foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.20-21 (2011)              | Family List  Asteraceae  PDF Asteraceae  PDF   |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   4. Asteraceae tribe Cardueae  CARDUEAE
飞廉族   fei lian zu
  
Authors:Authors: Zhu Shi, Eckhard von Raab-Straube, Werner Greuter & Ludwig Martins

  

Herbs, annual to perennial. Leaves alternate, sometimes all basal. Capitula homogamous or heterogamous, bisexual, sometimes unisexual in dioecious plants, persistent or deciduous, solitary or clustered at end of stem and branches, sometimes surrounded by ± leaflike spiny bracts. Phyllaries imbricate, undivided. Receptacle densely covered with bristles, rarely with short scales, or naked. Florets few to numerous. Corolla usually actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, equally or unequally 5-lobed or sometimes strongly zygomorphic in radiant florets of heterogamous capitula. Stamen filaments glabrous, papillose, or hairy; anther sagittate, base caudate; connective with a sterile apical appendage. Style branches distinct and divergent or coherent medially for most of their length and only seceding along stigmatic margins; sweeping hairs usually confined to a ringlike sometimes swollen zone at base of style branches or longest there and distally abruptly shorter. Achene usually glabrous, rarely ± hairy, apex with a peripheral rim surrounding an apical plate on which pappus is inserted; rim sometimes salient as an entire or dentate crown, sometimes inconspicuous.

About 75 genera and ca. 2,400 species: E and N Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North and South America; 37 genera (four endemic, three introduced) and 440 species (237 endemic, five introduced) in China.

  
1Achene attachment scar lateral or subbasal and oblique; capitula homogamous or heterogamous and mostly with radiant outer florets.5  Subtribe Centaureinae    矢车菊亚族
+Achene attachment scar ± basal; capitula always homogamous(2)
   
2(1)Leaf margin unarmed, entire or with blunt to mucronulate non-pungent teeth, apex of phyllaries sometimes recurved but never hooked.1  Saussurea group    风毛菊属
+Leaf margin spiny or spinulose, or if ± entire then apex of phyllaries hooked(3)
   
3(2)Pappus of distinct scabrid bristles falling off singly or (rarely) pappus absent; style branches distinct and divergent.2  Arctium group    牛蒡属
+Pappus of scabrid to plumose bristles (rarely scales) basally connate into a ring and falling off together; style branches coherent for most of their length(4)
   
4(3)Achene with apical rim either inconspicuous or forming a conspicuous and crenulate (rarely entire) crown, apical plate lacking an elaiosome.3  Onopordum group    大翅蓟属
+Achene with apical rim forming a smooth-margined upright crown, apical plate with a prominent oleaginous central umbo (elaiosome).4  Subtribe Carduinae    飞廉亚族