Flora of China
  FOC Vol.16 (1995)              | Family List  Apocynaceae  PDF     | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   Apocynaceae  A. L. Jussieu
夹竹桃科   jia zhu tao ke
Authors:Li Ping-tao; Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg, David J. Middleton


Trees, shrubs, or vines, rarely subshrubs or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple, opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose, terminal or axillary, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform, funnelform, urceolate, or rarely rotate, lobes overlapping to right or left, rarely valvate. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments short; anthers mostly sagittate, free or connivent into a cone adherent to pistil head, dehiscing longitudinally, base rounded, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate or distinct, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete.

About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions. Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.

Fruit type is highly diversified in the family, and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.

Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides, fibers, and rubber.

Tsiang Ying & Li Ping-tao. 1977. Apocynaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 63: 1-249.

1Herbs, sometimes with a woody base.(2)
+Trees, shrubs, or woody climbers.(5)
2(1)Plants with stolons; corolla violet12  Vinca    蔓长春花属
+Plants without stolons; corolla mostly pink or white, sometimes bluish.(3)
3(2)Leaf blade with pale venation; corolla tube narrow, 2-3 cm11  Catharanthus    长春花属
+Leaf blade without pale venation; corolla tube narrow or broad, up to 1 cm.(4)
4(3)Corolla salverform, lobes overlapping to left; all leaves alternate10  Amsonia    水甘草属
+Corolla campanulate or basin-shaped, lobes overlapping to right; usually some leaves opposite36  Apocynum    罗布麻属
5(1)Shrubs or climbers with straight spines1  Carissa    假虎刺属
+Plants without spines.(6)
6(5)Leaves alternate.(7)
+Leaves opposite or whorled.(9)
7(6)Branchlets mostly 2-3 cm in diam.; flowers waxy; fruit a follicle; seeds winged8  Plumeria    鸡蛋花属
+Branchlets less than 1 cm in diam.; flowers not waxy; fruit a drupe; seeds wingless.(8)
8(7)Corolla white, often with a deep pink-red or yellow throat, tube cylindric or nearly so; fruit subglobose18  Cerbera    海芒果属
+Corolla yellow, tube funnelform; fruit rhomboid or nearly so17  Thevetia    黄花夹竹桃属
9(6)Leaves whorled, at least toward tips of branches.(10)
+All leaves opposite.(16)
10(9)Corolla yellow, tube at least 4 cm; fruit globose, prickly20  Allamanda    黄蝉属
+Corolla variously colored, usually not yellow, tube up to 2.2 cm; fruit globose or not, smooth.(11)
11(10)Corolla tube funnelform, 1.2-2.2 cm, with corona; leaves thick, lanceolate, with dark reticulate venation abaxially; fruit a united pair of follicles28  Nerium    夹竹桃属
+Corolla tube almost cylindric, mostly up to 1 cm, if longer then without a corona; leaves often not very thick, variously shaped; fruit a pair of drupes or free follicle.(12)
12(11)Climbers, if erect shrubs then fruit moniliform with 1-4 drupelike articles.(13)
+Erect trees or shrubs, fruit not moniliform.(14)
13(12)Leaves with hairy domatia; fruit follicular, constricted; seeds comose39  Parameria    长节珠属
+Leaves without hairy domatia; fruit moniliform, sometimes globose, transversely constricted into 2-5 drupelike articles14  Alyxia    琏珠藤属
14(12)Fruit slender follicles; seeds hairy; disc of 2 separate glands alternating with carpels, small annular, or absent; often big trees9  Alstonia    鸡骨常山属
+Fruit drupes; seeds not hairy; disc ringlike, cup-shaped, or absent; small trees or shrubs.(15)
15(14)Corolla lobes overlapping to right, often suberect; disc absent; drupes mostly more than 3 cm; mesocarp fibrous16  Ochrosia    玫瑰树属
+Corolla lobes overlapping to left, spreading; disc ringlike or cup-shaped; drupes up to 2 cm; mesocarp fleshy13  Rauvolfia    萝芙木属
16(9)Corolla lobes overlapping to left.(17)
+Corolla lobes overlapping to right.(51)
+Trees or shrubs.(21)
18(17)Corolla tube cylindric or narrowed at throat; fruit berrylike.(19)
+Corolla tube funnelform or nearly so, not narrowed at throat; fruit follicular.(20)
19(18)Disc absent; calyx without colleters inside; corolla with faucal corona scales, tube almost cylindric3  Melodinus    山橙属
+Disc cylindric, thick, fleshy; calyx with basal colleters inside; corolla without faucal corona scales, tube inflated at base, contracted at mouth4  Bousigonia    奶子藤属
20(18)Corolla tube 2-2.5 mm; follicles moniliform39  Parameria    长节珠属
+Corolla tube ca. 12 mm; follicles narrowly fusiform42  Parepigynum    富宁藤属
21(17)Leaf blades with numerous parallel secondary veins; fruit samaroid follicles19  Cameraria    鸭蛋花属
+Leaf blades with secondary veins clearly separate from each other and usually with tertiary veins; fruit berries or wingless follicles.(42)
22Stamens well exserted; corona usually present; fruit long dry follicles; seeds comose29  Wrightia    倒吊笔属
+Stamens included or barely exserted; corona absent; fruit mostly berrylike; seeds not comose.(44)
23Inflorescences fascicled, axillary; fruit of united carpels2  Acokanthera    长药花属
+Inflorescences corymbose, terminal, at branch forks, or sometimes axillary; fruit of at least partly separated carpels.(46)
24Branching not dichotomous; submarginal leaf veins present; corolla tube ca. 7 as long as calyx5  Hunteria    仔榄树属
+Branching dichotomous; submarginal leaf veins absent or obscure; corolla tube long or short.(48)
25Corolla tube slightly shorter or longer than calyx; calyx shed before fruit develops, lobes recurved6  Voacanga    马铃果属
+Corolla tube at least 4 as long as calyx; calyx persistent at fruit base, lobes erect in fresh flowers7  Tabernaemontana    狗牙花属
26Trees or shrubs; corolla lobes not caudate.(52)
+Climbers, if plants erect, corolla lobes caudate (Strophanthus).(59)
27Corolla tube 2.3-5 cm, very narrow; fruit drupaceous; seeds not comose15  Kopsia    蕊木属
+Corolla tube up to 1.9 cm; fruit follicular; seeds comose.(54)
28Peduncle 0.9-1.7 cm; sepals mostly pubescent outside; corolla tube 0.9-1.9 cm; seeds not beaked35  Holarrhena    止泻木属
+Peduncle absent or to 0.8 cm; sepals glabrous or sparsely puberulent outside; corolla tube up to 1.3 cm; seeds beaked.(55)
29Stamens exserted; pedicel 1.5-3 cm; corolla lobes 1.2-1.8 as long as tube; domatia mostly absent33  Kibatalia    倒缨木属
+Stamens included; pedicel 2-8 mm; corolla lobes 0.4-0.9 as long as tube; domatia consisting of pits34  Funtumia    丝胶树属
30Corolla funnelform to subcampanulate and/or tube more than 2 cm, nearly urceolate (Urceola) or subrotate (Vallaris).(60)
+Corolla salverform, tube up to 1.4 cm (1.5-2.5 cm in Aganosmabenthamiana).(73)
31Corolla with corona, lobes caudate or sometimes (S.gratus) not; seeds beaked32  Strophanthus    羊角拗属
+Corolla without corona, lobes not caudate; seeds mostly not beaked.(62)
32Stamens exserted.(63)
+Stamens included.(66)
33Filaments long, without a dorsal gland; corolla broadly funnelform30  Beaumontia    清明花属
+Filaments short, with a dorsal gland; corolla subrotate31  Vallaris    纽子花属
34Corolla tube 1-4 mm, nearly urceolate; inflorescences many flowered, lax38  Urceola    水壶藤属
+Corolla tube at least 20 mm; inflorescences usually few flowered, not lax.(68)
35Plants glabrous or nearly so21  Mandevilla    文藤属
+Plants conspicuously hairy.(70)
36Corolla tube cylindric, limb spreading horizontally, often very wide; follicles more than 5 as long as wide24  Chonemorpha    鹿角藤属
+Corolla tube clearly widened toward throat, limb probably not horizontal; follicles ca. 3 as long as wide25  Amalocalyx    毛车藤属
37Stamens exserted.(74)
+Stamens included.(77)
38Corolla tube 7-13 mm; filaments straight; follicles very slender, of separate carpels27  Pottsia    帘子藤属
+Corolla tube to 5 mm; filaments strongly twisted; follicles rather thick, of united carpels26  Parsonsia    同心结属
39Anther apex with long soft hairs.(78)
+Anther apex glabrous.(81)
40Corolla tube 5-15 mm, 3-8.7 as long as sepals44  Sindechites    毛药藤属
+Corolla tube 1.6-2.5 mm, 1.3-2.3 as long as sepals43  Cleghornia    金平藤属
41Disc divided into 5 erect segments or 5 free scales.(82)
+Disc entire or shortly 5-lobed.(87)
42(21)Corolla tube ca. 5 as long as sepals, 1.5-1.7 cm; inflorescences terminal41  Epigynum    思茅藤属
+Corolla tube mostly to 3 as long as sepals, to 1.4 cm; inflorescences axillary and/or terminal.(84)
43Corolla tube 4.5-14 mm, lobes 5-14 mm, forming in bud a large, rather narrowly ovoid, subacuminate head much wider than tube which is clearly widened around or above middle of stamens22  Trachelospermum    络石属
+Corolla tube 2.5-3 mm, lobes 3-5 mm, forming in bud a small subglobose or ovoid, rounded or blunt head not or slightly wider than tube which is ± barrel-shaped40  Ichnocarpus    腰骨藤属
44(22)Sepals more than twice as long as wide, acuminate or acute, often spreading and longer than corolla tube, if about half as long, then leaf blade with a submarginal vein (A. marginata)23  Aganosma    香花藤属
+Sepals less than twice as long as wide, acute to rounded, erect or apically slightly spreading, up to half as long as corolla tube.(89)
45Corolla lobes neither twisted nor forming a head in bud; bud rounded, almost cylindric40  Ichnocarpus    腰骨藤属
+Corolla lobes twisted in bud, forming a large ovoid head; bud subacute.(91)
46(23)Corolla tube bottle-shaped, clearly narrowed at apex; follicles cylindric24  Chonemorpha    鹿角藤属
+Corolla tube cylindric or nearly so; follicles very narrowly ovoid37  Anodendron    鳝藤属
   List of lower taxa