Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Campanulaceae  PDF Adenophora  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   10. Adenophora  Fischer Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou. 6: 165. 1823.
沙参属   sha shen shu
Authors:Authors: Deyuan Hong, Thomas G. Lammers & Laura L. Klein


Herbs, perennial. Roots usually thickened, various in shape, carrot-shaped, mostly fleshy. Caudexes often short, sometimes elongated and branched. Stems erect, less frequently ascending. Basal leaves often rosulate, usually long petiolate, cordate; cauline leaves mostly alternate, rarely opposite or verticillate. Flowers in a cyme; cymes sometimes reduced to a branch with 1 terminal flower and 1 to several bracts, sometimes glomerate into a panicle. Calyx epigynous, rarely semi-epigynous, tube various in shape; lobes 5, entire or dentate. Corolla always epigynous, campanulate, funnelform, or tubular, 5-lobed or 5-fid to middle. Stamens 5; filaments much dilated into a lamella at base; lamellae densely ciliate-villous, valvate, enveloping disk; anthers elongate. Disk usually tubular, rarely annular. Ovary inferior, 3-locular; ovules numerous; style with pollen-receiving hairs; stigma 3-lobed, lobes narrow, recurved. Capsule 3-poricidal below persistent calyx lobes. Seeds numerous, ellipsoid, 1-angular.

Sixty-two species: E Asia, south to India and Vietnam, with one species extending into Europe and another endemic to Crimea; 38 species (23 endemic) in China.

1Cauline leaves all or mostly verticillate(2)
+Cauline leaves all alternate(5)
2(1)Corolla small, less than 11 mm; calyx lobes filiform.38  A. tetraphylla    轮叶沙参
+Corolla larger than 13 mm; calyx lobes lanceolate or subulate(3)
3(2)Calyx lobes toothed; corolla tubular-campanulate, 18-25 mm; style slightly shorter than corolla.33  A. wulingshanica    雾灵沙参
+Calyx lobes entire; corolla campanulate, 13-20 mm; style exserted or included(4)
4(3)Cauline leaves partially verticillate; inflorescence branches not verticillate; calyx lobes lanceolate, 3-6 mm.31  A. pereskiifolia    长白沙参
+Cauline leaves all verticillate; inflorescence branches often verticillate; calyx lobes elliptic-lanceolate, 5-10 mm.32  A. divaricata    展枝沙参
5(1)Cauline leaves (at least lower ones) petiolate, very rarely subsessile(6)
+Cauline leaves sessile, only some individuals of some species (e.g., A. stricta) with lower cauline leaves very shortly winged-petiolate(17)
6(5)Calyx lobes toothed(7)
+Calyx lobes entire, usually ovate to lanceolate, rarely linear-lanceolate, (1-)1.5-4 mm wide(10)
7(6)Cauline leaves pinnatifid up to over half; capsule columnar, base rounded, only ca. 3 mm wide.34  A. lobophylla    裂叶沙参
+Cauline leaves toothed; capsule ellipsoid, base obtuse, more than 3 mm wide(8)
8(7)Cauline leaves with petioles 2-4 cm, cordate at base; disk ca. 0.7 mm high; style equal to corolla in length.7  A. cordifolia    心叶沙参
+Cauline leaves with petioles less than 2.5 cm, cuneate or shallowly cordate at base; disk 1.5-2.5 mm; style ± exserted(9)
9(8)Inflorescence a pseudoraceme or narrow panicle, without secondary branches; calyx lobes with verrucose teeth, or even entire; leaves glabrous adaxially.8  A. liliifolia    新疆沙参
+Inflorescence a large panicle, with secondary branches; calyx lobes often with 1-4 pairs of long teeth, rarely verrucose teeth; leaves sparsely scaberulose adaxially.20  A. potaninii    泡沙参
10(6)Cauline leaves all obviously petiolate, base cordate or rounded, not decurrent or shortly decurrent; calyx lobes obtuse at apex(11)
+Cauline leaves only lower ones petiolate, upper ones sessile or shortly cuneate-petiolate; calyx lobes acute or acuminate at apex(12)
11(10)Cauline leaves all cordate, papery; calyx tube (hypanthium) obconic at least at anthesis.1  A. trachelioides    荠苨
+Cauline leaves rounded or broadly cuneate, only some lower ones shallowly cordate, membranous; calyx tube obovoid or obovoid-conical.2  A. remotiflora    薄叶荠苨
12(10)Cauline leaves only 2, lower one cordate, upper one much smaller.5  A. brevidiscifera    短花盘沙参
+Cauline leaves many, not cordate(13)
13(12)Calyx tube globose, calyx lobes subulate-lanceolate, 8-14 mm; pedicels 1.5-3 cm.6  A. longipedicellata    湖北沙参
+Calyx tube obovoid or obconical, calyx lobes usually shorter; pedicels shorter(14)
14(13)Corolla 1.5-2.7 cm, lobes 5-11 mm; calyx lobes ovate to linear-lanceolate, 1.5-4 mm wide.3  A. petiolata    秦岭沙参
+Corolla less than 1.8 cm, lobes less than 5 mm; calyx lobes linear-lanceolate or subulate, 1-2 mm wide(15)
15(14)Leaves usually sparsely hispidulous, 7-13 × 1.5-3 cm; calyx mostly hairy, occasionally glabrous, lobes 1-2 mm wide; corolla ca. 17 mm.4  A. rupincola    多毛沙参
+Leaves glabrous or hairy along veins, 3-8 cm; calyx glabrous, occasionally scaberulose; corolla 13-15 mm(16)
16(15)Leaves often hairy on margins and along veins; calyx tube obovoid or obconic; inflorescence a narrow panicle or pseudoraceme.8  A. liliifolia    新疆沙参
+Leaves glabrous throughout; calyx tube usually globose, rarely obovoid-globose; inflorescence a panicle.11  A. sinensis    中华沙参
17(5)Corolla small, less than 17 mm, constricted at throat and thus corolla urceolate; style strongly exserted, more than 1.5 × as long as corolla; disk narrowly tubular, 2-7 mm, less than 1 mm wide(18)
+Corolla usually larger, campanulate; style slightly exserted or included, less than 1.5 × as long as corolla; disk not much longer than broad(20)
18(17)Calyx lobes filiform, 3-20 mm, sometimes with 1 or 2 pairs of verrucose teeth at lower part.37  A. capillaris    丝裂沙参
+Calyx lobes subulate, entire(19)
19(18)Stems and leaves densely scaberulose; corolla 10-17 mm.35  A. stenanthina    长柱沙参
+Stems and leaves glabrous or villous; corolla 8-12 mm.36  A. liliifolioides    川藏沙参
20(17)Calyx lobes entire(21)
+Calyx lobes toothed(32)
21(20)Calyx scaberulose; calyx lobes subulate, broadest at base, 6-8 mm; style nearly as long as corolla.10  A. stricta    沙参
+Calyx mostly glabrous, if hairy then corolla ± constricted at throat; calyx lobes triangular-lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 2-6 mm, if more than 6 mm then calyx tube never globose and glabrous; style obviously exserted or not(22)
22(21)Calyx lobes very short, shorter than 2.5 mm(23)
+Calyx lobes longer than 3 mm, broadest at middle(24)
23(22)Cauline leaf blade linear, ca. 5 cm × 0.8 mm; corolla 18-19 mm.14  A. pinifolia    松叶沙参
+Cauline leaf blade linear to oblong, 1.5-4 × 0.3-1 cm; corolla 12-14 mm.15  A. micrantha    小花沙参
24(22)Calyx variously hairy; corolla shallowly lobed, ± constricted at throat, lobes less than 1/4 as long as total length, often reflexed(25)
+Calyx glabrous; corolla more deeply lobed, not constricted at throat, lobes more than 1/4 as long as total length(26)
25(24)Corolla throat slightly constricted, 9-15 mm wide; corolla lobes 4-6 mm.12  A. polyantha    石沙参
+Corolla throat strongly constricted, 4-7 mm wide; corolla lobes up to 3 mm.13  A. contracta    缢花沙参
26(24)Calyx lobes elliptic, ca. 2 mm wide, middle part broadest, nearly 2 × as broad as base.16  A. palustris    沼沙参
+Calyx lobes linear-lanceolate or subulate, base broadest or middle part broadest but not 2 × as broad as base(27)
27(26)Calyx lobes subulate, base broadest(28)
+Calyx lobes linear-lanceolate, middle part broadest, or at least broadest part not at base(30)
28(27)Disk broadly tubular, 3-8 mm, up to 3 mm wide; calyx lobes 5-10 mm; inflorescence a pseudoraceme.17  A. himalayana    喜马拉雅沙参
+Disk less than 1.5 mm; calyx lobes 3-5 mm; inflorescence a panicle, rarely a pseudoraceme(29)
29(28)Cauline leaves ovate to lanceolate, 5-25 mm wide; corolla 12-21 mm.18  A. amurica    阿穆尔沙参
+Cauline leaves mostly linear to linear-elliptic, less than 5 mm wide; corolla 10-13 mm.23  A. stenophylla    扫帚沙参
30(27)Corolla 16-28 mm, lobes 6-8 mm; leaves entire or sparsely serrate, 2-13 mm wide; style usually shorter than or nearly as long as corolla.19  A. gmelinii    狭叶沙参
+Corolla 13-22 mm, lobes 4-6 mm; leaves always crenulate, 5-40 mm wide; calyx lobes 3-6 mm; style exserted or not(31)
31(30)Style included or as long as corolla; leaves 2.5-7 cm; corolla lobes 4-6 mm.9  A. lamarckii    天山沙参
+Style exserted; leaves 6-13 cm; corolla lobes ca. 4 mm.31  A. pereskiifolia    长白沙参
32(20)Calyx lobes ovate-triangular, overlapping at lower part, recurved toward lateral side; capsule subglobose; style included.21  A. tricuspidata    锯齿沙参
+Calyx lobes narrower, never overlapping, not recurved; capsule subglobose or not; style exserted or included(33)
33(32)Cauline leaves aggregated at middle part of stems, glabrous, lanceolate or linear-elliptic.22  A. wilsonii    聚叶沙参
+Cauline leaves evenly distributed or aggregated at lower part of stems, glabrous or hairy(34)
34(33)Cauline leaves linear or linear-elliptic, less than 5 mm wide; calyx lobes subulate, 3-4 mm; corolla 10-13 mm.23  A. stenophylla    扫帚沙参
+Cauline leaves wider; calyx lobes mostly larger; corolla mostly longer(35)
35(34)Flowers solitary and terminal, or several in a pseudoraceme, very occasionally in a narrow panicle; corolla 2-3.4 cm, narrowly campanulate.24  A. elata    狭长花沙参
+Flowers several to numerous, in a pseudoraceme or panicle; corolla rarely (except in A. morrisonensis) more than 2.4 cm, campanulate or broadly campanulate(36)
36(35)Leaves mostly glabrous; stems mostly glabrous, or puberulent(37)
+Leaves ± hairy; stems usually hairy(40)
37(36)Calyx lobes narrowly subulate, ca. 0.5 mm wide; style exserted 4-7 mm above corolla.28  A. hubeiensis    鄂西沙参
+Calyx lobes 1-2 mm wide; style included, or slightly exserted, less than 4 mm above corolla(38)
38(37)Corolla 28-35 mm; disk less than 1 mm.29  A. morrisonensis    台湾沙参
+Corolla much shorter; disk longer(39)
39(38)Capsule ellipsoid or oblong, more than 3 mm in diam.; calyx lobes 5-7 mm.8  A. liliifolia    新疆沙参
+Capsule narrowly ellipsoid, ca. 3 mm in diam.; calyx lobes 2-4(-6) mm.30  A. ningxianica    宁夏沙参
40(36)Leaves mostly aggregated at lower half of stems, upper ones absent or much smaller; calyx lobes 5-20 mm, obviously toothed(41)
+Leaves evenly distributed; calyx lobes 3-7 mm(42)
41(40)Calyx lobes 5-8(-10) mm, often gray; corolla lobed to middle or near middle; disk 0.5-1 mm.26  A. jasionifolia    甘孜沙参
+Calyx lobes 8-20 mm, green; corolla lobed to 1/3; disk 1.2-3.5 mm.27  A. coelestis    天蓝沙参
42(40)Cauline leaves with 2 to several large teeth on each side, puberulent on both surfaces; disk 1.5-3 mm.20  A. potaninii    泡沙参
+Cauline leaves with numerous teeth, adaxially sparsely scaberulose, hispidulous, or glabrous, abaxially hirsute or hispidulous; disk less than 1.4 mm(43)
43(42)Cauline leaves narrowly elliptic or lanceolate, 0.5-2.5 cm; style mostly as long as corolla.18  A. amurica    阿穆尔沙参
+Cauline leaves ovate, 1.5-6.5 cm; style ± exserted.25  A. khasiana    云南沙参
   List of lower taxa