumbent, if accumbent then septum reduced to a rim58  Eurycarpus    宽果芥属
+Style obsolete or cylindric; fruit rarely to 4 mm wide; cotyledons accumbent41  Draba    葶苈属
55(53)Fruit 1- or 2(-4)-seeded; stamens often toothed or winged36  Alyssum    庭荠属
+Fruit more than 4-seeded; stamens neither toothed nor winged.(56)
56(55)Fruit torulose; cotyledons incumbent96  Braya    肉叶荠属
+Fruit not torulose, smooth; cotyledons accumbent.(57)
57(56)Annuals or biennials; petals deeply bifid; seed narrowly margined39  Berteroa    团扇荠属
+Perennials, or if annuals then styles obsolete; petals obtuse or rarely emarginate, sometimes absent; seeds not margined.(58)
58(57)Plants stoloniferous; filament bases broadly dilated40  Coelonema    穴丝荠属
+Plants cespitose, perennials or rarely annuals; filament bases not dilated41  Draba    葶苈属
59(1)Fruit borne on solitary pedicels originating from basal rosette.(60)
+Fruit borne on racemes, corymbs, or panicles.(67)
60(59)Plants with glandular trichomes; fruit lomentaceous, breaking into 1-seeded corky units68  Chorispora    离子芥属
+Plants without glandular trichomes; fruit dehiscent, not breaking into units.(61)
61(60)Stigma conical, prominently 2-lobed, lobes decurrent; seeds often broadly winged72  Leiospora    光籽芥属
+Stigma capitate, entire or slightly 2-lobed and lobes not decurrent; seeds wingless.(62)
62(61)Plants with branched trichomes.(63)
+Plants glabrous or with simple trichomes only.(65)
63(62)Leaves entire; plants ca. 2 cm tall86  Baimashania    白马芥属
+At least some leaves coarsely dentate; plants much coarser.(64)
64(63)Fruit strongly flattened; valves prominently veined, apex persistently united with replum; style obsolete; calyx deciduous before fruit maturity; cotyledons accumbent57  Desideria    扇叶芥属
+Fruit terete; valves obscurely veined, readily separated from replum at dehiscence; style distinct; calyx persistent at fruit base; cotyledons incumbent84  Pycnoplinthopsis    假簇芥属
65(63)Fruit valves prominently veined; replum terete; fruiting pedicels neither persistent nor puberulent along 1 line.(66)
+Fruit valves obscurely veined; replum flattened; fruiting pedicels persistent next season, puberulent along 1 line44  Pegaeophyton    单花荠属
66(65)Style obsolete; valve apex persistently united with replum; cotyledons accumbent64  Solms-laubachia    丛菔属
+Style distinct, to 1 mm; valve apex readily separated from replum at dehiscence; cotyledons incumbent85  Pycnoplinthus    簇芥属
67(66)Glandular trichomes present.(68)
+Glandular trichomes absent.(77)
68(67)Branched trichomes present.(69)
+Branched trichomes absent.(71)
69(68)Fruit and fruiting pedicels strongly reflexed; cotyledons accumbent67  Microstigma    小柱芥属
+Fruit and fruiting pedicels divaricate to ascending; cotyledons incumbent.(70)
70(69)Fruit valves with a prominent midvein; branched trichomes forked; stigma lobes decurrent; glands on uniseriate, few-celled stalks; median filaments not united75  Hesperis    香花芥属
+Fruit valves not or obscurely veined; branched trichomes dendritic; stigma lobes not decurrent; glands on multiseriate, multicellular stalks; median filaments united in pairs81  Oreoloma    爪花芥属
71(68)Stigma slightly lobed, lobes neither decurrent nor connivent; median filaments united in pairs or strongly flattened; lateral sepals not saccate63  Dontostemon    花旗杆属
+Stigma prominently lobed; lobes decurrent, connivent; median filaments neither united nor strongly flattened; lateral sepals saccate.(72)
72(71)Fruit terete; seeds wingless.(73)
+Fruit (at least distal ones) flattened; seeds winged.(74)
73(72)Fruit breaking transversely into 1-seeded corky units; style 1-9 mm; cotyledons accumbent68  Chorispora    离子芥属
+Fruit dehiscent, not breaking into corky units; style obsolete; cotyledons incumbent75  Hesperis    香花芥属
74(72)Fruit dimorphic, lowermost indehiscent, corky, and terete, uppermost dehiscent and flattened; replum rounded69  Diptychocarpus    异果芥属
+Fruit of 1 kind, dehiscent, flattened, terete; replum flattened.(75)
75(74)Cauline leaves absent, rarely few; fruit (2-)2.5-7 mm wide; seeds broadly winged, wing 0.5-3 mm wide70  Parrya    条果芥属
+Cauline leaves several; fruit 1.5-2 mm wide; seeds narrowly winged, wing 0.1-0.4 mm wide.(76)
76(75)Basal leaves not rosulate; stigma capitate, lobes slightly decurrent76  Clausia    香芥属
+Basal leaves rosulate; stigma linear, lobes strongly decurrent77  Pseudoclausia    假香芥属
77(67)Plants glabrous or with simple trichomes only.(78)
+Plants with branched trichomes.(121)
78(77)Fruit indehiscent, sometimes breaking transversely into corky, 1-seeded units.(79)
+Fruit dehiscent.(83)
79(78)Cauline leaves auriculate or amplexicaul; style obsolete or rarely to 2 mm; lateral sepals not saccate.(80)
+Cauline leaves not auriculate or amplexicaul; style distinct, 5-50 mm; lateral sepals often strongly saccate.(81)
80(79)Fruit a samara, strongly angustiseptate, 1-seeded; petals yellow13  Isatis    菘蓝属
+Fruit nutletlike, terete or angled, 1-3 seeded, if 2- or 3- seeded then breaking transversely into 1-seeded units; petals purple or pink82  Goldbachia    四棱荠属
81(79)Fruit 1-seeded, S-shaped, with a slender, stipelike base; fruiting pedicels articulate at base30  Spirorhynchus    螺果荠属
+Fruit more than 2-seeded, linear, lanceolate, or ovoid, sessile or nearly so; fruiting pedicels not articulate at base.(82)
82(81)Stigma capitate, entire or slightly lobed; cotyledons conduplicate; plants annual or biennial; petal veins darker in color than rest of petal6  Raphanus    萝卜属
+Stigma conical, with prominently decurrent and connivent lobes; cotyledons accumbent; plants perennial; petals uniform in color68  Chorispora    离子芥属
83(78)Raceme bracteate throughout or rarely only along proximal half.(84)
+Raceme ebracteate.(92)
84(83)Cauline leaves palmately veined.(85)
+Cauline leaves pinnately veined.(88)
85(84)Fruit flattened, valves coiled during dehiscence43  Cardamine    碎米荠属
+Fruit terete or 4-angled, valves not coiled during dehiscence.(86)
86(85)Leaves with distinct apiculate callosities terminating ultimate veins89  Eutrema    山(艹俞)菜属
+Leaves without apiculate callosities terminating ultimate veins.(87)
87(86)Taproot fleshy, fusiform; stigma 2-lobed; fruiting pedicels glabrous; cotyledons accumbent; median staminal filaments 1-toothed; petals white25  Platycraspedum    宽框荠属
+Taproot not fleshy, slender; stigma entire; fruiting pedicels papillate adaxially; cotyledons incumbent; petals purple28  Lignariella    弯梗芥属
88(84)Fruit 90-200-seeded; plants annual60  Rorippa    蔊菜属
+Fruit 4-30-seeded; plants biennial or perennial with caudices, rhizomes, or fleshy taproots.(89)
89(88)Fruit valves with prominent midvein and marginal veins, apex persistently united with replum; at least some leaves dentate; fruit 14-26-seeded; style obsolete57  Desideria    扇叶芥属
+Fruit valves usually obscurely veined, readily separated from replum at dehiscence; leaves entire; fruit 4-12-seeded; style more than 0.5 mm.(90)
90(89)Replum flattened; roots fleshy; plants without rhizomes or caudices; basal leaves not persistent88  Taphrospermum    沟子荠属
+Replum terete; roots not fleshy; plants with rhizomes or caudices; basal leaves or petioles often persistent.(91)
91(90)Fruit not torulose; cotyledons incumbent45  Phaeonychium    藏芥属
+Fruit torulose; cotyledons accumbent62  Lepidostemon    鳞蕊芥属
92(83)Fruit angustiseptate18  Thlaspi    菥(艹冥)属
+Fruit latiseptate, terete, or angled.(93)
93(92)Stigma conical or cylindric, with prominent, decurrent lobes.(94)
+Stigma capitate, entire, or if lobed then lobes not decurrent.(98)
94(93)Fruit latiseptate; seeds broadly winged; cauline leaves absent or rarely few.(95)
+Fruit terete or 4-angled; seeds wingless; cauline leaves several.(96)
95(94)Style distinct, 0.5-6 mm; valve apex readily separated at dehiscence from replum70  Parrya    条果芥属
+Style absent; valve apex persistently united with replum72  Leiospora    光籽芥属
96(94)Fruit not torulose, segmented, with stylelike, ensiform, 5-veined, terminal segment5  Eruca    芝麻菜属
+Fruit torulose, unsegmented, with a distinct style 1-3 mm.(97)
97(96)Leaves pectinate-pinnatifid, terminal lobe about as large as lateral ones; cotyledons accumbent63  Dontostemon    花旗杆属
+Leaves simple or pinnatisect, terminal lobe considerably larger than lateral ones; cotyledons conduplicate8  Orychophragmus    诸葛菜属
98(93)Cotyledons conduplicate; fruit often segmented, usually with a beaklike terminal segment; seeds globose, rarely ovoid, ellipsoid, or oblong.(99)
+Cotyledons accumbent or incumbent; fruit unsegmented, not beaked at apex; seeds variously shaped but never globose.(102)
99(98)Fruit flattened; seeds biseriate4  Diplotaxis    二行芥属
+Fruit terete or 4-angled; seeds uniseriate.(100)
100(99)Fruit valves prominently 3-7-veined3  Sinapis    白芥属
+Fruit valves obscurely veined or only midvein prominent.(101)
101(100)Stigma entire; seeds globose; fruit often segmented, without style or with stylelike beak; petals yellow2  Brassica    芸苔属
+Stigma distinctly 2-lobed, lobes subdecurrent; seeds oblong; fruit not segmented, with a distinct style; petals purple, lavender, or white8  Orychophragmus    诸葛菜属
102(101)Fruit valves without a midvein, always coiled during dehiscence; replum strongly flattened or winged43  Cardamine    碎米荠属
+Fruit valves with a prominent midvein or sometimes obscurely veined, never coiled during or after dehiscence; replum terete or rarely slightly flattened (a few Dontostemon).(103)
103(101)All leaves palmately veined, undivided and reniform, cordate, deltoid, or broadly ovate.(104)
+Leaves pinnately veined, pinnately divided, if undivided then shapes different from above.(108)
104(103)Leaf margin with distinct, mucronate callosities terminating ultimate veins; fruit valves obscurely veined.(105)
+Leaf margin without mucronate callosities; fruit valves prominently veined.(106)
105(104)Annuals; fruit more than 10-seeded; cotyledons accumbent47  Neomartinella    堇叶芥属
+Rhizomatous perennials; fruit less than 10 seeded; cotyledons incumbent89  Eutrema    山(艹俞)菜属
106(100)Leaves flabellate, obovate, or spatulate; fruit latiseptate, valve apex persistently united with replum; cotyledons accumbent57  Desideria    扇叶芥属
+Leaves reniform, ovate, or deltoid; fruit terete or 4-angled, valve apex readily separated from replum at dehiscence; cotyledons incumbent.(107)
107(106)Biennials; fruit torulose, valves 3-veined; seeds longitudinally striate87  Alliaria    葱芥属
+Perennials; fruit not torulose, valves 1-veined; seeds reticulate89  Eutrema    山(艹俞)菜属
108(107)At least lowermost cauline leaves pinnatifid, pinnatisect, or pinnately compound.(109)
+Leaves entire or dentate.(113)
109(108)Fruit valves not veined or obscurely veined, if with a distinct midvein then seeds biseriate and colliculate.(110)
+Fruit valves with prominent midvein and marginal veins.(111)
110(109)Leaves pinnatisect or lyrate; stems solid, not rooting from lowermost nodes; seeds foveolate or colliculate; petals yellow60  Rorippa    蔊菜属
+Leaves pinnately compound; stems hollow, rooting from lowermost nodes; seeds coarsely reticulate; petals white61  Nasturtium    豆瓣菜属
111(109)Upper cauline leaves auriculate; stems distinctly angular46  Barbarea    山芥属
+Upper cauline leaves not auriculate; stems usually terete.(112)
112(111)Fruit flattened; stigma entire; cotyledons accumbent; petals white or pink49  Sisymbriopsis    假蒜芥属
+Fruit terete; stigma 2-lobed; cotyledons incumbent; petals yellow90  Sisymbrium    大蒜芥属
113(108)Cauline leaves absent.(114)
+Cauline leaves present.(115)
114(113)Fruit lanceolate, latiseptate; basal leaves setose-ciliate45  Phaeonychium    藏芥属
+Fruit ovoid, terete; basal leaves not setose-ciliate96  Braya    肉叶荠属
115(113)Seeds foveolate or colliculate, 60-110 per fruit; petals yellow; cotyledons accumbent60  Rorippa    蔊菜属
+Seeds reticulate, fewer per fruit, (to 96 in Thellungiella salsuginea); petals white, lavender, or purple (yellow in Christolea); cotyledons incumbent (accumbent in some Dontostemon).(116)
117(116)Raceme rachis with minute, twisted trichomes; plants not glaucous; cauline leaves not auriculate or amplexicaul; filaments of median stamens united in pairs63  Dontostemon    花旗杆属
+Raceme rachis glabrous; plants glaucous; cauline leaves auriculate or amplexicaul (except for Thellungiella parvula); filaments of median stamens free.(118)
118(117)Fruit 3-10 cm, valves with an obscure midvein; seeds 1.5-2 mm9  Conringia    线果芥属
+Fruit 0.2-2 cm, valves with a prominent midvein; seeds 0.4-0.8 mm97  Thellungiella    盐芥属
119(116)At least middle and lower cauline leaves petiolate, dentate; seeds transversely oriented in fruit; petals yellow56  Christolea    高原芥属
+Leaves sessile, entire; seeds longitudinally oriented in fruit; petals white or purple.(120)
120(119)Seeds 20-60 per fruit; fruit terete or latiseptate; median staminal filaments united in pairs63  Dontostemon    花旗杆属
+Seeds 2-10 per fruit; fruit slightly 4-angled; median staminal filaments free89  Eutrema    山(艹俞)菜属
121(77)Cauline leaves 1- or 2-pinnatisect or narrowly trifid.(122)
+Cauline leaves undivided, lyrate, or rarely pinnatifid.(129)
122(121)Fruit angustiseptate20  Hedinia    藏荠属
+Fruit terete or latiseptate.(123)
123(122)Fruit latiseptate; filaments of median stamens united in pairs.(124)
+Fruit terete or slightly 4-angled; filaments of median stamens free.(125)
124(123)Fruit tardily dehiscent, not torulose; leaf segments filiform; stigma conical; seeds wingless73  Leptaleum    丝叶芥属
+Fruit readily dehiscent, torulose; ultimate leaf segment oblong; stigma capitate; seeds narrowly winged distally95  Synstemon    连蕊芥属
125(123)Infructescence rachis straight; uppermost leaves pinnatisect, rarely pinnatifid.(126)
+Infructescence rachis flexuous; uppermost leaves narrowly trifid91  Ianhedgea    葶芥属
126(125)Dendritic trichomes absent; valves obscurely veined or not veined102  Sinosophiopsis    华羽芥属
+Dendritic trichomes present; valves often prominently veined.(127)
127(126)Pulvinate perennials; petals white or rarely pale yellow; style 0.5-1.5 mm; seeds not mucilaginous when wetted101  Smelowskia    芹叶荠属
+Annuals or biennials; petals yellow; style obsolete or rarely to 0.5 mm; seeds mucilaginous when wetted.(128)
128(127)Fruit linear, 20-40-seeded, more than 1 cm, torulose99  Descurainia    播娘蒿属
+Fruit obovoid to ellipsoid, rarely ellipsoid-linear, 4-16-seeded, rarely to 1 cm, not torulose100  Sophiopsis    羽裂叶荠属
129(121)Fruit subapically 4-horned65  Tetracme    四齿芥
+Fruit not horned.(130)
130(129)Stigma conical, with strongly decurrent, connivent or united lobes.(131)
+Stigma capitate, entire or slightly lobed, rarely with divergent lobes.(134)
131(130)Fruit latiseptate; seeds broadly winged; trichomes stellate and/or dendritic; cotyledons accumbent.(132)
+Fruit terete or 4-angled (latiseptate in Malcolmia hispida and M. karelinii); seeds wingless; trichomes simple and forked; cotyledons incumbent.(133)
132(131)Perennials; fruit 6-11 cm × 1.5-2.7 mm; petals linear, circinately involute66  Matthiola    紫罗兰属
+Annuals; fruit 3-5 cm × 3-6 mm; petals oblong-obovate to narrowly oblanceolate, flat71  Cithareloma    对枝菜属
133(131)Annuals; lateral sepals not saccate74  Malcolmia    涩芥属
+Perennials or biennials; lateral sepals saccate75  Hesperis    香花芥属
134(130)At least fruit, pedicels, and distal portions of stem exclusively or predominately with malpighiaceous trichomes and without simple trichomes ones.(135)
+Malpighiaceous trichomes absent from distal portions of plant.(137)
135(134)Fruit indehiscent, breaking transversely into 1-seeded segments; septum absent; lowermost parts of plant with stalked trichomes79  Cryptospora    隐子芥属
+Fruit dehiscent; septum present; all parts of plant with sessile, appressed trichomes.(136)
136(135)Cotyledons accumbent; petals white becoming purple; anthers of median stamens 1-lobed78  Atelanthera    异药芥属
+Cotyledons incumbent; petals yellow or orange; anthers of median stamens 2-lobed83  Erysimum    糖芥属
137(134)Fruit (3-)3.5-7(-10) mm wide.(138)
+Fruit to 2(-2.5) mm wide.(142)
138(137)Fruit on a recurved gynophore 3-5 mm; stamens long exserted, 7-10 mm1  Macropodium    长柄芥属
+Fruit sessile; stamens included or slightly exserted, less than 7 mm.(139)
139(138)Racemes bracteate throughout57  Desideria    扇叶芥属
+Racemes ebracteate.(140)
140(139)Fruit strongly reflexed, 4-angled, indehiscent; seeds winged67  Microstigma    小柱芥属
+Fruit erect to divaricate, latiseptate, dehiscent; seeds wingless.(141)
141(140)Fruit margins strongly indurated, bases of valves and replum persistently united; petals white; filaments of median stamens winged62  Lepidostemon    鳞蕊芥属
+Fruit margins not indurated, bases of valves and replum readily separated at dehiscence; petals purplish; median stamens slender58  Eurycarpus    宽果芥属
142(137)Fruit indehiscent, breaking transversely into 1-seeded segments; filaments of median stamens united to middle or nearly to apex80  Sterigmostemum    棒果芥属
+Fruit dehiscent; filaments of median stamens free, rarely united only at base (Synstemon petrovii).(143)
143(142)Seeds winged at least distally.(144)
+Seeds wingless.(146)
144(143)Cotyledons incumbent; filaments of median stamens united at base; petal claws pilose95  Synstemon    连蕊芥属
+Cotyledons accumbent; filaments of median stamens free; petal claws glabrous.(145)
145(144)Cauline leaves auriculate at base, or absent; valves obscurely veined or only midvein distinct; fruit elliptic-linear in cross section48  Arabis    南芥属
+Cauline leaves petiolate; valves with prominent midvein and 2 marginal veins and conspicuous lateral ones; fruit rectangular in cross section49  Sisymbriopsis    假蒜芥属
146(143)Fruit latiseptate.(147)
+Fruit terete or 4-angled.(158)
147(146)Fruiting stems leafless.(148)
+Fruiting stems leafy.(152)
148(147)Annuals or biennials.(149)
+Perennials with well-developed caudex.(150)
149(148)Fruit valve obscurely veined; seeds biseriate41  Draba    葶苈属
+Fruit valve with a prominent midvein; seeds uniseriate55  Drabopsis    假葶苈属
150(148)Seeds biseriate; petals yellow41  Draba    葶苈属
+Seeds uniseriate; petals white or pink.(151)
151(150)Plants robust, not pulvinate, 8-30 cm tall; cotyledons incumbent; petals 6.5-10 mm45  Phaeonychium    藏芥属
+Plants slender, pulvinate, to 2 cm tall; cotyledons accumbent; petals 3-4 mm86  Baimashania    白马芥属
152(147)Racemes bracteate throughout or at least along proximal part.(153)
+Racemes ebracteate.(155)
153(152)Cotyledons accumbent; fruits often twisted; seeds biseriate41  Draba    葶苈属
+Cotyledons incumbent; fruits not twisted; seeds uniseriate.(154)
154(153)Fruit linear; seeds uniseriate45  Phaeonychium    藏芥属
+Fruit lanceolate or elliptic; seeds biseriate92  Aphragmus    寒原荠属
155(152)Plants exclusively with appressed, stellate trichomes; lateral sepals subsaccate; replum constricted between seeds; seeds 6-12 per fruit54  Stevenia    曙南芥属
+Plants with more than 1 kind of trichomes; lateral sepals often not saccate; replum not constricted between seeds; seeds (16-)20-80 per fruit.(156)
156(155)Seeds biseriate; fruit narrowly oblong, lanceolate, lanceolate-linear, or rarely linear, often slightly to strongly contorted41  Draba    葶苈属
+Seeds uniseriate; fruit narrowly linear, not contorted.(157)
157(156)Cauline leaves sessile, auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul at base; at least some trichomes stellate48  Arabis    南芥属
+Cauline leaves petiolate, not auriculate at base; trichomes simple and forked50  Arabidopsis    鼠耳芥属
158(146)Cauline leaves sessile, auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul at base.(159)
+Cauline leaves petiolate or narrowed to a petiolelike base, never auriculate, or fruiting stems leafless.(162)
159(158)Fruit nearly 4-angled, appressed to rachis; plants glaucous distally; cotyledons accumbent59  Turritis    旗杆芥属
+Fruit terete, variously oriented, if appressed to stem then racemes bracteate and/or fruit pubescent; plants not glaucous distally; cotyledons incumbent.(160)
160(159)Branched trichomes sessile, all stellate53  Pseudoarabidopsis    假鼠耳芥属
+Branched trichomes forked, submalpighiaceous, subdendritic, and stellate, often more than 1 type present.(161)
161(160)Fruit with submalpighiaceous trichomes; petals yellow or rarely creamy white; racemes ebracteate52  Olimarabidopsis    无苞芥属
+Fruit glabrous or with stellate or forked trichomes; petals purple, pink, or white; racemes often bracteate at least basally51  Crucihimalaya    须弥芥属
162(158)Fruit pubescent.(163)
+Fruit glabrous.(165)
163(162)Plants with exclusively stalked, stellate trichomes; filaments of median stamens strongly flattened or winged at base93  Berteroella    锥果芥属
+Plants with a mixture of simple, forked, stellate, or submalpighiaceous trichomes; filaments of median stamens slender.(164)
164(163)Fruit linear, sometimes curved or twisted; stems often subdecumbent; plants annual, if perennial then racemes bracteate at least basally94  Neotorularia    念珠芥属
+Fruit oblong, ovoid, or rarely linear; stems erect; plants perennial, with ebracteate racemes96  Braya    肉叶荠属
165(162)Fruiting stems leafy.(166)
+Fruiting stems leafless.(167)
166(165)Plants with exclusively simple and forked trichomes; upper cauline leaves entire; seeds 0.3-0.5 mm50  Arabidopsis    鼠耳芥属
+Plants with some stellate and/or dendritic trichomes; at least some upper cauline leaves dentate, denticulate, or lobed; seeds larger51  Crucihimalaya    须弥芥属
167(165)Annuals; fruit linear; fruiting pedicels nearly as wide as fruit94  Neotorularia    念珠芥属
+Perennials; fruit ovoid, oblong, or rarely linear; fruiting pedicels narrower than fruit96  Braya    肉叶荠属
List of Keys
  • Key to fruiting material
  • Key to flowering material
  •    List of lower taxa