Flora of China
  FOC Vol.6 (2001)              | Family List  Caryophyllaceae  PDF Stellaria  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   10. Stellaria  Linnaeus
繁缕属   fan lu shu
Authors:Chen Shilong; Richard K. Rabeler

Fimbripetalum (Turczaninow) Ikonnikov; Mesostemma Vvedensky.


Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial. Roots or rhizomes filiform and slender, roots sometimes robust, fleshy. Stems erect, ascending, or prostrate. Leaves compressed, variously shaped, rarely needlelike; stipules absent. Flowers terminal, seldom only axillary, in cymes or solitary, small; bracts immediately subtending calyx absent. Sepals (4 or)5. Petals (4 or)5, white, rarely green, usually 2-cleft nearly to base, rarely retuse or multilobed, sometimes absent. Stamens 2--5 or (6--)10. Ovary 1-loculed, rarely 3-loculed when young; ovules numerous, rarely several and only 1 or 2 mature; styles (2 or)3(or 4). Capsule orbicular or ovoid, opening by valves (1 or)2 × number of styles. Seeds (1 to) numerous, reniform, slightly compressed, tuberculate or smooth; embryo curved.

About 190 species: mainly in temperate and cold regions; 64 species (28 endemic) in China.

1Petals 5--7-cleft, longer than sepals58  S. radians    瓣繁缕
+Petals 2-cleft either apically or often to base, longer or shorter than sepals, seldom absent.(2)
2(1)Styles 2(or 3) or 4; capsules 4(or 6)-valved.(3)
+Styles usually 3; capsules usually 6-valved.(7)
3(2)Styles 4.(4)
+Styles 2(or 3).(5)
4(3)Sepals rounded apically64  S. strongylosepala    圆萼繁缕
+Sepals long acuminate apically45  S. oxycoccoides    莓苔状繁缕
5(3)Petals and sepals 4; stamens 8; petals ca. 1.5 × as long as sepals; styles 259  S. martjanovii    长裂繁缕
+Petals and sepals 5; stamens 10; petals shorter than the sepals; styles 2(or 3).(6)
6(5)Stems 0.1--0.3 m, tufted; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 0.1--0.2 cm63  S. bistyla    二柱繁缕
+Stems 1--2 m, diffuse; leaves ovate-lanceolate, (2--)3--10 cm61  S. ovatifolia    卵叶繁缕
7(2)Seeds 1--3(--8), ovules few or many; capsules shorter than sepals, often globose; stamens (5--)8--10.(8)
+Seeds and ovules many (rarely few); capsules usually subequaling or longer than sepals, often ovoid; stamens (2--)10, hypogynous or perigynous.(19)
8(7)Stems 15--20 cm tall, not tufted; inflorescence bracts absent; petals ca. 2 × as long as sepals25  S. ebracteata    无苞繁缕
+Stems 2--200 cm, tufted if less than 30 cm; inflorescence bracts present; petals shorter than sepals or absent.(9)
9(8)Stems 50--200 cm, diffuse; leaves lanceolate to oblong- or ovate-lanceolate, (2--)3--11(--23) cm; young ovary 3-loculed, with 3 or 4 ovules.(10)
+Stems 2--30(--60) cm, tufted, plants often cushionlike; leaves linear or ovate, 0.3--3.5 cm; ovary 1-loculed, ovules many.(12)
10(9)Stamens 5; capsule with 2 or 3 mature seeds; petals subequaling sepals62  S. delavayi    大叶繁缕
+Stamens 5 or 10; capsule with 1 mature seed; petals shorter than sepals.(11)
11(10)Plants glandular hairy; leaves lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, base rounded, semiclasping; petals ca. 2/3 as long as sepals60  S. monosperma    独子繁缕
+Plants pubescent with curved hairs; leaves ovate-lanceolate, base narrowed into petiole; petals minute, ca. 1/3 as long as sepals61  S. ovatifolia    卵叶繁缕
12(9)Petals 2-cleft to middle; plants glandular hairy; stamens 10.(13)
+Petals 2-cleft nearly to base or absent; plants densely cushionlike, glabrous or pubescent or woolly; stamens 5 or (8--)10.(14)
13(12)Sepals lanceolate, apex acuminate, margin narrowly membranous; stems terete22  S. dichotoma    叉歧繁缕
+Sepals oblong, apex obtuse, margin broadly membranous; stems quadrangular23  S. amblyosepala    钝萼繁缕
14(12)Petals subequaling sepals; stamens 512  S. petiolaris    细柄繁缕
+Petals shorter than sepals or absent; stamens (8--)10.(15)
15(14)Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 3--6 mm.(16)
+Leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, 4--20(--25) mm.(17)
16(15)Plants 5--7 cm tall; stems glabrous basally, pubescent apically53  S. arenarioides    沙生繁缕
+Plants 10--20 cm tall; stems densely white pubescent, rarely glabrous56  S. decumbens    偃卧繁缕
17(15)Stems glabrous55  S. petraea    岩生繁缕
+Stems pubescent, either with curved hairs or white pilose apically.(18)
18(17)Stems pubescent with curved hairs; flowers few in loose cymes54  S. cherleriae    兴安繁缕
+Stem white lanate apically; flowers many in dense cymes57  S. congestiflora    密花繁缕
19(7)Sepals distinct; stamens hypogynous or perigynous.(20)
+Sepals connate at base into obconic calyx; stamens perigynous.(41)
20(19)Leaves linear-lanceolate; petals ca. 1.5 × as long as sepals24  S. henryi    湖北繁缕
+Leaves broader, usually ovate or ovate-lanceolate; petals of varying lengths.(21)
21(20)Leaves sessile or subsessile, base sometimes slightly clasping.(22)
+All leaves or only leaves of lower stems petiolate.(29)
22(21)Plants glabrous17  S. gyirongensis    吉隆繁缕
+Plants hairy.(23)
23(22)Plants stellate hairy16  S. infracta    内弯繁缕
+Plants pubescent, hairs not stellate.(24)
24(23)Plants pubescent, hairs short, not dense; abaxial leaf midvein prominent.(25)
+Plants glandular hairy, woolly, or hairs long filiform; abaxial leaf midvein prominent or not.(26)
25(24)Leaves with inconspicuous reticulate abaxial veins, only basal margin ciliate; sepals 2--2.5 mm14  S. omeiensis    峨眉繁缕
+Leaves with conspicuous reticulate abaxial veins, margin ciliate; sepals ca. 2.5 mm15  S. reticulivena    网脉繁缕
26(24)Plants densely glandular hairy.(27)
+Plants woolly or with long hairs.(28)
27(26)Leaves ovate, 5--15 mm, margin ciliate; petals 2-cleft to base; seeds rugulose18  S. zangnanensis    藏南繁缕
+Leaves oblong, 12--18 mm, margin not ciliate; petals 2-cleft to middle; seeds tuberculate19  S. tibetica    西藏繁缕
28(26)Plants densely white woolly; petals shorter than sepals; stamens 8; capsules ca. 2 × as long as persistent sepals20  S. lanata    绵毛繁缕
+Plants long filiform hairy; petals nearly as long as sepals; stamens 10; capsules shorter than persistent sepals21  S. patens    白毛繁缕
29(21)Cymes with few flowers or flower solitary and axillary; petals slightly longer than sepals, 2-cleft to base or 2-lobed.(30)
+Cymes usually with numerous flowers; petals shorter than or subequaling sepals, sometimes very small or absent.(34)
30(29)Stems glabrous; petals apically 2-cleft only to 1/3; flowers of 2 types: lower axillary flowers lacking stamens (and petals)5  S. wushanensis    巫山繁缕
+Stems hairy; petals 2-lobed or 2-cleft to base; flowers uniform.(31)
31(30)Stems glandular hairy; leaves ovate or ovate-oblong, 2--8 cm.(32)
+Stem hairs not glandular; leaves ovate to rhombic, 0.5--1.5 cm.(33)
32(31)Capsule slightly longer than sepals; stem with 1 line of multicellular glandular hairs; sepals ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate, apex obtuse1  S. bungeana    林繁缕
+Capsule 1.5--2 × as long as sepals; stem sparsely glandular hairy; sepals lanceolate, apex acute2  S. nemorum    腺毛繁缕
33(31)Stems with appressed hairs; leaves ovate, apex obtuse, base rounded, shortly petiolate or sessile; petals 2-cleft nearly to base3  S. nepalensis    尼泊尔繁缕
+Stems sparsely stiffly hairy; leaves rhombic or triangular-ovate, apex acuminate, base rounded or nearly cordate; petals 2-lobed4  S. arisanensis    阿里山繁缕
34(29)Plants with 1(or 2) lines of hairs on stems or basal margin of leaves and nodes, not pilose or stellate hairy.(35)
+Plants stellate hairy or pilose, rarely glabrous.(37)
35(34)Petals absent or very small; stamens 3--5; seeds 0.7--0.8 mm in diam., with tiny protuberances8  S. pallida    无瓣繁缕
+Petals present, shorter than or subequaling sepals; stamens 3--10; seeds ca. 1 mm or more in diam., with conic or semiglobose protuberances.(36)
36(35)Stems somewhat stout, 30--80 cm tall; petals subequaling sepals; stamens (6--)8--10; seeds ca. 1.5 mm in diam., with conic protuberances6  S. neglecta    鸡肠繁缕
+Stems slender, 10--30 cm tall; petals shorter than or subequaling sepals; stamens 3--5; seeds 1--1.2 mm in diam., with semiglobose protuberances7  S. media    繁缕
37(34)Plants stellate hairy9  S. vestita    箐姑草
+Plants pilose or only petioles pilose, rarely glabrous.(38)
38(37)Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, glabrous on both surfaces, sometimes reddish green10  S. chinensis    中国繁缕
+Leaves narrowly ovate to oblong-lanceolate, white hairy on both surfaces, rarely glabrous.(39)
39(38)Petals absent; leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate13  S. lanipes    绵柄繁缕
+Petals present; leaves oblong-lanceolate to narrowly ovate.(40)
40(39)Leaves oblong-lanceolate, 2.5--4 cm; petals slightly shorter than sepals; stamens 1011  S. pilosoides    长毛箐姑草
+Leaves narrowly ovate, 1.5--2.5 cm; petals subequaling sepals; stamens 512  S. petiolaris    细柄繁缕
41(19)Flowers solitary, axillary or terminal; bracts herbaceous, without membranous margin; pedicels filiform, curved after anthesis; stems glabrous.(42)
+Flowers in cymes or umbels, rarely solitary; bracts all herbaceous or with membranous margin; pedicels not filiform; stems glabrous or not.(43)
42(41)Plants usually less than 5 cm tall; stamens subequaling petals26  S. winkleri    帕米尔繁缕
+Plants 5--14 cm; stamens shorter than petals27  S. crassifolia    叶苞繁缕
43(41)Flowers in cymose umbels; petals absent or small.(44)
+Flowers in dichotomous cymes, rarely solitary; petals present (rarely absent), usually conspicuous.(47)
44(43)Petals small; inflorescence compact; stems less than 5 cm tall49  S. irrigua    冻原繁缕
+Petals absent; inflorescence loose; stems 5--20 cm tall.(45)
45(44)Stems pilose; leaves ovate-lanceolate to ovate50  S. parviumbellata    小伞花繁缕
+Stems glabrous; leaves elliptic or linear to linear-lanceolate.(46)
46(45)Stems tufted; leaves linear to linear-lanceolate; stamens 552  S. subumbellata    亚伞花繁缕
+Stems solitary; leaves elliptic; stamens 1051  S. umbellata    伞花繁缕
47(43)Leaves lanceolate to narrowly ovate, base semiclasping.(48)
+Leaves narrower, linear to linear-lanceolate; base semiclasping or not.(53)
48(47)Plants glabrous; leaves lanceolate.(49)
+Plants pubescent; leaves lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate.(51)
49(48)Leaf margin herbaceous; stamens 1028  S. discolor    翻白繁缕
+Leaf margin cartilaginous, crisp; stamens 5(--10).(50)
50(49)Leaves (2--)5--20 mm; stamens 5(--10)33  S. alsine    雀舌草
+Leaves 30--60 mm; stamens 1038  S. salicifolia    柳叶繁缕
51(48)Leaves lanceolate or narrowly ovate, 4--12 mm, base narrowed; inflorescences with 1--3 flowers30  S. pusilla    小繁缕
+Leaves ovate-lanceolate, 3--10 mm; inflorescences with numerous flowers.(52)
52(51)Leaf apex acute; stems with retrorse hairs; petals slightly longer than sepals; pedicel 5--30 mm, longer than sepals31  S. mainlingensis    米林繁缕
+Leaf apex obtuse; stems minutely pubescent; petals shorter than sepals (rarely absent); pedicel 3--4 mm, subequaling sepals32  S. depressa    凹陷繁缕
53(47)Flower solitary; mature capsule black48  S. soongorica    准噶尔繁缕
+Inflorescences with numerous flowers; mature capsule yellow.(54)
54(53)Stems pubescent.(55)
+Stems glabrous or nearly so.(59)
55(54)Stems pubescent, hairs retrorse44  S. alaschanica    贺兰山繁缕
+Stem pubescence not retrorse.(56)
56(55)Stems not tufted.(57)
+Stems tufted.(58)
57(56)Stems minutely pubescent; leaves linear, sickle-shaped29  S. gyangtseensis    江孜繁缕
+Stems with 2 lines of hairs; leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, not sickle-shaped34  S. graminea    禾叶繁缕
58(56)Stems densely tufted, 5--15 cm tall, with one line of recurved hairs; petals ca. 2/3 as long as sepals46  S. uda    湿地繁缕
+Stems sparsely tufted, 20--30 cm tall, sparsely hairy; petals slightly shorter than or subequaling sepals47  S. souliei    康定繁缕
59(54)Petals 1/2--2/3 as long as the sepals; leaves lanceolate, 1--2 cm35  S. brachypetala    短瓣繁缕
+Petals slightly shorter than to 2 × as long as sepals; leaves linear to lanceolate.(60)
60(59)Abaxial midvein of leaf blade inconspicuous, not raised.(61)
+Abaxial midvein of leaf blade conspicuously raised.(63)
61(60)Leaves oblong-lanceolate, ca. 1 cm, apex obtuse, margin glabrous; flowers 1 or 2; petals slightly longer than sepals41  S. imbricata    覆瓦繁缕
+Leaves linear to lanceolate, 0.5--7 cm, apex acute, margin usually ciliate; flowers numerous; petals slightly shorter to longer than sepals.(62)
62(61)Leaves 0.5--4 cm, margin ciliate at base; seeds black-brown, granulose34  S. graminea    禾叶繁缕
+Leaves 3--5(--7) cm, margin ciliate; seeds brown, sparsely tuberculate36  S. yunnanensis    千针万线草
63(60)Stems rough; leaf margin finely papillate roughened, rarely sparsely ciliate.(64)
+Stems smooth; leaf margin often ciliate, especially near base of blade.(65)
64(63)Sepals ca. 3 mm or less at anthesis, apex obtuse, veins inconspicuous; mature capsule black-brown; seeds smooth40  S. longifolia    长叶繁缕
+Sepals (4--)5 mm or more at anthesis, apex acuminate, veins conspicuous; mature capsule yellowish; seeds rugulose37  S. palustris    沼生繁缕
65(63)Pedicels ca. 15 mm or less; sepals 6--7 mm; petals shorter than sepals39  S. dianthifolia    石竹叶繁缕
+Pedicels ca. 14 mm or longer; sepals 4--5.5 mm; petals subequaling to 2 × as long as sepals.(66)
66(65)Seeds orbicular-reniform, tuberculate; petals 1.5--2 × as long as sepals42  S. nipponica    多花繁缕
+Seeds ellipsoid, rugulose; petals subequaling to 1.5 × as long as sepals43  S. filicaulis    细叶繁缕
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