Flora of China
  FOC Vol.16 (1995)              | Family List  Boraginaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Boraginaceae  A. L. Jussieu
紫草科   zi cao ke
Authors:Zhu Ge-lin; Harald Riedl, Rudolf Kamelin


Herbs perennial, biennial, or annual, less often lianas, shrubs, or trees, usually bristly or scabrous-pubescent. Leaves simple, exstipulate, alternate, rarely opposite, entire or serrate at margin. Inflorescences often double scorpioid cymes, rarely solitary; bracts present or absent. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic. Calyx usually 5-parted or lobed, mostly persistent. Corolla tubular, campanulate, rotate, funnelform, or salverform; tube appendages 5, rarely more, mostly trapeziform, rarely absent, sometimes a ring of hairs present; limb usually 5-parted; lobes overlapping, rarely twisted in bud. Stamens 5, inserted on corolla tube or rarely at throat, included or rarely exserted; anthers introrse, 2-loculed, usually dorsifixed at base, less often medifixed, dehiscence longitudinal. Nectaries at base of corolla tube or on disc below ovary. Ovary superior, 2-carpellate; locules 2 and each with 2 ovules, or 4 and each with 1 ovule; ovules nearly atropous, semianatropous, or anatropous. Style terminal or gynobasic, branched or not. Gynobase flat, fastigiate, or subulate. Fruit 1-4-seeded drupes or nutlets (mericarps); nutlets mostly dry, often ornamented with wings, prickles and/or glochids (stiff bristles with barbed or anchorlike tips). Seeds vertical or oblique, coat membranous; embryo straight, less often curved; cotyledons flat, fleshy.

About 156 genera and 2500 species: temperate and tropical regions, centered in the Mediterranean region; 47 genera and 294 species in China, of which four genera and 156 species are endemic.

Anchusa italica Retzius, A. officinalis Linnaeus, and Borago officinalis Linnaeus are cultivated. Borago officinalis is uncommon and not naturalized, and because its seeds contain quality oil, it is probably more commonly grown than previously.

Wang Wen-tsai, Liu Yu-lan, Zhu Ge-ling, Lian Yong-shan, Wang Jing-quan & Wang Qing-rui in Kung Xian-wu & Wang Wen-tsai, eds. 1989. Boraginaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 64(2): 1-253.

1Ovary undivided; style terminal (at ovary apex).(2)
+Ovary (2- or) 4-lobed; style gynobasic (between ovary lobes).(8)
2(1)Style twice 2-cleft; stigmas 4; fruit drupes with 1 pyrene; cotyledons plicate1  Cordia    破布木属
+Style 2-cleft or entire; stigmas 1 or 2; fruit drupes or nutletlike, usually divided into 2 or 4 pyrenes, rarely undivided; cotyledons not plicate.(3)
3(2)Style divided into a basal sterile terete portion that may be strongly reduced, and an upper conical portion; stigma 1, often forming a ring around style.(4)
+Style usually 2-cleft, rarely entire; stigmas 2, capitate or elongated, rarely subpeltate, or 1, 2-cleft, lower part not inflated, without sterile portion.(5)
4(3)Mature fruit with a fleshy or corky mesocarp7  Tournefortia    紫丹属
+Mature fruit dry, with thin mesocarp and bony endocarp6  Heliotropium    天芥菜属
5(3)Fruit dry, without evident mesocarp, divided at maturity into 4 1-seeded mericarps; annual herbs5  Coldenia    双柱紫草属
+Fruit berrylike or drupe with evident fleshy mesocarp, undivided or divided at maturity into 2-4 mericarps; trees or shrubs.(6)
6(5)Style undivided; stigma somewhat 2-cleft, subpeltate, endocarp dividing into 4 1-seeded pyrenes3  Rotula    轮冠木属
+Style 2-cleft; stigmas 2.(7)
7(6)Style 2-cleft to below middle; endocarp undivided, ovoid; leaf blade densely white spotted adaxially4  Carmona    基及树属
+Style 2-cleft to above middle; endocarp divided into 2 2-seeded, rarely 4 1-seeded pyrenes; leaf blade not white spotted adaxially2  Ehretia    厚壳树属
8(1)Ovary 2-lobed; ovules 2, potentially maturing into 2 nutlets39  Rochelia    孪果鹤虱属
+Ovary 4-lobed; ovules 4, potentially maturing into 4 nutlets.(9)
9(8)Connective of anthers prominently subulate, spirally twisted36  Trichodesma    毛束草属
+Connective of anthers not subulate, not spirally twisted.(10)
10(9)Corolla throat unappendaged.(11)
+Corolla throat or tube with prominent appendages, longitudinal folds, or hair bands.(17)
11(10)Anthers coherent at least at base, sagittate; corolla lobes toothed.(12)
+Anthers free, not sagittate at base; corolla lobes mostly not toothed.(13)
12(11)Calyx parted to middle or slightly below, lobes triangular; corolla with inflated ribs below lobes and deep furrows between them11  Maharanga    胀萼紫草属
+Calyx parted to base, lobes linear or linear-lanceolate; corolla without ribs or deep furrows12  Onosma    滇紫草属
13(11)Stamens exserted; nutlet with a cupular emergence abaxially, attachment scar below middle adaxially; gynobase narrowly fastigiate35  Craniospermum    颅果草属
+Stamens included; nutlet without a cupular emergence, attachment scar basal; gynobase flat.(14)
14(13)Corolla zygomorphic, lobes unequal13  Echium    蓝蓟属
+Corolla actinomorphic, lobes subequal.(15)
15(14)Style undivided; nutlet smooth, attachment scar with umbilical tissue14  Pulmonaria    肺草属
+Style 2- or 4-divided; nutlet tuberculate, attachment scar without umbilical tissue.(16)
16(15)Nutlet with short stipe at base; stamens spirally arranged; style shortly 2-cleft10  Stenosolenium    紫筒草属
+Nutlet without stipe; stamens in single whorl, if spirally arranged (Arnebia decumbens) then flowers yellow; style twice 2-cleft9  Arnebia    软紫草属
17(10)Calyx lobes unequal, strongly enlarged in fruit, bilaterally compressed, becoming somewhat clamshell-shaped38  Asperugo    糙草属
+Calyx lobes subequal, slightly enlarged in fruit, not clamshell-shaped.(18)
18(17)Attachment scar concave, with umbilical tissue, margin with ringlike emergence.(19)
+Attachment scar not concave, without umbilical tissue or ringlike emergence.(22)
19(18)Corolla appendages below throat16  Nonea    假狼紫草属
+Corolla appendages at throat.(20)
20(19)Stamens and corolla appendages at same level; corolla lobes dentate18  Symphytum    聚合草属
+Stamens below corolla appendages; corolla lobes not dentate.(21)
21(20)Corolla appendages short pubescent; plants sparsely strigose or hispid15  Anchusa    牛舌草属
+Corolla appendages pilose; plants short strigose, bristly17  Gastrocotyle    腹脐草属
22(18)Anthers mucronulate at apex; nutlets ovoid, smooth, white or gray8  Lithospermum    紫草属
+Anthers not mucronulate at apex; nutlets not ovoid, often not smooth and/or not white or gray.(23)
23(22)Nutlets with glochids or wings.(24)
+Nutlets without glochids or wings.(34)
24(23)Gynobase flat; stem leaves subglabrous.(25)
+Gynobase fastigiate or subulate; stem leaves bristly, rarely glabrous.(26)
25(24)Abaxial surface of nutlet with cupular or crownlike emergence formed by confluent bases of glochids31  Actinocarya    锚刺果属
+Abaxial surface of nutlet without emergence; glochids on adaxial surface coherent into wings32  Metaeritrichium    颈果草属
26(24)Corolla limb shorter than tube; stamens and style exserted.(27)
+Corolla limb ca. as long as to longer than tube; stamens and style included.(29)
27(26)Stamens inserted above appendages; anthers much shorter than filaments, base not hastate45  Solenanthus    长蕊琉璃草属
+Stamens inserted below appendages; anthers ca. as long as to longer than filaments, base hastate.(28)
28(27)Nutlets globose or ovoid, ca. 15 mm, without prickles, broadly winged44  Rindera    翅果草属
+Nutlets compressed, ovate, ca. 6 mm, margins without wings, with dense glochids43  Lindelofia    长柱琉璃草属
29(26)Attachment scar at apex of nutlet.(30)
+Attachment scar at or below middle on adaxial surface of nutlets.(31)
30(29)Abaxial cupular emergence of nutlet broadly winged47  Mattiastrum    盘果草属
+Abaxial cupular emergence of nutlet not winged42  Cynoglossum    琉璃草属
31(29)Gynobase pyramidal, much shorter than nutlets or nearly flat.(32)
+Gynobase subulate, ca. as long as to longer than nutlets.(33)
32(31)Gynobase short pyramidal, to 2-3 mm; fruiting pedicel always deflexed29  Hackelia    假鹤虱属
+Gynobase nearly flat, to 1 mm; fruiting pedicel erect or deflexed28  Eritrichium    齿缘草属
33(31)Adaxial surface of nutlet joined to gynobase (not easily stripped)34  Heterocaryum    异果鹤虱属
+Adaxial surface of nutlet free from gynobase (easily stripped)33  Lappula    鹤虱属
34(23)Nutlets tetrahedral or lenticular.(35)
+Nutlets neither tetrahedral nor lenticular.(40)
35(34)Nutlet with adaxial membranous cupular emergence.(36)
+Nutlet without membranous cupular emergence.(37)
36(35)Leaf blade ovate-cordate; fruiting calyx extremely enlarged, enclosing fruit21  Sinojohnstonia    车前紫草属
+Leaf blade elliptic-ovate; fruiting calyx slightly enlarged, not enclosing fruit22  Omphalotrigonotis    皿果草属
37(35)Stamens included.(38)
+Stamens exserted.(39)
38(37)Corolla lobes convolute; nutlets lenticular19  Myosotis    勿忘草属
+Corolla lobes overlapping; nutlets tetrahedral or 3-angled20  Trigonotis    附地菜属
39(37)Leaves nearly whorled at apex of stem23  Brachybotrys    山茄子属
+Leaves alternate along stem24  Mertensia    滨紫草属
40(34)Stamens exserted41  Antiotrema    长蕊斑种草属
+Stamens included.(41)
41(40)Flowers solitary, terminal; perennial alpine cushion plant27  Chionocharis    垫紫草属
+Flowers several to numerous, in cymes.(42)
42(41)Nutlet without an emergence on either surface.(43)
+Nutlets with a discoid or cupular emergence on abaxial or adaxial surface.(45)
43(42)Gynobase nearly flat; nutlets glabrous, shiny25  Amblynotus    钝背草属
+Gynobase subulate or terete.(44)
44(43)Nutlets short hispid, abaxial surface completely coherent to gynobase37  Lasiocaryum    毛果草属
+Nutlets glabrous, abaxial surface free except for basal attachment scar which is coherent to gynobase26  Microcaryum    微果草属
45(42)Cupular emergence with 2 layers, margin of outer layer dentate46  Thyrocarpus    盾果草属
+Cupular emergence with 1 layer, if 2, margin of outer layer entire.(46)
46(45)Nutlet with cupular emergence adaxially40  Bothriospermum    斑种草属
+Nutlets with cupular emergence on abaxial surface, surrounding an aperture30  Microula    微孔草属
   List of lower taxa