Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Lentibulariaceae  PDF Utricularia  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   2. Utricularia  Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 18. 1753.
狸藻属   li zao shu

Calpidisca Barnhart; Diurospermum Edgeworth; Lentibularia Séguier; Megozipa Rafinesque; Meloneura Rafinesque; Nelipus Rafinesque; Vesiculina Rafinesque; Xananthes Rafinesque.


Herbs, perennial or annual, terrestrial, epiphytic, or aquatic, without true roots. Stems modified into rhizoids and stolons, rarely developed. Traps on rhizoids, stolons, and/or leaves, small, bladderlike. Leaves alternate or in a basal rosette, simple to many × divided, veins 1-3, unbranched, dichotomously branched, or pinnately branched. Inflorescences racemose or flowers solitary, pedunculate, usually simple, seldom branched, erect to twining, bracteate; bracts and bracteole often present, scalelike, sometimes basisolute (with base extending below point of insertion). Calyx parted from base into 2 equal or unequal lobes, lobes sometimes apically 2-parted. Corolla lower lip larger than upper lip; lower lip entire or 2- or 3(-6)-lobed, spurred, palate variously raised; upper lip entire or 2- or 3-lobed. Anther thecae confluent or distinct. Capsule adaxially loculicidal, both abaxially and adaxially loculicidal, or circumscissile, rarely indehiscent. Seeds few, many, or rarely 1 per capsule, variously appendaged.

About 220 species: cosmopolitan but mostly in tropical regions, a few in N temperate regions; 25 species (four endemic) in China.

This account is based largely on the work of P. Taylor (Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 14: [i]-xi, 1-724. 1989), which should be consulted for a complete synonymy.

This account is based largely on the work of P. Taylor (Kew Bull., Addit. Ser. 14: [i]-xi, 1-724. 1989), which should be consulted for a complete synonymy.

1Leaves divided into narrowly linear to capillary segments, ultimate segments (except U. limosa) bearing apical and often lateral solitary or fasciculate setulae; bracteoles absent; capsule globose or ellipsoid, not dorsiventrally compressed; seeds globose(2)
+Leaves simple, orbicular to linear, glabrous, margin entire or rarely divided into broader lobes; bracteoles present; capsule globose, ovoid, or ellipsoid, often dorsiventrally compressed; seeds ovoid, obovoid, or ellipsoid, rarely globose(9)
2(1)Scales not present on peduncle; persistent style often equaling or exceeding capsule.25  U. aurea    黄花狸藻
+Scales present on peduncle; persistent style much less than 1/2 as long as capsule(3)
3(2)Scales and bracts basisolute; corolla lilac, violet, or white(4)
+Scales and bracts basifixed; corolla yellow(5)
4(3)Lower corolla lip 2-lobed to ca. 1/2 its length; seeds globose, not winged; rhizoids present and capillary.18  U. limosa    长梗狸藻
+Lower corolla lip rounded to retuse; seeds lenticular, with a broad dentate wing; rhizoids apparently absent.19  U. punctata    盾鳞狸藻
5(3)Turions (overwintering buds) absent; corolla with a few short stipitate glands; capsule laterally 2-valvate; seeds lenticular, with a broadly irregular wing.20  U. gibba    少花狸藻
+Turions usually present; corolla without external stipitate glands; capsule circumscissile; seeds prismatic, (4 or)5- or 6-angled (unknown for U. intermedia)(6)
6(5)Stolons all with green, many × divided leaves with traps, leaf segment capillary or slightly flattened(7)
+Stolons dimorphic, bearing either green leaves with narrowly linear segments with few or no traps or bearing colorless much reduced leaves with traps(8)
7(6)Margins of lower corolla lip deflexed; palate hairy; bracts ovate.21  U. vulgaris    狸藻
+Margins of lower corolla lip spreading; palate glabrous; bracts orbicular.22  U. australis    南方狸藻
8(6)Palate of lower corolla lip with a prominent rounded basal swelling; spur subulate, slightly shorter than lower corolla lip; rhizoids present and filiform.23  U. intermedia    异枝狸藻
+Palate of lower corolla lip without a prominent rounded swelling but much elongate with a raised marginal rim; spur saccate to obtusely broadly conic, ca. 1/2 as long as lower corolla lip; rhizoids absent.24  U. minor    细叶狸藻
9(1)Bracts and bracteoles basisolute, attached just above to below middle(10)
+Bracts and bracteoles basifixed(17)
10(9)Leaves linear to narrowly obovate, vein 1; scales numerous; calyx lobes ± equal in size, upper lobe shorter than upper corolla lip(11)
+Leaves reniform, orbicular, or obovate, veins dichotomously branched; scales absent (seldom few in U. striatula); calyx lobes very unequal in size, upper lobe much longer than upper corolla lip(12)
11(10)Corolla violet, pink, or white, marked with yellow at throat, palate without hooked processes.3  U. caerulea    短梗挖耳草
+Corolla pale bluish purple, palate with hooked processes.4  U. warburgii    钩突耳草
12(10)Plant with a basal tuber(13)
+Plant without a basal tuber(14)
13(12)Spur of corolla ± as long as or shorter than lower corolla lip; leaf blade 1-3 cm.12  U. brachiata    肾叶挖耳草
+Spur of corolla much longer than lower corolla lip; leaf blade 0.4-0.8 cm.13  U. forrestii    长距挖耳草
14(12)Trap mouth with a dorsal deeply 2-cleft appendage; corolla spur subulate, ± as long as lower corolla lip, apex acute.17  U. striatula    圆叶挖耳草
+Trap mouth with a dorsal flabellate appendage; corolla spur cylindric, much shorter than lower corolla lip, apex obtuse(15)
15(14)Middle lobe of lower corolla lip rounded; spur ca. 2 × as long as upper calyx lobe.16  U. salwinensis    怒江挖耳草
+Middle lobe of lower corolla lip emarginate; spur as long as or slightly longer than upper calyx lobe(16)
16(15)Lower corolla lip 5-lobed; seed papillae short, obtuse, tufts of sometimes long bristles at both ends; leaf blade membranous.14  U. kumaonensis    毛籽挖耳草
+Lower corolla lip 3-lobed; seed papillae relatively long, acute, a tuft of short bristles at distal end only; leaf blade fleshy.15  U. multicaulis    多序挖耳草
17(9)Bracteoles similar to or slightly narrower than bracts(18)
+Bracteoles much less than 1/4 as wide as bracts(21)
18(17)Scales present(19)
+Scales absent(20)
19(18)Inflorescences and calyx glabrous; plants annual.1  U. minutissima    斜果挖耳草
+Inflorescences and calyx ± densely covered with multicellular hairs; plants perennial.2  U. hirta    毛挖耳草
20(18)Leaves entire; bracts and bracteoles shortly connate to base; corolla yellowish, spur apex obtuse.10  U. peranomala    合苞挖耳草
+Larger leaves pinnately divided or lobed, smaller leaves entire; bracts and bracteoles not connate; corolla white, with a yellow dot at throat, spur apex 2-lobed.11  U. mangshanensis    莽山挖耳草
21(17)Corolla yellow(22)
+Corolla violet, mauve, lilac, or white(23)
22(21)Peduncle erect; pedicel strongly recurved in fruit; upper calyx lobe shorter than upper corolla lip, apex obtuse.5  U. bifida    挖耳草
+Peduncle twining to erect; pedicel erect in fruit; upper calyx lobe longer than upper corolla lip, apex shortly acuminate.8  U. scandens    缠绕挖耳草
23(21)Peduncle twining; pedicel strongly deflexed in fruit.9  U. foveolata    海南挖耳草
+Peduncle erect; pedicel erect to spreading in fruit(24)
24(23)Fruiting pedicel as long as or shorter than fruiting calyx; calyx lobes suborbicular in fruit; seeds globose, with isodiametric reticulations; leaf blade 2.5-4.5 cm × 1.5-6 mm.6  U. uliginosa    齿萼挖耳草
+Fruiting pedicel much longer than fruiting calyx; calyx lobes ovate in fruit; seeds ovoid to ellipsoid, with elongate reticulations; leaf blade 0.4-2 cm × 0.8-3 mm.7  U. graminifolia    禾叶挖耳草
   List of lower taxa