Flora of China
  FOC Vol.20-21 (2011)              | Family List  Asteraceae  PDF ASTERACEAE  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
紫菀族   zi wan zu
Authors:Authors: Yilin Chen, Yousheng Chen, Luc Brouillet & John C. Semple


Herbs, perennial, sometimes annual or biennial, subshrubs, or shrubs, sometimes lianas [or trees]. Leaves usually alternate, simple, margin entire, serrate, dentate, or pinnatisect, rarely pinnately lobed. Capitula radiate, sometimes disciform or rarely discoid. Phyllaries many, 1-5-seriate, imbricate or ± equal, herbaceous, membranous or subleathery, margins ± narrowly scarious. Receptacles flat or convex, sometimes hemispheric or conic, or rarely cup-shaped, alveolate or smooth, epaleate or rarely paleate. Ray florets 1 to numerous, 1(-3)-seriate, female, laminate or finely subulate, lamina yellow, rarely orange or reddish to brownish, or white to pink, blue, or purple, apex sometimes 2- or 3-toothed, sometimes multiseriate, with reduced lamina or elaminate, reduced to tube; disk florets bisexual or functionally male, yellow or rarely white, limb cylindric, funnelform, or campanulate; anther base obtuse, rarely caudate, apical appendage ovate to lanceolate; style branches with 2 adaxial stigmatic lines, apical appendages lanceolate to triangular, abaxially pilose, adaxially glabrous. Achenes cylindric, oblong, obovoid, or oblanceoloid, not blackened, usually ribbed or veined. Pappus 1-4-seriate, of barbed or barbellate, rarely long-barbed, fine or coarse bristles, sometimes of setae or scales (all or outermost series), or absent.

About 225 genera and 3,100 species: worldwide, especially in temperate areas of both hemispheres; 30 genera (three endemic, two introduced) and 237 species (112 endemic, 13 introduced) in China; one additional species (Conyza stricta) is of uncertain position.

1Capitula disciform or discoid(2)
+Capitula radiate(17)
2(1)Capitula globose to rounded or oblong; involucres patelliform or hemispheric; receptacles globose to hemispheric or obconic, often swollen, or cup- or funnel-shaped peripherally, convex centrally, rarely flat or convex (Thespis); pappus absent or coronifo(3)
+Capitula cup-shaped; involucres hemispheric or campanulate to turbinate or cylindric; receptacles flat or ± convex, or hemispheric-flattened or hemispheric-conic to lenticular-knobby; pappus of bristles (usually numerous, usually long); herbs perennial or(7)
3(2)Marginal floret corolla minutely tubular or absent; pappus of 6-13 short, coarse bristles; receptacles flat or convex; leaves unlobed.120  Thespis    歧伞菊属
+Marginal floret corolla with filiform tube and/or lamina present; pappus absent or coroniform; receptacles globose to hemispheric or obconic, often swollen, or cup- or funnel-shaped peripherally, convex centrally; leaves often lyrately lobed or lobed, som(4)
4(3)Herbs prostrate; involucres patelliform(5)
+Herbs erect; involucres hemispheric(6)
5(4)Marginal female florets cylindric-linear, funnel-shaped, or ovoid to urceolate, 2- or 3-lobed; disk florets functionally male; synflorescences racemiform or paniculiform, rarely solitary capitula.116  Dichrocephala    鱼眼草属
+Marginal female florets tubular, outer 2-lobed, inner 3- or 4-lobed; disk florets bisexual; synflorescences solitary capitula or laxly corymbiform.118  Grangea    田基黄属
6(4)Leaves pinnatifid or pinnatisect; receptacles cup-shaped or funnel-shaped peripherally (female), slightly convex centrally (disk); marginal female floret lamina none (outer) or short, narrowly funnelform (inner), 2-lobed, purple; disk florets 5-lobed; ach117  Cyathocline    杯菊属
+Leaves sometimes lyrate, sometimes lobed, or not lobed; receptacles convex, hemispheric or globose; ray floret lamina small, rounded, ovate or linear, white to purplish; disk florets 4-lobed; achenes narrowly obovoid, 2-ribbed.119  Myriactis    粘冠草属
7(2)Capitula discoid(8)
+Capitula disciform(10)
8(7)Achenes obovoid; leaves eglandular (or sometimes stipitate glandular); capitula solitary at ends of branches, sometimes forming open paniculate-corymbiform synflorescences; disk floret lobes unequal.139  Aster    紫菀属
+Achenes oblong or lanceolate; leaves gland-dotted or not; capitula in dense or loose corymbiform synflorescences, rarely solitary; disk floret lobes equal(9)
9(8)Involucres broadly obconic to campanulate or hemispheric, phyllaries 1-3-veined; leaves sometimes 3-veined; rhizomes robust.125  Galatella    乳菀属
+Involucres shortly cylindric or sometimes obconic, phyllary midvein ± distinct; leaves 1-veined; rhizomes slender.126  Crinitina    麻菀属
10(7)Woody vines, climbing; achenes angled, 3-ribbed.122  Microglossa    小舌菊属
+Herbs perennial or annual, climbing or erect; achenes compressed, flattened or cylindric, 2-4- or more ribbed or many veined (if 3-ribbed and angled then usually on ray only and disk achenes 2-ribbed)(11)
11(10)Capitula solitary or 2-4-fascicled at ends of branches, shortly pedunculate or sessile; disk corolla lobes unequal, outer 2 longer; herbs perennial, climbing or erect.134  Heteroplexis    异裂菊属
+Capitula terminal, solitary or few, or in racemiform, paniculiform, or corymbiform synflorescences, pedunculate; disk corolla lobes equal; herbs perennial or annual, erect(12)
12(11)Herbs annual, eglandular, glabrous (leaf margin ciliate).144  Symphyotrichum    联毛紫菀属
+Herbs annual or perennial, glandular (sometimes eglandular), hairy(13)
13(12)Involucres urceolate or subcylindric.141  Erigeron    飞蓬属
+Involucres campanulate to hemispheric-campanulate(14)
14(13)Disk florets functionally male (sterile); phyllaries 2- or 3-seriate.135  Psychrogeton    寒蓬属
+Disk florets bisexual (fertile); phyllaries 3- or 4-seriate(15)
15(14)Phyllaries subequal; disk floret limb shortly funnelform; achenes oblanceolate, flattened.136  Neobrachyactis    短星菊属
+Phyllaries imbricate (unequal); disk floret limb funnelform; achenes oblong, compressed(16)
16(15)Female florets elaminate; pappus 1-seriate; synflorescences corymbiform, sometimes glomerate, glomerate-paniculiform, or paniculiform.121  Eschenbachia    白酒草属
+Female florets laminate, lamina short, filiform; pappus ± 2-seriate, outer very short, slender; synflorescences densely compound-corymbiform (see species incertae sedis after Eschenbachia).   
17(1)Ray floret lamina yellow, orange, red, or brownish(18)
+Ray floret lamina white, pink, purple, or blue(23)
18(17)Small shrubs; pappus 3-seriate, outermost of 6 broad scales, inner (absent in disk florets) of flattened bristles, innermost of strongly clavate bristles; leaf blade pinnatilobed; receptacles fimbriate.133  Formania    复芒菊属
+Herbs perennial, sometimes biennial or annual, or subshrubs; pappus 1-3-seriate, outer few short bristles or scales, inner series of bristles, innermost sometimes ± clavate, or only short scales; leaf blade subpinnatifid or unlobed; receptacles naked(19)
19(18)Disk florets functionally male (sterile)(20)
+Disk florets bisexual (fertile)(21)
20(19)Capitula ± large; phyllaries unequal to equal; herbage sometimes or partly long white lanate or cottony; achenes 8-10-veined; pappus bristles long barbellate.115  Nannoglottis    毛冠菊属
+Capitula medium-sized to small; phyllaries imbricate; herbage white tomentose to lanate, sessile to short-stipitate glandular; achenes 2-ribbed; pappus bristles barbellate.135  Psychrogeton    寒蓬属
21(19)Plants resinous; phyllaries looped or hooked; pappus of few deciduous scales or awns.143  Grindelia    胶菀属
+Plants not resinous; phyllaries ± appressed; pappus 1-3-seriate, outer few short bristles or scales, inner series of bristles(22)
22(21)Capitula numerous in terminal racemiform, paniculiform, or corymbose-paniculiform synflorescences; achenes obconic to cylindric, sometimes ± compressed, 8-10-veined.140  Solidago    一枝黄花属
+Capitula solitary; achenes oblong, compressed, 2(-4)-veined.141  Erigeron    飞蓬属
23(17)Pappus absent (that of disk sometimes 1-seriate short scales in Aster)(24)
+Pappus present (rarely absent on ray achene only in Erigeron)(27)
24(23)Herbs scapiform, leaves basal, sometimes rosulate(25)
+Herbs erect, leaves basal (often withered at anthesis) and cauline(26)
25(24)Phyllaries leaflike; receptacles swollen or conic; involucres hemispheric or broadly campanulate; ray florets 1-seriate; disk florets bisexual (fertile), numerous; achenes not beaked, strigillose.123  Bellis    雏菊属
+Phyllaries membranous; receptacles flat or convex; involucres campanulate; ray florets 3- or 4-seriate; disk florets functionally male (sterile), few; achenes shortly beaked, apically glandular.130  Lagenophora    瓶头草属
26(24)Herbs biennial (winter annual); ray florets 3; disk florets few, functionally male (sterile); disk achene pappus absent; ray achenes 3-ribbed.137  Sheareria    虾须草属
+Herbs perennial; ray florets numerous; disk florets numerous, bisexual (fertile); disk achene pappus absent or 1-seriate short scales; achenes 2-5- or more ribbed.139  Aster    紫菀属
27(23)Pappus 1-seriate, of caducous, barbellate, spiniform bristles; disk florets functionally male (sterile); achenes 3-ribbed, slightly winged.131  Calotis    刺冠菊属
+Pappus 1-4-seriate, of persistent (deciduous in Callistephus) barbellate bristles; disk florets bisexual (fertile); achenes 2- to many ribbed, not winged(28)
28(27)Outer phyllaries large, leaflike, inner scarious; pappus 3-seriate, outermost of persistent, short scales, inner 2 of deciduous bristles.132  Callistephus    翠菊属
+Outer phyllaries leaflike (not large) or membranous, inner membranous; pappus 1-4-seriate, outermost of short setae or sometimes scales, inner of persistent (sometimes deciduous) bristles(29)
29(28)Ray florets sterile; achene ribs indistinct; leaf blades often gland-dotted.125  Galatella    乳菀属
+Ray florets female, fertile; achene ribs distinct; leaf blades eglandular or sessile or stipitate glandular (not gland-dotted)(30)
30(29)Subshrubs, strongly branched; leaf margins often revolute; phyllaries leathery.127  Asterothamnus    紫菀木属
+Herbs perennial, biennial, or annual; leaf margins flat (rarely revolute); phyllaries membranous or leaflike(31)
31(30)Pappus conspicuously elongating after anthesis; herbs annual.124  Tripolium    碱菀属
+Pappus not elongating after anthesis; herbs perennial, sometimes annual or biennial(32)
32(31)Leaves basal, linear; achenes slightly veined, densely sericeous, eglandular; capitula solitary.128  Arctogeron    莎菀属
+Leaves basal and cauline (sometimes reduced, then basal not linear); achenes ribbed or veined, glabrous or sparsely to densely strigillose, glandular or eglandular; capitula in synflorescences or solitary(33)
33(32)Achenes 7-10-veined; stems ascending, villous, eglandular.142  Eurybia    北美紫菀属
+Achenes 2-6-ribbed or -veined; stems usually erect, sometimes prostrate, glabrous or hairy, glandular or eglandular(34)
34(33)Disk corollas ± zygomorphic (1 lobe deeper)(35)
+Disk corollas actinomorphic(36)
35(34)Herbs perennial, caespitose; basal leaves numerous (persistent); receptacle shallowly alveolate, naked.138  Rhinactinidia    岩菀属
+Herbs perennial, biennial, or annual, not caespitose, or rarely shrubs; basal leaves withered by anthesis; receptacle alveolate, fimbriate.139  Aster    紫菀属
36(34)Capitula small, numerous in dense corymbiform synflorescences; stems densely glandular; disk corolla limb shortly funnelform; achenes ovoid129  Turczaninovia    女菀属
+Capitula small or medium-sized, solitary or few to numerous in corymbiform, racemiform, or paniculiform synflorescences; stems ± glandular or eglandular; disk corolla limb cylindric to funnelform or campanulate; achenes oblong or obovoid to oblanceoloid(37)
37(36)Disk floret limb cylindric to narrowly funnelform; phyllary midvein reddish or orange.141  Erigeron    飞蓬属
+Disk floret limb campanulate to funnelform; phyllary midvein not reddish or orange(38)
38(37)Herbs perennial, sometimes annual, biennial, or shrubs, glandular or eglandular, glabrous or hairy; involucres hemispheric to campanulate, sometimes obconic; capitula solitary or in corymbiform, sometimes paniculiform synflorescences; achenes oblong or ob139  Aster    紫菀属
+Herbs perennial or annual, eglandular, glabrous (except distally in lines); involucres campanulate or cylindric; capitula in paniculiform synflorescences; achenes oblanceoloid, ± compressed, 2-6-veined, eglandular.144  Symphyotrichum    联毛紫菀属