foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.25 (2009)              | Family List  Orchidaceae  PDF Orchidaceae  PDF   |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   5. Orchidaceae subfam. Epidendroideae  EPIDENDROIDEAE
树兰亚科   shu lan ya ke
  
Authors:Authors: Xinqi Chen, Zhanhe Ji, Guanghua Zhu, Liu Zhongjian, Yi-Bo Luo, Jin Xiaohua, Jeffrey J. Wood, Phillip J. Cribb, Stephan W. Gale, Jaap J. Vermeulen, Paul Ormerod, Howard P. Wood, Dudley Clayton & Alexandra Bell

  

Perennial, terrestrial, epiphytic, or lithophytic herbs or rarely scrambling climbers, either sympodial or monopodial, with short to long rhizomes; plants rarely heteromycotrophic, achlorophyllous and with leaves absent or reduced to scales. Roots slender and wiry to stout and shoelacelike, rarely coralloid, with a 1- to several-layered velamen, smooth to warty, terete to dorsiventrally flattened; aerial roots adventitious. Stems usually leafy, but leaves often reduced in number and rarely reduced to bractlike scales, 1 or more internodes at base often swollen to form a pseudobulb. Leaves entire, alternate or occasionally opposite, often distichous, frequently fleshy or leathery, rarely terete or canaliculate, with a basal sheath, sometimes articulated at base. Inflorescences erect to pendulous, spicate, racemose, or paniculate, 1- to many flowered, basal, lateral, or terminal. Flowers small to large, often quite showy, usually pedicellate, mostly resupinate, glabrous to hairy; ovary inferior, 1-locular. Sepals usually free but sometimes variously adnate, dorsal often dissimilar to laterals, laterals sometimes adnate to column foot to form a saccate, conic or spurlike mentum. Petals free or rarely partly adnate to sepals, similar or not to sepals, often showy; lip entire, variously lobed, or 2- or 3-partite, ornamented or not with calli, ridges, hair cushions, or crests, with or without a basal spur or nectary, margins entire to laciniate. Column short to long, with or without a basal foot, occasionally winged or with lobes or arms at apex or ventrally; anther 1, ± terminal on column, caplike, attached to column apex by a short filament; pollen in tetrads, usually in discrete pollinia; pollinia mealy or waxy, 2, 4, 6, or 8, sessile on viscidium or attached by stipe or stipes to 1 or 2 sticky viscidia; stigma 3-lobed, concave, usually viscous; rostellum usually transverse, less commonly elongate and 1-3-lobed. Fruit a capsule, opening laterally by 3 or 6 slits. Seeds fusiform to discoid, numerous, dustlike, lacking endosperm, sometimes markedly winged; elaters often present.

About 600 genera and 18,000 species in 16 tribes: cosmopolitan in distribution but absent from the Antarctic; 138 genera (seven endemic) and 958 species (305 endemic) in China.

This subfamily is well represented in tropical and subtropical China.

This subfamily is well represented in tropical and subtropical China.