Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Cucurbitaceae  PDF Trichosanthes  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   21. Trichosanthes  Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 1008. 1753.
栝楼属   gua lou shu
Authors:Authors: Huang Luqi & Charles Jeffrey

Anguina Miller; Cucumeroides Gaertner; Involucraria Seringe.


Herbs, climbing, annual or perennial. Leaf blade simple, unlobed or palmately 3-7(-9)-lobed, rarely compound and 3-5-foliolate, margin usually denticulate. Tendrils usually 2-5-fid, rarely simple. Plants dioecious, rarely monoecious; flowers usually white, rarely pink or red. Male flowers usually in racemes, rarely solitary, sometimes male peduncles in axillary pairs, one 1-flowered, caducous, other bearing a raceme; bracts variable in size and form, rarely absent; calyx tube cylindric, frequently dilated at apex; segments 5, entire, serrate, or laciniate; corolla segments 5, usually long fimbriate; stamens 3, inserted on calyx tube; filaments very short, free; anthers connate, two 2-celled, other 1-celled, cells conduplicate. Female flowers solitary, very rarely in racemes; calyx and corolla as in male flowers; ovary inferior, ovoid or fusiform, 1-loculed with 3 parietal placentas; ovules usually many, generally horizontal, half pendulous; style slender; stigmas 3, entire or bifid. Fruit globose, ovoid, or fusiform, fleshy, usually glabrous and smooth, many seeded, indehiscent. Seeds packed in pulp, 1-loculed, oblong or ovate, and compressed, or 3-loculed, turgid, with 2 lateral locules empty.

About 100 species: Asia and N Australia; 33 species (14 endemic, one introduced) in China.

1Seeds subquadrangular, obovate-triangular, oblong, or 4-angled, 3-loculed, turgid, surrounded by thick ridges(2)
+Seeds elliptic, ovate-elliptic, or oblong, 1-loculed, compressed or turgid(6)
2(1)Seeds 4-angled, with narrow middle ridge, 2 lateral locules broad; leaf blade abaxially glabrous or puberulent on veins.33  T. tetragonosperma    方籽栝楼
+Seeds subquadrangular, obovate-triangular, or oblong, 2 lateral locules narrow; leaf blade abaxially densely pubescent(3)
3(2)Leaves unlobed or irregularly shortly 3-lobed(4)
+Leaves usually 3-7-lobed(5)
4(3)Leaf blade ovate, thinly membranous, unlobed; fruit ovoid, smooth, glabrous.30  T. baviensis    短序栝楼
+Leaf blade broadly cordate, papery, unlobed or shortly 3-lobed; fruit ovoid-oblong or oblong, densely white villous.31  T. trichocarpa    杏籽栝楼
5(3)Bracts lanceolate or oblanceolate, ca. 1.6 × 0.5-0.6 cm, margin triangular-dentate; leaves adaxially glabrous or puberulent.29  T. pilosa    全缘栝楼
+Bracts linear-lanceolate, 2-3 mm, entire; leaves adaxially tomentose.32  T. cucumeroides    王瓜
6(1)Plants monoecious or dioecious; male flowers in racemes, bract very small, less than 5 mm; seed margin undulate-dentate(7)
+Plants dioecious; male flowers solitary or in racemes or rarely in a panicle; bracts 1-6.5 cm or rarely ca. 5 mm; seed margin crenellate(9)
7(6)Plants dioecious; bracts absent or ca. 5 mm; fruit cylindric, ca. 20 × 7 cm.3  T. dafangensis    大方油栝楼
+Plants monoecious; bracts 1-3 mm or very small or absent; fruit cylindric and 100-200 cm, or ovoid-oblong and 5-7 cm(8)
8(7)Bracts 1-3 mm; fruit cylindric, 100-200 × 3-4 cm; leaf lobes obovate.1  T. anguina    蛇瓜
+Bracts absent or very small; fruit ovoid-oblong, 5-7 × 2.5-3.5 cm; leaf lobes rhombic or triangular.2  T. cucumerina    瓜叶栝楼
9(6)Leaves simple, leaf blade smooth on both surfaces; bract in male flower spreading, margin entire or sinuate-dentate(10)
+Leaves simple or 3-5-foliolate; leaf blade white punctate; bracts large, conspicuous, margin dentate(21)
10(9)Male racemes densely villous(11)
+Male racemes slightly hairy or villous, one peduncle 1-flowered, other bearing a raceme(14)
11(10)Leaves leathery, unlobed, leaf blade pubescent on veins.13  T. reticulinervis    两广栝楼
+Leaves papery, unlobed or 3-5-lobed(12)
12(11)Leaves unlobed; seeds subovate, 10-13 × 7-8 mm, margin undulate.11  T. kerrii    长果栝楼
+Leaves 3-5-lobed or deeply lobed(13)
13(12)Leaf blade abaxially densely white sericeous; male flowers solitary, densely white sericeous.12  T. sericeifolia    丝毛栝楼
+Leaf blade abaxially densely brownish villous; male raceme densely brownish villous.20  T. villosa    密毛栝楼
14(10)Leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, subleathery or leathery, unlobed or rarely 3-lobed(15)
+Leaves ovate-cordate or orbicular-cordate, papery, 3-9-lobed to middle or nearly to base(17)
15(14)Leaf blade papery, base cordate; fruit oblong, 7-10 × 6-7 cm.10  T. homophylla    芋叶栝楼
+Leaf blade subleathery or leathery(16)
16(15)Leaf blade subleathery, unlobed, base rounded; fruit globose, ca. 7 cm in diam.8  T. smilacifolia    菝葜叶栝楼
+Leaf blade leathery, unlobed or shortly to deeply 2- or 3-lobed, base truncate; fruit oblong, 12-18 × 5-10 cm.9  T. truncata    大子栝楼
17(14)Male flowers solitary, smaller than 3 cm in diam.; calyx tube narrowly campanulate.7  T. hylonoma    湘桂栝楼
+Male flowers in raceme; flowers larger than 3 cm in diam.; calyx tube narrowly funnelform or cylindric(18)
18(17)Leaves usually 3-5(-7)-lobed(19)
+Leaves deeply 3-7-lobed usually up to base(20)
19(18)Bracts in male flowers ca. 3 cm, margin entire; calyx tube funnelform, ca. 3 cm, segments linear-lanceolate, 10-15 × 1.5-2.5 mm; leaves ovate-cordate.4  T. jinggangshanica    井冈栝楼
+Bracts in male flowers less than 2.5 cm, margin sinuate-dentate; calyx tube cylindric, dilated at apex, 20-40 × ca. 10 mm; leaves suborbicular.5  T. kirilowii    栝楼
20(18)Leaf lobes rhombic; fruiting peduncle 12-16.5 cm.6  T. mianyangensis    绵阳栝楼
+Leaf lobes linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate; fruiting peduncle 4.5-8 cm.14  T. rosthornii    中华栝楼
21(9)Leaves 3-5-foliolate; bracts rhombic-lanceolate(22)
+Leaves simple; bracts broadly ovate or oblong(23)
22(21)Leaflets remotely denticulate at margin.27  T. pedata    趾叶栝楼
+Leaflets entire at margin.28  T. quinquefolia    木基栝楼
23(21)Flowers red, pale red, or purple(24)
+Flowers white(27)
24(23)Seeds ovoid, turgid.22  T. dunniana    糙点栝楼
+Seeds oblong or oblong-ovate, compressed(25)
25(24)Seeds oblong, truncate at both ends, ca. 18 mm; flowers purple; calyx tube ca. 2.5 cm, segments linear; fruit orange-yellow.25  T. rugatisemina    皱籽栝楼
+Seeds oblong-ovate, 10-15 mm; flowers pale red(26)
26(25)Leaf blade deeply (3-)5(-7)-lobed; calyx tube 4-6 cm, segments ovate-lanceolate, denticulate; fruit red.23  T. rubriflos    红花栝楼
+Leaf blade shortly 5-7-lobed or lobed to middle; calyx tube ca. 4 cm, segments narrowly lanceolate, entire; fruit orange-red.24  T. subrosea    粉花栝楼
27(23)Bracts entire(28)
+Bract margin dentate or lacerate(29)
28(27)Bracts ovate, 3.5-4.3 × ca. 2.5 cm, with 2 rows of brownish puncta beside main vein; calyx segments 2-3 cm, margin sharply 2- or 3-lobed; seeds triangular-ovate; leaves membranous, abaxially glabrous, adaxially punctate, petiole 5-11 cm.18  T. quinquangulata    五角栝楼
+Bracts oblong, ca. 4 × 1-1.5 cm; calyx segments ca. 1 cm, entire; seeds subquadrangular; leaves papery, hirsute, petiole 14-17 cm.19  T. cordata    心叶栝楼
29(27)Leaves leathery(30)
+Leaves membranous or papery(31)
30(29)Bracts suborbicular, margin lacerate; calyx segments narrowly ovate, margin laciniate; leaves suborbicular.17  T. lepiniana    马干铃栝楼
+Bracts obovate-oblong, margin dentate; calyx segments narrowly lanceolate, margin dentate; leaves ovate-cordate.26  T. tricuspidata    三尖栝楼
31(29)Leaves papery.21  T. laceribractea    长萼栝楼
+Leaves membranous(32)
32(31)Leaf blade suborbicular, deeply palmately 5-7-lobed; bract margin crenulate; calyx segments ca. 15 mm, entire.15  T. wallichiana    薄叶栝楼
+Leaf blade orbicular-cordate or broadly ovate-cordate, unlobed or irregularly 2- or 3(-5)-lobed; bract margin lobulate with linear- lanceolate lobes; calyx segments ca. 10 mm, entire or serrate.16  T. fissibracteata    裂苞栝楼
   List of lower taxa