foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Valerianaceae  PDF Valeriana  PDF   |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   3. Valeriana  Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 31. 1753.
缬草属   xie cao shu
  

  

Herbs, perennial. Plants hermaphroditic, gynodioecious, polygamo-dioecious, or dioecious, glabrous or variously pubescent, villous or hirsute, hairs 1- to several celled, white or translucent. Rhizomes elongate, with fibrous roots, or rhizomes reduced, with fascicled, often clavate, roots. Taproots absent (Chinese spp.). Stolons present or absent. Basal leaves rosulate, petiolate or spatulate, undivided, pinnate or pinnatifid, persistent or caducous. Cauline leaves opposite, petiolate to sessile; petiole length typically diminishing upward along stem; blade pinnate, pinnatifid, pinnatisect, or undivided. Inflorescence paniculiform or corymbiform, at anthesis: flowers in remote terminal clusters or in a densely capitate head, branches elongating in fruit; lowermost bracts often lobed, bracts otherwise simple and entire; bracteoles simple, similar to bracts; flowers bisexual, male (not in China?) or female. Calyx a ring at anthesis, unfurling into 5-15 white, plumose segments, 4-8 mm, in mature fruit. Corolla funnelform, rotate or salverform; tube usually gibbous near base; limb 5-lobed. Stamens 3 (4 in Valeriana kawakamii), inserted on corolla tube. Achene compressed dorsally, 3-veined on abaxial side, 1-veined on adaxial side, sterile locules reduced; crowned by persistent, plumose calyx, segments 2-7 mm.

About 300 species: Asia, Europe, North and South America; 21 species (13 endemic) in China.

A difficulty in the key is the rhizomes as unfortunately many collections do not have the rhizomes attached.

A difficulty in the key is the rhizomes as unfortunately many collections do not have the rhizomes attached.

  
1Leaves undivided, or at least lower 2 or 3 pairs of cauline leaves undivided(2)
+Leaves all divided, or rarely lowest 1 or 2 pairs of cauline leaves undivided(9)
   
2(1)Rhizomes relatively stout, 0.5-1.5 cm in diam.; leaves cordate at base, 2-14 × 3-10 cm.13  V. jatamansi    蜘蛛香
+Rhizomes relatively slender, less than 0.5 cm in diam.; leaves not cordate at base(3)
   
3(2)Leaves all undivided(4)
+Upper cauline leaves divided(6)
   
4(3)Leaves entire or sparsely crenulate; plants less than 12 cm tall; achenes hairy.21  V. trichostoma    毛口缬草
+Leaves serrate; plants more than 12 cm tall; achenes glabrous(5)
   
5(4)Inflorescences laxly paniculiform at anthesis, flowers clustered at branch tips; stem glabrous.15  V. lancifolia    披针叶缬草
+Inflorescences compact and capitate at anthesis; stem hirsute.11  V. hiemalis    全缘叶缬草
   
6(3)Undivided leaves entire(7)
+Undivided leaves serrate(8)
   
7(6)Plants 10-35 cm tall; leaf segments sparsely serrate.5  V. fedtschenkoi    新疆缬草
+Plants 5-15 cm tall; leaf segments entire.20  V. tangutica    小缬草
   
8(6)Corolla less than 3 mm; upper cauline leaves usually pinnatisect, segments 5-7.16  V. minutiflora    小花缬草
+Corolla 3.5-4 mm; upper cauline leaves 3-segmented, rarely 5-segmented, lateral segments much smaller than terminal segment.2  V. barbulata    髯毛缬草
   
9(1)Rhizomes 2-8 cm, with marked internodes; roots fibrous, not fascicled; inflorescences lax, with several separate corymbs even at anthesis.7  V. flaccidissima    柔垂缬草
+Rhizomes reduced, without marked internodes; roots fascicled; inflorescences compact or lax at anthesis(10)
   
10(9)Leaf segments entire, rarely incised; plants 5-20(-50) cm tall; leaves all pinnatisect or at least middle and upper cauline leaves pinnatisect, with 4-11 pairs of segments; inflorescences compact at least at anthesis(11)
+Leaf segments always serrate (except V. stenoptera); plants more than (20-)30 cm tall; leaves pinnatisect or not, with 1-11 pairs of segments; inflorescences lax or compact(14)
   
11(10)Plants 5-20(-30) cm tall; leaf segments rounded or obtuse; terminal segment ± larger than lateral ones(12)
+Plants 10-50 cm tall; leaf segments acute to acuminate at apex; terminal segments similar to or larger than lateral ones(13)
   
12(11)Achenes hirsute on both sides; petiole of lowermost cauline leaves 3-6 cm.12  V. hirticalyx    毛果缬草
+Achenes glabrous; petiole of lowermost cauline leaves 0.5-2 cm.8  V. flagellifera    秀丽缬草
   
13(11)Corolla 1.5-3 mm; stems sparsely retrorsely puberulent; all leaf segments similar in shape and size, sparsely puberulent.19  V. stenoptera    窄叶缬草
+Corolla ca. 6 mm; stems glabrous; terminal leaf segment larger than lateral ones, glabrous or sometimes ciliate.6  V. ficariifolia    芥叶缬草
   
14(10)Inflorescences lax, with several separate heads even at anthesis(15)
+Inflorescences compact and capitate, at least at anthesis(18)
   
15(14)Leaves lyrate, terminal segment markedly larger, over 2 times wider than lateral ones; corolla rose or red, 3-4 mm.10  V. hengduanensis    横断山缬草
+Leaves pinnatisect, terminal segments slightly wider than lateral ones; corolla white, 1.5-3.5 mm, or rose, 4-4.5 mm(16)
   
16(15)Corolla rose, 4-4.5 mm; inflorescence corymbiform; achenes ca. 4 mm.18  V. sichuanica    川缬草
+Corolla white, 1.5-3.5 mm; inflorescence paniculiform; achenes 2-2.5(-3) mm(17)
   
17(16)Plants over 50 cm tall; leaf segments large, terminal ones over 3 cm.9  V. hardwickii    长序缬草
+Plants usually less than 20 cm, rarely up to 30 cm tall; leaf segments smaller, terminal ones less than 2 cm.3  V. briquetiana    滇北缬草
   
18(14)Leaves usually lyrate, with 1-4 pairs of segments; terminal segment markedly larger than lateral segments(19)
+Leaves pinnatisect, with 4-11 pairs of segments; terminal segment equal to or slightly larger than lateral segments(21)
   
19(18)Corolla narrowly tubular, tube 4-6 × as long as lobes; achenes 1.5-2 mm.4  V. daphniflora    瑞香缬草
+Corolla funnelform, tube nearly as long as lobes; achenes 2.5-3 mm(20)
   
20(19)Roots fibrous, less than 1 mm in diam.; lateral leaf segments 1- or 2-paired; corolla lobes elliptic.2  V. barbulata    髯毛缬草
+Roots ± carrot-shaped, 1.5-2 mm in diam.; lateral leaf segments 1-4-paired; corolla lobes ovate.16  V. minutiflora    小花缬草
   
21(18)Leaf segments usually entire, rarely incised, acute to acuminate at apex.19  V. stenoptera    窄叶缬草
+Leaf segments always serrate, obtuse or acute at apex(22)
   
22(21)Plants 10-20 cm tall; corolla white, tubular, ca. 2.7 mm.14  V. kawakamii    高山缬草
+Plants over 50 cm tall; corolla rose or white, funnelform, 3-6 cm(23)
   
23(22)Plants glandular-hairy at upper part of stems and inflorescence rachises; inflorescence capitate.1  V. amurensis    黑水缬草
+Plants without glandular hairs; inflorescence corymbiform.17  V. officinalis    缬草
   
   List of lower taxa