foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.20-21 (2011)              | Family List  Asteraceae  PDF Asteraceae  PDF   |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   9. Asteraceae tribe Anthemideae  ANTHEMIDEAE
春黄菊族   chun huang ju zu
  
Authors:Authors: Lin Yourun (Ling Yuou-ruen), Zhu Shi, Christopher J. Humphries & Michael G. Gilbert

  

Shrubs, subshrubs, or annual or perennial herbs, aromatic; indumentum of short biseriate glandular hairs (glands) and uniseriate simple, T-shaped or stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, fasciculate or in basal rosettes, pinnatisect, pinnatifid, lobed, serrulate, serrate, or dentate, rarely entire, rarely succulent, base sometimes with stipulelike auricles ("pseudostipules"). Synflorescences mostly terminal, sometimes axillary, cymose or racemose, often paniculate, often flat-topped. Capitula heterogamous, with marginal female florets and central bisexual or male disk florets, or homogamous with only bisexual tubular florets. Phyllaries in 2-7 rows, overlapping, usually with scarious margin and apices. Receptacle paleate or epaleate, rarely pilose or hirsute. Marginal female florets radiate, or corollas tubular to filiform, often 2-toothed, or absent, and capitula disciform, fertile or sterile; corolla yellow or white, less often purplish, pink, orange, or red. Disk florets bisexual or male, tubular or funnel-shaped, usually yellow, rarely whitish, purplish, or red, usually 4- or 5-lobed. Anthers mostly rounded, rarely shortly tailed at base, apical appendage ovate or triangular to subulate. Pollen with or without spines. Style base slender or bulbous; style branches usually free (rarely fused in functionally male florets), usually linear, rarely wider, with apex truncate, penicillate. Achenes often obovoid, obconical, or cylindric, sometimes dorsiventrally flattened, apex rounded or truncate, true pappus absent, sometimes with a pappuslike corona of rather few scarious or bristlelike scales, or with an auricle, usually adaxial.

About 110 genera and ca. 1,750 species: worldwide, mainly concentrated in C Asia, the Mediterranean region, and S Africa; 29 genera (two endemic, four introduced) and 364 species (138 endemic, ten introduced) in China.

This tribe includes well-known vegetables (Glebionis carinata, G. coronaria, and G. segetum) and famous ornamental plants (most notably "Chrysanthemum grandiflorum"; see note under Chrysanthemum). Insecticides are extracted from some species (e.g., Tanacetum (Pyrethrum) cinerariifolium). Other species are very important medicinally (e.g., Artemisia annua, the source of the important anti-malarial drug artemisinin) while some are significant forage plants in dry regions.

This tribe includes well-known vegetables (Glebionis carinata, G. coronaria, and G. segetum) and famous ornamental plants (most notably "Chrysanthemum grandiflorum"; see note under Chrysanthemum). Insecticides are extracted from some species (e.g., Tanacetum (Pyrethrum) cinerariifolium). Other species are very important medicinally (e.g., Artemisia annua, the source of the important anti-malarial drug artemisinin) while some are significant forage plants in dry regions.

  
1Capitula radiate; ray florets often conspicuous, but sometimes not so(2)
+Capitula discoid with all florets bisexual, tubular, or capitula disciform with marginal florets inconspicuous, corollas narrowly tubular to filiform or absent(15)
   
2(1)Receptacle scales present at least near margins of receptacle(3)
+Receptacle scales absent, but receptacle sometimes hairy(4)
   
3(2)Capitula in ± flat-topped panicles; involucres 2-7(-9) mm in diam.; mostly wild plants, only occasionally cultivated as medicinal plants.167  Achillea    蓍属
+Capitula solitary, long pedunculate; involucres 7-15 mm in diam.; mostly grown as ornamentals and only occasionally found as an escape.168  Anthemis    春黄菊属
   
4(2)Achene winged marginal achenes 2- or 3-winged, disk achenes 1- or 2-winged; ray florets mostly bright yellow; plants often grown as vegetables or ornamentals.172  Glebionis    茼蒿属
+Achene not winged; ray florets mostly white or pink, less often yellow (Brachanthemum, some species of Chrysanthemum)(5)
   
5(4)Pappus or corona absent, but achenes sometimes with an obtuse rim or with ribs apically projected(6)
+Pappuslike corona present(10)
   
6(5)Achene with ribs projected at apex(7)
+Achene with ribs not projected at apex(8)
   
7(6)Marsh plants; ray florets sterile.163  Leucanthemella    小滨菊属
+Grassland plants, often grown as ornamentals and only occasionally found as an escape; ray florets fertile.173  Leucanthemum    滨菊属
   
8(6)Dwarf shrubs or subshrubs; involucres campanulate, hemispheric, or obconical; ray florets yellow, lamina ovate, to 3 mm.149  Brachanthemum    短舌菊属
+Herbs, annual or perennial; involucres shallowly cup-shaped; ray florets white, red, or violet, less often yellow (some species of Chrysanthemum), lamina oblong, often more than 5 mm(9)
   
9(8)Perennial herbs or subshrubs; achenes terete, ribs 5-8, uniformly spaced, rather obscure.150  Chrysanthemum    菊属
+Annual herbs; achenes dorsiventrally compressed, ribs 3-5, mainly adaxial, slender but distinct.171  Matricaria    母菊属
   
10(5)Corona of separate scales or bristles(11)
+Corona cupular, shallowly or deeply divided or divided to base(13)
   
11(10)Corona scales obovate, brown tipped.158  Richteria    灰叶匹菊属
+Corona scales bristlelike or subulate(12)
   
12(11)Corona scales many, bristlelike, with flat and palmate bases.156  Allardia    扁毛菊属
+Corona scales 4-6, subulate, unequal, mainly abaxial.165  Opisthopappus    太行菊属
   
13(10)Achene with multicellular hairs between ribs.164  Microcephala    小花菊属
+Achene glabrous(14)
   
14(13)Achene with 5-10 equal ribs, without resin sacs.169  Tanacetum    菊蒿属
+Achene with both thick and thin ribs, abaxially and apically with distinct resin sacs.170  Tripleurospermum    三肋果属
   
15(1)Capitula heterogamous, disciform marginal florets female or neuter, corolla tubular or narrowly tubular or absent, disk florets male or bisexual, tubular(16)
+Capitula homogamous all florets bisexual, tubular(25)
   
16(15)Marginal female florets in many rows(17)
+Marginal female florets in 1 row(18)
   
17(16)Capitula pedunculate, terminal; achenes without persistent style.145  Cotula    山芫绥属
+Capitula sessile, axillary; achenes with persistent style.146  Soliva    裸柱菊属
   
18(16)Capitula in spikes or racemes, often secund, often grouped into panicles(19)
+Capitula in terminal, rounded to flat-topped panicles, clusters, or solitary(21)
   
19(18)Pappuslike corona present.153  Crossostephium    芙蓉菊属
+Corona absent(20)
   
20(19)Marginal florets female, disk florets bisexual, fertile; achenes all over receptacle; leaf blade very variable but never pectinate-pinnatisect.151  Artemisia    蒿属
+Marginal florets partly female, disk florets bisexual, fertile and sterile; achenes in a row around base of receptacle; leaf blade pinnatisect with ± pectinately arranged lateral lobes.155  Neopallasia    栉叶蒿属
   
21(18)Corolla exterior stellate hairy or apically densely pilose with erect straight hairs(22)
+Corolla exterior glabrous or with lower part only sparsely pilose(23)
   
22(21)Annual herbs; corolla exterior apically densely pilose with erect straight hairs.148  Ajaniopsis    画笔菊属
+Subshrubs; corolla exterior with stellate hairs.162  Kaschgaria    喀什菊属
   
23(21)Achene 5-10-ribbed, corona present, 0.1-0.4 mm.169  Tanacetum    菊蒿属
+Achene 2-6-striate, corona absent(24)
   
24(23)Florets all fertile; achenes 4 or 5(or 6)-striate/ribbed.147  Ajania    亚菊属
+Central disk florets sterile; achenes 2-striate.154  Filifolium    线叶菊属
   
25(15)Receptacle scales present at least near margins of receptacle; stems 1 to few, thick with wide pith(26)
+Receptacle scales absent; stems rarely solitary, not conspicuously thickened with wide pith(27)
   
26(25)Stem densely dirty white lanate in lower part, glabrescent in upper part; synflorescence corymbose; involucres ca. 5 mm in diam.159  Handelia    天山蓍属
+Stem densely arachnoid hairy; synflorescence long pedunculate, umbel-like; involucres 6-9 mm in diam.160  Pseudohandelia    拟天山蓍属
   
27(25)Corona absent(28)
+Corona present, cupular or with distinct scales(32)
   
28(27)Capitula many, in elongated spikes or racemes, often grouped into panicles.152  Seriphidium    绢蒿属
+Capitula many or few, in glomerules or flat-topped panicles(29)
   
29(28)Subshrubs, 40-80 cm tall, branches divaricate, sometimes ± spine-tipped; capitula solitary.149  Brachanthemum    短舌菊属
+Herbs or subshrubs, branches not divaricate nor spine-tipped; capitula in corymbs or umbels of 3 or more(30)
   
30(29)Annual herbs; corolla bowl-shaped.166  Stilpnolepis    百花蒿属
+Biennial or perennial herbs or subshrubs; corolla not bowl-shaped(31)
   
31(30)Herbs, stem often solitary, robust, 20-100 cm tall, unbranched below synflorescence, dying after flowering; synflorescence long pedunculate, umbel-like.160  Pseudohandelia    拟天山蓍属
+Herbs perennial or stemless, small subshrubs, or cushion plants, rarely more than 40 cm tall; synflorescence dense or lax ± flat-topped panicles.161  Hippolytia    女蒿属
   
32(27)Achene with distinct resin sacs.170  Tripleurospermum    三肋果属
+Achene without resin sacs(33)
   
33(32)Perennial herbs or subshrubs; achene with 5-12 equally arranged ribs(34)
+Annual herbs; achene with 3-5 adaxial ribs(35)
   
34(33)Capitula usually solitary at apex of stem; florets yellow.157  Cancrinia    小甘菊属
+Capitula many or several, in flat-topped panicle, rarely solitary and then florets orange-red.169  Tanacetum    菊蒿属
   
35(33)Capitula usually solitary at apex of stem; florets constricted in middle.164  Microcephala    小花菊属
+Capitula many or several, in lax corymb or solitary at apex of lateral branches; florets not constricted.171  Matricaria    母菊属