Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Acanthaceae  PDF Peristrophe  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   27. Peristrophe  Nees in Wallich Pl. Asiat. Rar. 3: 77, 112. 1832.
观音草属   guan yin cao shu
Authors:Authors: Jia-qi Hu & Thomas F. Daniel


Herbs or shrubs, with cystoliths. Leaf blade margin entire or slightly toothed. Inflorescences in axillary or terminal cymes, these sometimes aggregated into a leafy panicle-like complex; cymes consisting of (1 or)2-4(or more) involucres; involucres of usually 1-3 flowers enclosed by 2(or more) pairs of bracteoles that conceal calyx and corolla tube. Outer pair of bracteoles equal to unequal in size and larger than inner pair(s). Calyx small, 5-lobed; lobes equal. Corolla white to pink or purple, usually large, resupinate 180°; tube slender, twisted, apically ± widened into throat; limb 2-lipped; upper lip (in lower position) entire to 2-cleft; lower lip (in upper position) 3-lobed; lobes ascending cochlear in bud. Stamens 2, inserted at corolla throat, exserted from corolla tube; anthers 2-thecous; thecae unequally inserted or superposed (contiguous or separated by gap), base muticous; staminodes absent. Ovary with 2 ovules per locule; stigma slightly enlarged or 2-cleft. Capsule with a solid stalk, 4-seeded; retinacula present; placenta not rising elastically from base of valves. Seeds discoid, smooth to tuberculate, lacking trichomes.

About 40 species: tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia, and Madagascar, with one species possibly extending to Australia (see R. M. Barker, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 9: 192. 1986); ten species (three endemic) in China.

1Outer involucral bracteoles abaxially pubescent with gland-tipped trichomes(2)
+Outer involucral bracteoles abaxially glabrous or pubescent with non-glandular trichomes(3)
2(1)Corolla ca. 4.5 cm, pubescent with gland-tipped and non-glandular trichomes.1  P. lanceolaria    五指山蓝
+Corolla ca. 1 cm, outside pubescent with non-glandular trichomes.2  P. paniculata    双萼观音草
3(1)Anther thecae superposed (i.e., one entirely above other and with a gap between them)(4)
+Anther thecae inserted at same level or at different levels but overlapping(5)
4(3)Corolla ca. 1 cm; outer involucral bracteoles subulate to lanceolate to linear, less than 3 mm wide; capsule pubescent with non-glandular trichomes.2  P. paniculata    双萼观音草
+Corolla 3-3.4 cm; outer involucral bracteoles ovate to elliptic, more than 5 mm wide; capsule pubescent with gland-tipped and non-glandular trichomes.10  P. japonica    九头狮子草
5(3)Anther thecae inserted at same level.3  P. yunnanensis    滇观音草
+Anther thecae inserted at different levels(6)
6(5)Outer involucral bracteoles less than 2 × as long as calyx(7)
+Outer involucral bracteoles more than 2 × as long as calyx(8)
7(6)Leaf blade subglabrous.4  P. tianmuensis    天目山蓝
+Leaf blade densely pubescent.5  P. strigosa    糙叶山蓝
8(6)Corolla and capsule glabrous.6  P. montana    岩观音草
+Corolla and capsule pubescent(9)
9(8)Leaf blade adaxially puberulent (especially along midvein) or becoming subglabrescent; corolla 3-5.7 cm.7  P. bivalvis    观音草
+Leaf blade adaxially sparsely pubescent; corolla 2-4 cm(10)
10(9)Outer involucral bracteoles narrowly ovate to lanceolate, more than 4 × as long as wide.8  P. floribunda    海南山蓝
+Outer involucral bracteoles ovate to oblong to elliptic, less than 3 × as long as wide(11)
11(10)Outer involucral bracteoles ovate to oblong, abaxially slightly villous, base subcordate.9  P. fera    野山蓝
+Outer involucral bracteoles ovate to elliptic, abaxially subglabrous to puberulent, base cuneate to truncate.10  P. japonica    九头狮子草
   Lower Taxon
  • Peristrophe japonica  (Thunberg) Bremekamp  九头狮子草
  • Peristrophe strigosa  C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo  糙叶山蓝
  • Peristrophe yunnanensis  W. W. Smith  滇观音草
  • Peristrophe paniculata  (Forssk?l) Brummitt  双萼观音草
  • Peristrophe bivalvis  (Linnaeus) Merrill  观音草
  • Peristrophe fera  C. B. Clarke in J. D. Hooker  野山蓝
  • Peristrophe floribunda  (Hemsley) C. Y. Wu & H. S. Lo  海南山蓝
  • Peristrophe lanceolaria  (Roxburgh) Nees in Wallich  五指山蓝
  • Peristrophe montana  Nees in Wallich  岩观音草
  • Peristrophe tianmuensis  H. S. Lo  天目山蓝