foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.20-21 (2011)              | Family List  Asteraceae  PDF ASTERACEAE  PDF   |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   1. ASTERACEAE tribe MUTISIEAE  MUTISIEAE
帚菊木族   zhou ju mu zu
  
Authors:Authors: Gao Tiangang, Yousheng Chen, D. J. Nicholas Hind & Susana Edith Freire

  

Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, trees, rarely climbers or ramblers, glabrous or with simple, glandular, malpighiaceous or stellate hairs, often glabrescent. Leaves usually evenly spaced, sometimes rosulate or densely spiraled, usually alternate, rarely opposite, lamina simple, variously shaped, usually herbaceous, venation trinervate, pinnate, sometimes parallel, or very rarely palmate, margin entire or lobed, serrate or denticulate, rarely spiny or pinnatisect, lamina rarely compound and paripinnate. Inflorescences scapose or scapiform, or synflorescences cymose or of corymbose or paniculate, axillary or terminal clusters, sometimes of glomerules, very rarely of pseudocephalia. Capitula small to very large, usually chasmogamous, very rarely cleistogamous, usually monoecious, homogamous or heterogamous, radiate, very rarely ligulate, rarely disciform or discoid, 1- to many flowered; involucres cylindric to globose or urceolate; phyllaries imbricate, few to many seriate, sometimes uniseriate, rarely calyculate, rarely distant, usually gradate, often papery or herbaceous, usually homomorphic; receptacles flat, convex or rarely conical, scrobiculate, foveolate, fimbrillate, or alveolate, glabrous or variously pubescent, usually epaleate. Florets rarely all actinomorphic, usually marginal and disk florets distinct; marginal florets usually variously bilabiate (2/3) or pseudobilabiate (1/4), and often distinctly radiate, sometimes ligulate (0/5), bisexual, female, or neuter, corollas glabrous or variously pubescent; staminodes rarely present; disk florets usually bilabiate (2/3), sometimes actinomorphic (5/0), usually fertile, corollas glabrous or variously pubescent, lobes short or long; stamens usually conspicuously exserted from corolla; filaments glabrous or rarely pubescent or papillate, antheropodia inconspicuous or sometimes distinct and variously enlarged or flattened; anther appendages usually acuminate or apiculate and several times as long as wide, sometimes thickened at apex and knoblike, sometimes truncate or rounded; anthers calcarate and caudate, rarely ecalcarate, tails usually long acute, entire or variously laciniate, sometimes conspicuously branched or pilose; styles usually well exserted from corolla and anther cylinder; style base sometimes with conspicuous nectary, with or without distinctive basal node, glabrous, style shaft usually glabrous, rarely papillose in upper part, style branches usually relatively short, apices acute, obtuse to rounded, or truncate and glabrous to papillose dorsally. Achenes fusiform or sometimes distinctly beaked, terete, ribbed or angled or very rarely flattened, glabrous or variously setuliferous, commonly with twin hairs, or rarely tomentose with long tortuous hairs, or appearing papillate, very rarely with stalked and sticky glands (Adenocaulon); carpopodium sometimes absent, more often usually a narrow annulus, sometimes cylindric; pappus sometimes absent but usually of uniseriate, sometimes biseriate to multiseriate, simple, barbellate, subplumose or plumose bristles, sometimes flattened or scalelike, persistent or deciduous, separate or sometimes basally connate.

About 80 genera and ca. 950 species: Africa, Asia, Australia, North and South America; nine genera (two endemic) and 73 species (50 endemic) in China.

Molecular evidence has proposed that a traditionally circumscribed Mutisieae is polyphyletic (Kim et al., Syst. Bot. 27: 598-609. 2002). The majority of the Mutisieae s.l. from China consists of Ainsliaea, Myripnois, and Pertya, and these genera form a distinct clade (recently recognized as the tribe Pertyeae) nested above the Cardueae and the African Mutisieae. Gerbera and its allies (Leibnitzia and Piloselloides) and Adenocaulon are nested in the Mutisieae s.s. clade along with other taxa mostly from South America. Leucomeris and Nouelia are apparently closely related to some South American Mutisieae, recently recognized as the tribe Hyalideae (Panero & Funk, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 115: 909-922. 2002; Panero & Funk, Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 47: 757-782. 2008). To allow easy comparison with FRPS, a conservative concept of the Mutisieae s.l. is followed in the treatment below.

Molecular evidence has proposed that a traditionally circumscribed Mutisieae is polyphyletic (Kim et al., Syst. Bot. 27: 598-609. 2002). The majority of the Mutisieae s.l. from China consists of Ainsliaea, Myripnois, and Pertya, and these genera form a distinct clade (recently recognized as the tribe Pertyeae) nested above the Cardueae and the African Mutisieae. Gerbera and its allies (Leibnitzia and Piloselloides) and Adenocaulon are nested in the Mutisieae s.s. clade along with other taxa mostly from South America. Leucomeris and Nouelia are apparently closely related to some South American Mutisieae, recently recognized as the tribe Hyalideae (Panero & Funk, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 115: 909-922. 2002; Panero & Funk, Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 47: 757-782. 2008). To allow easy comparison with FRPS, a conservative concept of the Mutisieae s.l. is followed in the treatment below.

  
1Shrubs or small trees; style branches glabrous(2)
+Shrubs, subshrubs, or perennial herbs; style branches with short hairs or papillae(3)
   
2(1)Capitula solitary; florets heteromorphic.1  Nouelia    栌菊木属
+Capitula in a dense terminal cyme or glomerule; florets homomorphic.2  Leucomeris    白菊木属
   
3(1)Achenes apically stipitate glandular; pappus absent.3  Adenocaulon    和尚菜属
+Achenes never glandular; pappus usually present(4)
   
4(3)Florets heteromorphic; perennial herbs(5)
+Florets homomorphic; shrubs or perennial herbs(7)
   
5(4)Dimorphic herbs, with two (vernal and autumnal) phases in one year.4  Leibnitzia    大丁草属
+Monomorphic herbs, with only one phase in one year(6)
   
6(5)Marginal female florets 1-seriate.5  Gerbera    火石花属
+Marginal female florets 2-seriate.6  Piloselloides    兔耳一枝箭属
   
7(4)Pappus of plumose bristles or sometimes absent; usually perennial herbs.7  Ainsliaea    兔儿风属
+Pappus of scabrid bristles; usually shrubs(8)
   
8(7)Phyllaries many, more than 3-seriate, unequal.8  Pertya    帚菊属
+Phyllaries few, 2- or 3-seriate, subequal.9  Myripnois    蚂蚱腿子属