foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.20-21 (2011)              | Family List  Asteraceae  PDF Asteraceae  PDF   |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   14. Asteraceae tribe Heliantheae  HELIANTHEAE
向日葵族   xiang ri kui zu
  
Authors:Authors: Yousheng Chen & D. J. Nicholas Hind

  

Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs. Rootstock fibrous, tuberous, or woody in form of a xylopodium. Leaves mostly opposite or mostly alternate, rarely whorled, petiolate or sessile, entire, lobed or rarely pinnatisect. Synflorescences of scapose capitula, or capitula arranged in axillary or terminal cymes, corymbs, or panicles, rarely with synflorescences with secondary or tertiary aggregation of capitula. Capitula either heterogamous radiate, heterochromous or homochromous, rarely disciform, or homogamous, discoid, homochromous, florets usually bisexual, rarely unisexual; involucres cylindric to hemispheric or rotate; phyllaries persistent, herbaceous, rarely membranous, 1-6-seriate, when 1-seriate sometimes with oil glands; receptacles usually flat or convex, sometimes hemispheric or conical, usually paleate; paleae usually deciduous, sometimes persistent, distinct or rarely connate, herbaceous to scarious, apices sometimes 3-lobed or -toothed. Ray florets neuter, or female and fertile; lamina entire or 2- or 3-toothed. Disk florets bisexual, fertile or sterile, 4- or 5-lobed; style branches truncate or appendiculate; anther thecae dark or pale, anther tails obtuse and entire, or sagittate, auriculate. Achenes often compressed or angled, usually black or blackish; pappus absent, or usually of (1 or)2(-8) scales and/or awns, sometimes coroniform.

About 210 genera and ca. 3,330 species: mostly in America; 34 genera (25 introduced) and 64 species (one endemic, 43 introduced) in China.

Many species of this tribe are widely cultivated in China. They include Dahlia pinnata Cavanilles, Dyssodia tenuiloba (Candolle) B. L. Robinson, Helenium autumnale Linnaeus, Heliopsis helianthoides (Linnaeus) Sweet, Melampodium divaricatum (Richard) Candolle, Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton & Standley, Sanvitalia procumbens Lamarck, and Silphium perfoliatum Linnaeus.

Many species of this tribe are widely cultivated in China. They include Dahlia pinnata Cavanilles, Dyssodia tenuiloba (Candolle) B. L. Robinson, Helenium autumnale Linnaeus, Heliopsis helianthoides (Linnaeus) Sweet, Melampodium divaricatum (Richard) Candolle, Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton & Standley, Sanvitalia procumbens Lamarck, and Silphium perfoliatum Linnaeus.

  
1Plant generally wind-pollinated or self-pollinated, capitula small and not showy; all florets unisexual, or if bisexual then capitula aggregated into glomerules; ray florets absent(2)
+Plant generally adapted for attracting pollinating insects, capitula colorful and attractive; some or all florets bisexual; ray florets present, sometimes inconspicuous, rarely absent(4)
   
2(1)Florets all bisexual; capitula aggregated into glomerules surrounded by leaflike bracts; achenes free and not surrounded by modified phyllaries into a bur or into spiny, tuberculate, or winged coat.228  Lagascea    单花葵属
+Florets unisexual; capitula not aggregated into glomerules and lacking any outer leaflike bracts; achenes surrounded by modified phyllaries into a prickly bur or spines, tubercles, or wings(3)
   
3(2)Phyllaries in male capitula 1- or 2-seriate, free to base; phyllaries in female capitula 6-12-seriate, their distinct tips mostly ± hooked (distal 1-3 usually longer, stouter, and not hooked), whole becoming a hard, prickly perigynium or bur; florets 2.232  Xanthium    苍耳属
+Phyllaries in male capitula 1-seriate, connate; phyllaries in female capitula 1-8-seriate, usually with free tips forming tubercles, spines, or wings; florets 1(-5).233  Ambrosia    豚草属
   
4(1)Leaves and phyllaries with obvious oil glands(5)
+Leaves and phyllaries lacking oil glands(6)
   
5(4)Phyllaries connate into a tube, sometimes splitting with age; style arms relatively long, spreading or arcuate; leaves lacking basal cilia.202  Tagetes    万寿菊属
+Phyllaries free; style arms minute, scarcely bifurcated; leaf bases distinctly ciliate.203  Pectis    香檬菊属
   
6(4)Only ray florets fertile, ray achenes much longer than those of sterile disk florets(7)
+Disk florets fertile; ray florets present and fertile or sterile or absent(9)
   
7(6)Leaves alternate; ray achenes strongly flattened, each achene ± enclosed by and often attached to subtending phyllary and 2 adjacent paleae, all falling as a unit.234  Parthenium    银胶菊属
+Leaves opposite; ray achenes thick, rounded or weakly compressed, without wings; achenes thick, not obviously flattened, not falling as unit with adjacent paleae(8)
   
8(7)Achenes enveloped and enclosed by prickly inner phyllaries.214  Acanthospermum    刺苞果属
+Achenes merely subtended by unarmed phyllaries.217  Smallanthus    包果菊属
   
9(6)Ray florets with or without short tubes, persistent with corollas fused to apex of achene.211  Zinnia    百日菊属
+Ray florets deciduous, of if ray florets absent (i.e., capitula disciform or discoid) then corollas not fused to apex of achene(10)
   
10(9)Pappus of subulate to acerose scales, or spatulate, entire to erose, fimbriate, or laciniate, sometimes aristate, scales 1-seriate, or plumose, setiform scales (or flattened bristles) 1-seriate, or an apical peg(11)
+Pappus absent, or awned(13)
   
11(10)Pappus of plumose setae.212  Tridax    羽芒菊属
+Pappus of aristate or linear scales with erose or fimbriate margins, or absent(12)
   
12(11)Pappus of 6-12 aristate, rarely linear scales with erose margins; capitula > 10 mm in diam.235  Gaillardia    天人菊属
+Pappus absent or of fimbriate, sometimes aristate scales; capitula 3-5 mm in diam.213  Galinsoga    牛膝菊属
   
13(10)Achenes compressed(14)
+Achenes all relatively plump, or 3-5-angled in ray florets and compressed in disk florets(21)
   
14(13)Pappus of retrorsely barbed awns; leaves opposite or upper alternate(15)
+Pappus absent, or persistent, of 2 bristly cusps or scales; leaves opposite(17)
   
15(14)Style branches with long hairs; pappus of 2 scabrid awns.205  Glossocardia    鹿角草属
+Style branches with short minute papillae; pappus of 2-4 scabrid awns(16)
   
16(15)Anther filaments pubescent; achene apex beaked.206  Cosmos    秋英属
+Anther filaments glabrous; achene apex narrow, not beaked.207  Bidens    鬼针草属
   
17(14)Phyllaries 2-seriate, outer few and smaller, inner membranous, connate at base; pappus of 2-4 awns or scales or absent.208  Coreopsis    金鸡菊属
+Phyllaries free, outer leathery, subequal, inner shorter, similar with paleae; ray achenes narrowly oval and winged, with 2 triangular scales(18)
   
18(17)Achenes markedly dimorphic, those of ray florets with conspicuous, lacerate winged margin, others wingless.219  Synedrella    金腰箭属
+Achenes all ± alike, wingless or somewhat thickly winged distally, not lacerate(19)
   
19(18)Shrubs or small trees; synflorescence of numerous capitula in congested panicles or corymbs; achenes wingless.223  Clibadium    苏利南野菊属
+Annual or perennial herbs; synflorescence of solitary capitula or capitula several in dense clusters; achenes winged or angled(20)
   
20(19)Capitula radiate; pappus of 2 stout awns.220  Calyptocarpus    金腰箭舅属
+Capitula discoid; pappus peglike.221  Eleutheranthera    离药金腰箭属
   
21(13)Achenes enclosed by inner phyllaries or outer paleae(22)
+Achenes not enclosed by inner phyllaries(24)
   
22(21)Capitula tightly or loosely aggregated on short peduncles in corymbose panicles.204  Flaveria    黄顶菊属
+Capitula axillary or in sparse cymes or panicles(23)
   
23(22)Female florets 1-seriate; phyllaries 5, spreading; capitula in sparse panicles, peduncles long.216  Sigesbeckia    豨莶属
+Female florets multiseriate; phyllaries 4, broad, in 2 pairs; capitula axillary, peduncles very short.209  Enydra    沼菊属
   
24(21)Paleae narrow, long, flat; ray florets 2-seriate, lamina small; pappus absent or of 2 short awns(25)
+Paleae concave or folded, ± enclosing florets(26)
   
25(24)Ray floret lamina white; achene body tuberculate.222  Eclipta    鳢肠属
+Ray floret lamina yellow; achene body striate.215  Guizotia    小葵子属
   
26(24)Achenes in ray florets broadly ovate or elliptic, 3-angled; disk achenes ellipsoid, strongly compressed; pappus absent or of up to 10 awnlike bristles.210  Acmella    金钮扣属
+Achenes in bisexual florets 4- or 5-angled, or compressed(27)
   
27(26)Ray florets sterile(28)
+Ray florets fertile(31)
   
28(27)Paleae completely investing and falling with accompanying achene, each forming a hardened perigynium.227  Sclerocarpus    硬果菊属
+Paleae sometimes conduplicate, ± enfolding achenes, not forming perigynium(29)
   
29(28)Pappus absent, a small crown of minute scales, or of 2-4 small scales; receptacles conical to columnar.229  Rudbeckia    金光菊属
+Pappus of 2 awns sometimes with a few scales, or a crown of fused scales, or of 2 awns with fused scales, or absent; receptacles flat to shallowly convex(30)
   
30(29)Peduncles usually distally dilated, always fistulose; pappus absent or coroniform, of connate scales, 1 or 2 scales sometimes subulate to aristate.230  Tithonia    肿柄菊属
+Peduncles never fistulose; pappus absent or readily deciduous, of 2(or 3) usually lanceolate, aristate, or erose scales, plus 0-8 usually shorter scales.231  Helianthus    向日葵属
   
31(27)Pappus elements 2-5, unequal, spinelike or squamalike, persistent, base connate; ray florets female, ray floret lamina short or very short, apex 2-4-dentate; capitula small.218  Blainvillea    百能葳属
+Pappus absent, or scalelike, cyathiform, coroniform, or of 1 or 2 setae; capitula relatively large(32)
   
32(31)Corollas orange to yellow; outer phyllaries herbaceous and larger than inner; leaves sessile or very shortly petiolate; plants mainly prostrate; achenes triangular (ray) or compressed (disk); capitula always solitary, terminal (but appearing axillary) on 224  Sphagneticola    蟛蜞菊属
+Corollas white or yellow; outer phyllaries ± equal in size to inner; leaves usually conspicuously petiolate; plants mostly erect or ascending [sometimes vines or subshrubs outside of our area]; synflorescence of 1-3(-6) capitula, terminal or axillary; pap(33)
   
33(32)Ray florets female and sterile or neuter; pappus awns caducous.225  Melanthera    卤地菊属
+Ray florets female and fertile; pappus absent or single awn persistent.226  Wollastonia    孪花菊属