Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Campanulaceae  PDF Lobelia  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   15. Lobelia  Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 929. 1753.
半边莲属   ban bian lian shu
Authors:Authors: Deyuan Hong & Thomas G. Lammers

Cardinalis Fabricius; Dortmanna Hill; Laurentia Adanson; Rapuntium Miller.


Herbs, but some species lignified at base, and even some species in Africa and Hawaiian Islands trees and shrubs. Leaves alternate, in 2 rows or spiral. Flowers solitary and axillary, or in terminal racemes, or in panicles of racemes, bisexual [some Australian species dioecious]; bracteoles present or absent. Flowers pedicellate, solitary and axillary or in terminal racemes (rarely secund or corymbose) or panicles. Calyx lobes entire or serrate, persistent, rarely auriculate. Corolla zygomorphic, rarely with a narrow nectar spur; dorsal side typically divided longitudinally to base or nearly so, sometimes laterally fenestrate; limb commonly bilabiate, dorsal lip 2-lobed, ventral lip 3-lobed, or rarely ventrally unilabiate. Stamens connate, enveloping style, exserted from corolla dorsally; all 5 anthers or just ventral pair barbate at apex (rarely all nude). Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, very rarely almost superior, 2-locular; stigma 2-fid; ovules numerous. Fruit an apically 2-valved capsule or a berry. Seeds numerous, oblong or 3-angled, sometimes winged, smooth, foveolate, striate, or verrucose.

About 414 species: mainly in tropics and subtropics, particularly tropical Africa and America, with a few species extending to temperate regions; 23 species (six endemic) in China.

Doubtful species: Lobelia cavaleriei H. Léveillé (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 9: 455. 1911). Type: Guizhou, Cavalerie 2989 (isotype, E). See Lammers (World Checkl. Bibliogr. Campanulaceae, Kew, 2007).

Doubtful species: Lobelia cavaleriei H. Léveillé (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 9: 455. 1911). Type: Guizhou, Cavalerie 2989 (isotype, E). See Lammers (World Checkl. Bibliogr. Campanulaceae, Kew, 2007).

1Plants 0.02-0.5(-2) m tall; stems slender or rarely somewhat robust, herbaceous or rarely subshrubby toward base or throughout; flowers commonly entomophilous; corolla 1-20(-46) mm, commonly bilabiate or sub-bilabiate (if unilabiate then no more than 15 m(2)
+Plants (0.2-)1-9 m tall; stems robust and sometimes pachycaul, herbaceous, subshrubby, or woody; flowers often ornithophilous; corolla unilabiate or sub-bilabiate, rarely bilabiate, (12-)20-60(-103) mm, lobes monomorphic; seed coat reticulate or striate-r(8)
2(1)Plants low, stems commonly prostrate and seldom over 40 cm tall; corolla various shades of blue, purple, pink, or white, sub-bilabiate or unilabiate, lobes monomorphic; anther tube with a single elongate bristle or awn at apex of each ventral anther (some(3)
+Plants taller, stems erect, ascending, or decumbent, commonly over 40 cm (sometimes as much as 2 m) tall; corolla distinctly bilabiate, lobes dimorphic, dorsal pair much smaller and narrower than ventral 3 (that commonly form a trifid lip); anther tube be(4)
3(2)Leaves ovate or broadly ovate, commonly petiolate; corolla sub-bilabiate; fruit a berry.1  L. nummularia    铜锤玉带草
+Leaves elliptic-lanceolate to linear; corolla unilabiate; fruit a capsule.2  L. chinensis    半边莲
4(2)Pedicels typically bibracteolate at base; corolla tube commonly fenestrate laterally; seeds terete or irregularly angular (2. L. sect. Stenotium)(5)
+Pedicels typically bibracteolate at or below middle; corolla tube almost always entire laterally; seeds trigonous or compressed (3. L. sect. Delostemon)(6)
5(4)Stems winged; leaves adaxially sparsely puberulent; corolla small, only 3-5 mm.3  L. heyneana    翅茎半边莲
+Stems terete or angular, not winged; leaves glabrous or villous; corolla larger or also small.4  L. hainanensis    海南半边莲
6(4)Stems prostrate, rooted at nodes; leaves 1-4 × 0.8-3 cm; petiole 3-12 mm.5  L. zeylanica    卵叶半边莲
+Stems erect, not rooted or rooted only at basal nodes; leaves smaller, subsessile(7)
7(6)Stems and leaves glabrous; bracteoles linear-lanceolate.6  L. alsinoides    短柄半边莲
+Stems and leaves villous; bracteoles absent or minute.7  L. terminalis    顶花半边莲
8(1)Flowers solitary in upper leaf axils (rarely supplemented by a terminal raceme); corolla tube straight or nearly so; fruit a berry; seeds cuboidal or quadrate, subterete to slightly compressed (5. L. sect. Speirema)(9)
+Flowers in terminal racemes or panicles; corolla tube curved or arcuate; fruit a capsule; seeds ovoid, lenticular (4. L. sect. Rhynchopetalum)(11)
9(8)Plants rhizomatous; corolla 12-18 mm, tube 3-6 mm; filament tube 6.5-8 mm; anther tube cream-colored, dorsal anthers 6-8 mm, slightly shorter to slightly longer than filament tube.23  L. deleiensis    滇紫锤草
+Plants lacking rhizomes; corolla (15-)18-26 mm, tube 6-13 mm; filament tube 8.5-12 mm; anther tube gray, dorsal anthers 4.8-7 mm, 2/5-3/4 as long as filament tube(10)
10(9)Stems sparsely to densely puberulent toward apex; leaves sessile; uppermost 10-25 flowers often subtended by bracts only 1/10-1/4 as long as foliage leaves, thus forming a terminal raceme; pedicels densely puberulent; hypanthium pubescent along veins; cal21  L. fangiana    峨嵋紫锤草
+Stems glabrous (rarely sparsely scabrous); leaves petiolate; all flowers subtended by unreduced foliage leaves; pedicels glabrous; hypanthium glabrous; calyx lobes linear or linear-triangular, 0.5-1.4 mm wide, ascending, spreading, or recurved; corolla da22  L. montana    山紫锤草
11(8)Leaves truncate, rounded, or obtuse at base; pedicels ebracteolate; calyx lobe margins revolute.20  L. sessilifolia    山梗菜
+Leaves cuneate or attenuate at base; pedicels commonly bibracteolate; calyx lobe margins flat(12)
12(11)Stems densely pubescent(13)
+Stems glabrous or sparsely pubescent(15)
13(12)Stems tomentose; leaves hispidulous; pedicels 5-12 mm, densely pannose; hypanthium densely pannose; corolla white or faintly tinged with blue or pink.13  L. clavata    密毛山梗菜
+Stems hispidulous or scaberulose; leaves glabrous adaxially and sometimes abaxially; pedicels 3-5 mm, hispidulous; hypanthium scaberulose; corolla purple-red or red-purple(14)
14(13)Capsule 6-10 × 6-8 mm; raceme 10-25 cm, densely flowered.19  L. erectiuscula    直立山梗菜
+Capsule 4-6 × 4-5 mm; raceme 20-50 cm, laxly flowered.18  L. davidii    江南山梗菜
15(12)Corolla 11-20 mm(16)
+Corolla 20-35 mm(19)
16(15)Leaves rounded and mucronate at apex; corolla glabrous.16  L. colorata    狭叶山梗菜
+Leaves acuminate (sometimes acute or obtuse) at apex; corolla pubescent at least internally(17)
17(16)Leaves 12-31 cm, attenuate at base; corolla white, sometimes suffused with pale blue or pink; anther tube densely white hirsute in sutures; flowering Jan-May.10  L. pyramidalis    塔花山梗菜
+Leaves 6-12(-15) cm, cuneate at base; corolla purple-red, reddish, or blue-purple; anther tube sparingly pubescent on back; flowering Aug-Oct(18)
18(17)Stems and leaves glabrous; pedicels 3-5 mm; calyx lobes 13-21 × < 1 mm, entire.8  L. melliana    线萼山梗菜
+Stems sparsely pubescent; leaves densely white hirsute; pedicels 5-13 mm; calyx lobes 6-14 × 1-1.5 mm, denticulate.9  L. pleotricha    毛萼山梗菜
19(15)Bracteoles leaflike, denticulate, 6-12 × 1-2 mm, at summit of pedicel.15  L. foliiformis    苞叶山梗菜
+Bracteoles subulate, entire, 1-2 × ca. 0.2 mm, near middle of pedicel(20)
20(19)Leaves 3.5-7 cm, obtuse or acute at apex.17  L. taliensis    大理山梗菜
+Leaves (6-)10-35 cm, acuminate at apex(21)
21(20)Raceme lax; hypanthium hemispheric.14  L. iteophylla    柳叶山梗菜
+Raceme dense; hypanthium campanulate, oblong, or obconic(22)
22(21)Leaves glabrous abaxially; hypanthium glabrous; calyx lobes entire.11  L. seguinii    西南山梗菜
+Leaves sparsely hispidulous abaxially; hypanthium scaberulose; calyx lobes denticulate.12  L. doniana    微齿山梗菜
   List of lower taxa