Flora of China
  FOC Vol.6 (2001)              | Family List  Ranunculaceae  PDF Ranunculus  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   34. Ranunculus  Linnaeus
毛茛属   mao gen shu
Authors:Wang Wencai; Michael G. Gilbert


Herbs perennial or annual, terrestrial or rarely aquatic. Stems usually leafy. Leaves usually both basal and along stem, lower leaves petiolate, petiole expanded into sheath at base; leaf blade simple, palmately divided, 1- or 2-ternate or, rarely, pinnate. Inflorescence a solitary terminal or leaf-opposed flower, or a simple or compound monochasium. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic. Receptacle ± convex, sometimes forming androgynophore (Ranunculus angustisepalus). Sepals (3--)5(--7), usually greenish, occasionally dark reddish or purple, very rarely abaxial sepal appendiculate (R. angustisepalus), deciduous or, rarely, persistent. Petals (3--)5(--10), yellow, rarely white, exceptionally red (not in Flora area), base shortly clawed, with foveolate adaxial nectary pit which is sometimes covered by a scale. Stamens numerous or rarely few. Carpels numerous, sessile or rarely stalked (R. podocarpus); ovule 1 per carpel, basal; style usually present, with adaxial stigmatic tissue, sometimes absent; distinct stigma usually absent. Fruit aggregate, globose, ovoid, or cylindric, with numerous achenes. Achenes ovoid, obovoid, or slightly to strongly bilaterally compressed, smooth, sometimes tuberculate or spiny, sometimes marginate or winged along sutures, usually greenish, black in R. melanogynus. Seeds with a copious endosperm and small embryo.

About 550 species: widespread on all continents except Antarctica, mainly in N temperate regions; 125 species (66 endemic) in China.

Much use has to be made of the form of the leaf blade which varies from simple and entire through to ternately compound. The following terms are used in this account: 3-sect, i.e., divided almost to petiole so as to be almost compound; 3-partite, i.e., divided for half or more of the length of the leaf blade; 3-fid, i.e., divided for less than half of the length of the leaf blade; and 3-lobed, i.e., shallowly and irregularly divided. Some species are very variable and hence have been keyed out several times in the following key.

Species nos. 1–81 in this account belong to Ranunculus sect. Auricomus (Spach) Tamura, a taxonomically difficult group in which apomixis is known to occur.

1Sepals 4, narrowly oblong; base of abaxial sepal appendiculate; androgynophore present125  R. angustisepalus    狭萼毛茛
+Sepals 5, ovate or elliptic, rarely suborbicular; sepals not appendiculate; androgynophore absent.(2)
2(1)Achenes tuberculate or spiny.(3)
+Achenes usually smooth, rarely obscurely ridged.(8)
3(2)Achenes spiny.(4)
+Achenes tuberculate.(5)
4(3)Basal leaves glabrous; stem leaves similar to basal ones, 3-lobed or undivided; achene spines 0.5--1 mm121  R. muricatus    刺果毛茛
+Basal leaves sparsely puberulent; stem leaves 1- or 2-ternate; achene spines up to 2 mm122  R. arvensis    田野毛茛
5(4)Basal leaves ternate or, if simple, 3-cleft; achenes flattened.(6)
+Basal leaves simple, undivided; achenes ± ovoid.(7)
6(5)Achene tuberculate along margin only; basal leaves mostly ternate, a few simple, 3-cleft119  R. sardous    欧毛茛
+Achene tuberculate on whole surface; basal leaves all ternate120  R. trachycarpus    疣果毛茛
7(5)All stem leaves similar to basal ones, ovate or rhombic; petal nectary pit without a scale; style ca. 0.4 mm93  R. ficariifolius    西南毛茛
+Upper stem leaves narrowly triangular or lanceolate; petal nectary pit sometimes with a scale; style ca. 0.1 mm94  R. triangularis    三角叶毛茛
8(7)Petals white, 3--5, oblong95  R. cheirophyllus    掌叶毛茛
+Petals yellow, usually 5, rarely less or more, usually obovate.(9)
9(4)Carpels black; style absent92  R. melanogynus    黑果毛茛
+Carpels greenish; style usually present (absent in R. sceleratus).(10)
10(9)Achenes bilaterally compressed, flattened, marginate or winged along sutures; petal nectary pit covered by a scale.(11)
+Achenes ovoid or obovoid, sometimes slightly bilaterally compressed, but not flattened, neither marginate nor winged along sutures.(44)
11(10)Achenes strongly bilaterally compressed, papery, winged along sutures; basal leaves pinnate.(12)
+Achenes thicker, not papery, narrowly marginate along sutures; basal leaves simple or 1- or 2-ternate.(13)
12(10)Persistent style slightly curved123  R. platyspermus    宽翅毛茛
+Persistent style hooked124  R. regelianus    扁果毛茛
13(12)Flowers leaf-opposed; stems often prostrate.(14)
+Flowers terminal, solitary or 2 or more in monochasium; stems usually erect.(15)
14(12)Sepals spreading; basal leaves ternate or simple112  R. diffusus    铺散毛茛
+Sepals reflexed; basal leaves all ternate113  R. sieboldii    扬子毛茛
15(13)Basal leaves ternate.(16)
+Basal leaves simple, palmatipartite or palmatisect.(23)
16(15)Receptacle glabrous96  R. japonicus    毛茛
+Receptacle hairy.(17)
17(9)Stolons present117  R. repens    匐枝毛茛
+Stolons absent.(18)
18(17)Aggregate fruit cylindric118  R. chinensis    茴茴蒜
+Aggregate fruit globose.(19)
19(18)Flower solitary; carpels 10--17111  R. sinovaginatus    褐鞘毛茛
+Flowers 2--10 in monochasium; carpels many.(20)
20(19)Sepals spreading108  R. trigonus    棱喙毛茛
+Sepals reflexed.(21)
21(20)Persistent style hooked115  R. silerifolius    钩柱毛茛
+Persistent style straight or slightly curved.(22)
22(21)Basal leaves 1-ternate114  R. cantoniensis    禺毛茛
+Basal leaves 2-ternate116  R. tachiroei    长嘴毛茛
23(15)Basal leaves 3-sect.(24)
+Basal leaves 3-partite.(30)
24(1)Receptacle glabrous.(25)
+Receptacle hairy.(27)
25(24)Rhizomes conspicuous, terete101  R. grandifolius    大叶毛茛
+Rhizomes very short, inconspicuous.(26)
26(25)Stems spreading hispid; stem leaves simple, 3-partite, rarely 3-sect, segments lobed; style nearly absent or very short, up to 0.2 mm96  R. japonicus    毛茛
+Stems strigose; stem leaves ternate, or simple, 3-sect, segments dissected; style ca. 0.4 mm, recurved111  R. sinovaginatus    褐鞘毛茛
27(24)Sepals reflexed; carpels 10--17111  R. sinovaginatus    褐鞘毛茛
+Sepals spreading; carpels many.(28)
28(27)Segments of basal leaves lobed, ultimate lobes ovate or triangular108  R. trigonus    棱喙毛茛
+Segments of basal leaves 2 or 3 × dissected, ultimate lobes linear-lanceolate, rarely ovate.(29)
29(28)Persistent style straight or slightly curved109  R. meyerianus    短喙毛茛
+Persistent style hooked110  R. polyanthemos    多花毛茛
30(23)Receptacle hairy.(31)
+Receptacle glabrous.(32)
31(30)Petal 9--10 × 5--9 mm102  R. submarginatus    棱边毛茛
+Petal 3.2--8 × 1.6--4 mm108  R. trigonus    棱喙毛茛
32(30)Stolons present103  R. grandis    大毛茛
+Stolons absent.(33)
33(32)Basal leaf blades broadly cuneate or truncate at base.(34)
+Basal leaf blades cordate at base.(36)
34(33)Basal leaf blades broadly rhombic, base broadly cuneate107  R. cuneifolius    楔叶毛茛
+Basal leaf blades pentagonal, base truncate, subtruncate, or rarely broadly cuneate.(35)
35(34)Stems 20--45 cm, with 2 or 3 stem leaves; basal leaves 1.8--4.5 cm wide; petal 7--10 × 4.5--6 mm105  R. kunmingensis    昆明毛茛
+Stems ca. 70 cm, with ca. 8 stem leaves; basal leaves ca. 10 cm wide; petal ca. 13 × 8--10 mm106  R. changpingensis    昌平毛茛
36(33)Rhizomes conspicuous.(37)
+Rhizomes very short, inconspicuous.(39)
37(36)Rhizomes tuberlike; petals 8--10 mm98  R. smirnovii    兴安毛茛
+Rhizomes subterete; petals up to 14 mm.(38)
38(37)Basal leaves up to 7.8 cm wide; achenes ca. 2.2 mm99  R. distans    黄毛茛
+Basal leaves up to 11 cm wide; achenes ca. 3.5 mm101  R. grandifolius    大叶毛茛
39(36)Stems and petioles of basal leaves strigose.(40)
+Stems and petioles of basal leaves spreading hispid.(41)
40(39)Uppermost stem leaf 3-sect, segments linear, other stem leaves not dissected, ultimate lobes ovate or triangular; nearly all carpels maturing into achenes96  R. japonicus    毛茛
+Stem leaves 2 or 3 × dissected, ultimate lobes linear; only 1--10 carpels per flower maturing into achenes100  R. paishanensis    白山毛茛
41(39)Upper stem leaves abaxially densely silvery strigose96  R. japonicus    毛茛
+Stem leaves abaxially sparsely white strigose.(42)
42(41)Stems solid; basal leaves 2.8(--4) cm wide; flowers 5--8.5 mm in diam.; petals 2.2--5 × 1.6--2.2 mm97  R. taisanensis    鹿场毛茛
+Stems hollow; basal leaves 5--10(--16) cm wide; flowers 14--24 mm in diam.; petals 7--12 × 5.5--8.5 mm.(43)
43(42)Styles nearly absent or very short, up to 0.2 mm, straight or slightly recurved; central lobe of basal leaf obovoid-obtrapeziform, not constricted at base96  R. japonicus    毛茛
+Styles ca. 0.5 mm, circinate at apex; central lobe of basal leaf rhombic-obovate, slightly constricted at base104  R. borealis    北毛茛
44(10)Carpels and achenes stalked90  R. podocarpus    柄果毛茛
+Carpels and achenes sessile.(45)
45(44)Carpel without a style, with a small stigma at top of ovary; achenes with 2 or 3 inconspicuous transverse wrinkles, somewhat turgid along sutures; aggregate fruit conspicuously elongated, more than 2 × as long as wide91  R. sceleratus    石龙芮
+Carpel ± with a style, without a stigma but with inconspicuous stigmatic tissue on ventral surface of style; achenes smooth, not turgid along sutures; aggregate fruit globose to ovoid, usually less than 2 × as long as broad.(46)
46(45)Roots tuberous89  R. ternatus    猫爪草
+Roots fibrous, sometimes thickened at base, but not tuberous.(47)
47(46)Basal leaves absent after anthesis or, if present, subsessile, linear, linear-lanceolate or narrowly spatulate with tapered base; stem leaves subsessile, entire, lanceolate or lanceolate-linear.(48)
+Basal leaves present after anthesis, clearly petiolate; stem leaves usually palmatifid.(50)
48(47)Plants conspicuously stoloniferous; basal leaves present after anthesis88  R. reptans    松叶毛茛
+Plants ascending, not conspicuously stoloniferous; basal leaves withering at anthesis.(49)
49(48)Stems ca. 10 mm thick; leaves 7--10 mm wide; flowers 3 or 4 in terminal compound monochasium, 2.7--3.8 cm in diam.; achenes 2--3 mm86  R. lingua    条叶毛茛
+Stems slender; stem leaves 3--5(--7) mm wide; flowers solitary, 1--2.5 cm in diam., achenes ca. 1.8 mm87  R. amurensis    长叶毛茛
50(47)Herbs small, annual; stamens 4.(51)
+Herbs perennial, with short rhizomes; stamens usually many, rarely 4--10.(52)
51(50)Stems leafless, ca. 3.5 cm; petals 3--3.8 mm, with 3 colorless veins; style longer than ovary80  R. tetrandrus    四蕊毛茛
+Stems 1- or 2-leaved, longer; petals 1.5--2.5 mm, with 3 blue veins; style less than 1/2 as long as ovary81  R. muscigenus    藓丛毛茛
52(50)Blade of basal leaf divided(52)
+Blade of basal leaf not divided.(53)
53(52)Basal leaves entire, or (in R. densiciliatus, R. yechengensis, R. nephelogenes and R. membranaceus) sometimes 1--2-dentate near apex; flowers solitary, terminal.(54)
+Basal leaves with 3 or more teeth at margin.(58)
54(53)Leaf blade hairy.(55)
+Leaf blade glabrous.(56)
55(54)Basal leaves ovate, elliptic, or suborbicular, abaxially glabrous, adaxially sparsely puberulent, margin densely appressed ciliate; stems and leaves drying blackish53  R. densiciliatus    睫毛毛茛
+Basal leaves linear, oblong, or lanceolate, hairy or adaxially glabrous, margin not ciliate; stems and leaves not drying blackish57  R. membranaceus    棉毛茛
56(54)Petal apex rounded; leaf blade of basal leaf ovate, narrowly ovate, oblong, or linear-lanceolate56  R. nephelogenes    云生毛茛
+Petal apex emarginate.(57)
57(56)Petal 9--11 × 6.5--8.5 mm; blade of basal leaf obovate or cuneate, 5--14 × 4--11 mm, margin 1-denticulate on each side; receptacle conic, ca. 2 mm high; stems 3--5 cm54  R. yechengensis    叶城毛茛
+Petal 5.5--7 × 3.5--4 mm; blade of basal leaf ovate, orbicular-ovate, or elliptic, 2.5--5 × 2--3 mm, margin entire; receptacle hemispheric, ca. 0.5 mm high; stems 1.5--2 cm55  R. humillimus    低毛茛
58(57)Carpels and achenes puberulent.(59)
+Carpels and achenes glabrous.(64)
59(58)Basal leaves spatulate or subtrapeziform or obovate, base cuneate, 3--5-dentate at apex or 3--5-crenate on each side(60)
+Basal leaves suborbicular or flabellate, base broadly cuneate, rounded, subtruncate, or subcordate; flowers solitary, terminal.(61)
60(59)Basal leaf margin rounded-dentate to crenate near apex; flowers 2 or 3 in a monochasium; petals 5--10 × 4--7 mm66  R. yunnanensis    云南毛茛
+Basal leaf margin dentate; flower solitary; petals ca. 4 × 2.5 mm65  R. wangianus    文采毛茛
61(60)Leaf blade leathery, suborbicular, base rounded or broadly cuneate, margin 5-crenate73  R. pseudolobatus    大金毛茛
+Leaf blade papery.(62)
62(61)Basal leaves ovate.(63)
+Basal leaves flabellate or oblate, margin 5--7-dentate64  R. felixii    扇叶毛茛
63(62)Stems 3--10 cm; blades of basal leaves with base rounded or broadly cuneate, apex acute, margin ciliate, each side 1--3-denticulate52  R. kunlunshanicus    昆仑毛茛
+Stems 8--36 cm; blades of basal leaves with base truncate or subcordate at base, apex obtuse or rounded, margin glabrous, each side 2--5-dentate77  R. indivisus    圆叶毛茛
64(63)Blades of basal leaves longer than broad, spatulate or ovate.(65)
+Blades of basal leaves broader than long, oblate, subreniform, orbicular-ovate, or depressed deltoid.(68)
65(63)Petals 7; blades of basal leaves spatulate, cuneate, or cuneate-obovate67  R. altaicus    阿尔泰毛茛
+Petals 5(or 6); blades of basal leaves broadly ovate, trapeziform-ovate, ovate, elliptic, or obovate(66)
66(65)Petals narrowly oblong or oblong-oblanceolate, 8 × 2 mm74  R. hetianensis    和田毛茛
+Petals obovate.(67)
67(66)Stems 15--20 cm; blades of basal leaves ovate, elliptic, or obovate, base broadly cuneate or cuneate, 1--3-denticulate on each side51  R. pulchellus    美丽毛茛
+Stems 4--8.5 cm; blades of basal leaves broadly ovate or trapeziform-ovate, base rounded or truncate, 3--5-dentate at or near apex76  R. lobatus    浅裂毛茛
68(66)Basal leaves up to 1.6 cm wide; flower 0.8--1.4 cm in diam.(69)
+Basal leaves up to 3--3.5 cm wide, glabrous; flower 1.5--2.8 cm in diam.(70)
69(68)Stems 5--11.5 cm, puberulent; basal leaves papery; stem leaves 3-lobed to 3-sect; flower 0.8--1.2 cm in diam.; carpel not winged78  R. nyalamensis    聂拉木毛茛
+Stems 1.5--5 cm, glabrous; basal leaves leathery, glabrous; stem leaves undivided; flower 1.2--1.4 cm in diam.; carpel winged along sutures79  R. similis    苞毛茛
70(69)Sepals abaxially yellowish puberulent60  R. albertii    宽瓣毛茛
+Sepals abaxially black-brown puberulent.(71)
71(69)Blades of basal leaves papery, indistinctly 3-lobed, margin glabrous61  R. transiliensis    截叶毛茛
+Blades of basal leaves thinly leathery, unlobed, margin ciliate62  R. fraternus    团叶毛茛
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