Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Berberidaceae  PDF Mahonia  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   3. Mahonia  Nuttall Gen. N. Amer. Pl. 1: 211. 1818.
十大功劳属   shi da gong lao shu
Authors:Authors: Junsheng Ying, David E. Boufford & Anthony R. Brach

Odostemon Rafinesque.


Shrubs or small trees, evergreen, 0.3-8 m tall. Spines absent. Leaves imparipinnate, alternate, sessile or petiolate; petiole to 14 cm; leaflets 3-41; lateral leaflets usually sessile; terminal leaflet sessile or petiolulate; margins of leaflets entire, variously toothed, or with coarse or fine serrations. Inflorescence terminal, of (1-)3-18-fascicled simple or branched racemes or panicles, 3-35 cm, subtended by leafletlike bracts. Pedicel 1.5-24 mm, subtending bract shorter or longer than pedicel. Flowers yellow, with 3 whorls of sepals and 1 whorl of petals, with or without glands at base of petals. Anther connective not prolonged, apiculate or conspicuously prolonged. Ovary ellipsoid; ovules 1-7; styles absent or to 3 mm, persistent on mature fruit. Fruit berries, bluish or black, often glaucous. Seeds 1-7.

About 60 species: mainly in E and SE Asia, also in W North America, Central America, and W South America; 31 species (27 endemic) in China; six additional species (five endemic) are insufficiently known.

Most of the Chinese wild populations of Mahonia have been extirpated, probably as a result of over-collecting for medicinal use, and the plants now being described are probably individuals that vary only in minor ways from the relatively few specimens that exist in herbaria.

Most of the Chinese wild populations of Mahonia have been extirpated, probably as a result of over-collecting for medicinal use, and the plants now being described are probably individuals that vary only in minor ways from the relatively few specimens that exist in herbaria.

1Inflorescences panicles(2)
+Inflorescences racemes(4)
2(1)Petals retuse; pedicels 6-11 mm, bracts 2-3 mm; teeth per upper leaflet 4-11; ovules 5 or 6.1  M. bracteolata    鹤庆十大功劳
+Petals emarginate or incised; pedicels 2.5-3 mm or 13-24 mm, bracts 1-2 mm or 4.5-7 mm; teeth per upper leaflet 1-5; ovules 1-4(3)
3(2)Petals emarginate; inflorescences 25-35 cm; leaflets 2 or 3 pairs, abaxially pruinose; pedicels 13-24 mm.2  M. gracilipes    细柄十大功劳
+Petals incised; inflorescences 11-18 cm; leaflets 5-9 pairs, abaxially not pruinose; pedicels 2.5-3 mm.3  M. monyulensis    门隅十大功劳
4(1)Inflorescence of branched racemes(5)
+Inflorescence of unbranched racemes(7)
5(4)Petals incised; leaflets 12-20 pairs; ovules 2 or 3.4  M. oiwakensis    阿里山十大功劳
+Petals emarginate; leaflets 4-9 pairs; ovules 4-7(6)
6(5)Bracts longer than pedicels; fruit obovoid, style less than 0.5 mm; leaf blade basally cuneate.5  M. calamicaulis    察隅十大功劳
+Bracts shorter than to slightly longer than pedicels; fruit globose, style 2-3 mm; leaf blade basally oblique, rounded.6  M. duclouxiana    长柱十大功劳
7(4)Petals entire(8)
+Petals emarginate or incised(10)
8(7)Petioles 3.5-14 cm; leaflets entire or with 1-3 inconspicuous teeth near apex.9  M. shenii    沈氏十大功劳
+Petioles 0.5-2.5 cm; leaflets with teeth(9)
9(8)Leaflets remote, not contiguous, apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate, margin with 9-23 teeth on each side; anther connective not prolonged; fruit globose.7  M. taronensis    独龙十大功劳
+Leaflets contiguous, apex acute, margin with 2-7 teeth on each side; anther connective prolonged; fruit obovoid.8  M. subimbricata    靖西十大功劳
10(7)Leaves petiolate, petiole 2.5-9 cm(11)
+Leaves subsessile or petiole less than 2 cm(16)
11(10)Inner sepals lanceolate or obovate; anther connective prolonged(12)
+Inner sepals oblong or elliptic; anther connective not prolonged(13)
12(11)Leaflets subrhombic or elliptic, margin with 2-4 teeth on each side; inner sepals obovate.10  M. breviracema    短序十大功劳
+Leaflets lanceolate, margin 8-20-spinose-serrate on each side; inner sepals lanceolate.11  M. setosa    刺齿十大功劳
13(11)Inflorescence 1- or 2-fascicled racemes; leaflets ovate or ovate-elliptic, basally truncate.12  M. decipiens    鄂西十大功劳
+Inflorescence 4-10-fascicled racemes; leaflets basally cuneate(14)
14(13)Leaflets 2 or 3 pairs, oblong-ovate or elliptic, shortly petiolate.13  M. paucijuga    景东十大功劳
+Leaflets 2-9 pairs, lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate or elliptic, sessile(15)
15(14)Leaflets 2-5 pairs; pedicels ca. as long as bracts; glands of petals distinct.14  M. fortunei    十大功劳
+Leaflets 6-9 pairs; pedicels much longer than bracts; glands of petals distinct or sometimes indistinct.15  M. eurybracteata    宽苞十大功劳
16(10)Leaflets entire.16  M. microphylla    小叶十大功劳
+Leaflets spinose-serrate(17)
17(16)Leaflets lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, or ovate-oblong(18)
+Leaflets oblong, ovate, broadly elliptic, or rhombic(19)
18(17)Leaflets 6-9 pairs, margin 3-9-spinose-serrate on each side; base of petals with glands.15  M. eurybracteata    宽苞十大功劳
+Leaflets 8-12 pairs, margin 35-65-spinulose-serrulate on each side; base of petals without glands.17  M. leptodonta    细齿十大功劳
19(17)Veins on adaxial surface of leaflets reticulate, obviously raised, margin of leaflets 2-11-spinose-serrate on each side.18  M. retinervis    网脉十大功劳
+Veins on adaxial surface of leaflets reticulate, flat or inconspicuous, margin of leaflets 2-16-dentate on each side(20)
20(19)Abaxial surface of leaflets pruinose; fruit 10-12 mm in diam.19  M. bealei    阔叶十大功劳
+Abaxial surface of leaflets yellowish green, not pruinose; fruit less than 10 mm in diam(21)
21(20)Floral bracts longer than pedicels(22)
+Floral bracts shorter than to ca. as long as pedicels(25)
22(21)Racemes 3-9 per fascicle, 5-9 cm; apex of petals slightly emarginate(23)
+Racemes 8-15 per fascicle, 7-19 cm; apex of petals incised(24)
23(22)Racemes 5-9 per fascicle; fruit not pruinose; leaflets serrate, with 4-7(-11) teeth on each side.20  M. longibracteata    长苞十大功劳
+Racemes 3-5 per fascicle; fruit pruinose; leaflets spinose-serrate, with 10-16 teeth on each side.21  M. polyodonta    峨眉十大功劳
24(22)Anther connective prolonged; ovules 2-6; leaf blade adaxially dark green and shiny.22  M. napaulensis    尼泊尔十大功劳
+Anther connective not prolonged; ovules 2; leaf blade adaxially green.23  M. cardiophylla    宜章十大功劳
25(21)Margin of leaflets 1-3(-6)-dentate on each side.24  M. nitens    亮叶十大功劳
+Margin of leaflets 4-10-dentate on each side(26)
26(25)Leaflets markedly overlapping(27)
+Leaflets separate or sometimes contiguous(28)
27(26)Inflorescence 3-6 racemes; anther connective prolonged; leaflets 8-18 pairs.25  M. conferta    密叶十大功劳
+Inflorescence 9 or 10 racemes; anther connective not prolonged; leaflets 5-7 pairs.26  M. imbricata    遵义十大功劳
28(26)Pedicels shorter than floral bracts; anther connective prolonged, rounded; petals 1.8-2 mm wide.31  M. hancockiana    滇南十大功劳
+Pedicels longer than or ca. as long as floral bracts; anther connective not prolonged, truncate; petals 2-2.8 mm wide(29)
29(28)Fruit globose or pyriform, style not persistent; petiolar glands indistinct; leaflets 8-13 pairs.27  M. bodinieri    小果十大功劳
+Fruit ovoid, obovoid, or ellipsoid, persistent style short; petiolar glands conspicuous; leaflets 4-9 pairs(30)
30(29)Pedicels ca. as long as or slightly longer than floral bracts; leaf blade shiny, apically acute, cuspidate.28  M. sheridaniana    长阳十大功劳
+Pedicels markedly longer than floral bracts; leaf blade apically acute or acuminate, sometimes aristate(31)
31(30)Leaflets 4-6 pairs, margin 2-4-dentate on each side; pedicels 6-7 mm; ovules 4-7.29  M. japonica    台湾十大功劳
+Leaflets 5-9 pairs, margin 2-9-spinose-serrate on each side; pedicels 2.5-4 mm; ovules 2.30  M. fordii    北江十大功劳
   List of lower taxa