Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Acanthaceae  PDF Justicia  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   24. Justicia  Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 15. 1753.
爵床属   jue chuang shu
Authors:Authors: Jia-qi Hu & Thomas F. Daniel

Adatoda Adanson; Adhatoda Miller; Calophanoides Ridley; Ecbolium Kuntze (1891), not Kurz (1871); Gendarussa Nees; Mananthes Bremekamp; Rhaphidospora Nees; Rostellaria Nees (1832), not C. F. Gaertner (1807); Rostellularia Reichenbach.


Herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs, cystoliths present. Leaves sessile or petiolate; leaf blade margin usually entire but sometimes sinuate or slightly serrate. Inflorescences dichasia (sometimes reduced to a single flower) in leaf axils or axillary or terminal spikes, racemes, or thyrses, sometimes branched and becoming panicles; bracts variable in shape, sometimes prominent and/or brightly colored; bracteoles 2, similar to or smaller than bracts. Calyx deeply 4- or 5-lobed; lobes equal or subequal. Corolla tubular or funnel-shaped; limb strongly 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed; upper lip entire to 2-lobed, internally rugulate (i.e., with a stylar furrow); lobes ascending cochlear in bud. Stamens 2; anthers 2-thecous; thecae equally or unequally inserted, parallel to perpendicular, one or both spurred at base or sometimes lacking basal appendages; staminodes absent. Ovary with 2 ovules per locule; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Capsule with a sterile basal stalk and a fertile head (i.e., ± clavate), 2-4-seeded; retinacula present. Seeds compressed [to spheric].

About 700 species: tropical and temperate regions worldwide; 43 species (26 endemic, three introduced) in China.

Justicia betonica Linnaeus, J. brandegeeana Wasshausen & L. B. Smith, and J. carnea Lindley are only cultivated in China so are not treated here.

Justicia betonica Linnaeus, J. brandegeeana Wasshausen & L. B. Smith, and J. carnea Lindley are only cultivated in China so are not treated here.

1Calyx equally 4-lobed or unequally 5-lobed (i.e., with one lobe conspicuously smaller than others)(2)
+Calyx equally 5-lobed(7)
2(1)Leaves sessile(3)
+Leaves petiolate(4)
3(2)Plants diffuse, to 8 cm tall; leaf blade lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, glabrous.1  J. demissa    矮爵床
+Plants usually erect, to 100 cm tall; leaf blade oblong to broadly ovate, pubescent.2  J. mollissima    喀西爵床
4(2)Leaf blade linear, to 5 mm wide.3  J. neolinearifolia    线叶爵床
+Leaf blade ovate to elliptic to subcircular, usually wider than 5 mm(5)
5(4)Bracts obovate-elliptic, broadest at or above middle, 2-3 mm wide.6  J. hayatae    早田氏爵床
+Bracts ovate to elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, mostly broadest near base, 0.6-1.3 mm wide(6)
6(5)Spikes dense and cylindric, ± densely pubescent.4  J. procumbens    爵床
+Spikes neither dense nor cylindric, sparsely pubescent.5  J. diffusa    小叶散爵床
7(1)Flowers in axillary abbreviated spikes, spikes ca. 1 cm, usually solitary or several clustered(8)
+Flowers in terminal or axillary elongated spikes (or racemes or panicles), or in axillary cymes, or in thyrses of 3-flowered cymes(22)
8(7)Leaf blade glabrous(9)
+Leaf blade ± pubescent (sometimes glabrous or only pubescent along veins in J. quadrifaria)(11)
9(8)Leaf blade linear to linear-lanceolate.7  J. neesiana    狭叶爵床
+Leaf blade ovate to broadly elliptic (rarely lanceolate)(10)
10(9)Bracts subcircular.8  J. kwangsiensis    广西爵床
+Bracts lanceolate.9  J. alboviridis    大叶杜根藤
11(8)Corolla ca. 2 cm.10  J. wardii    高山杜根藤
+Corolla less than 1.5 cm(12)
12(11)Bracts linear, lanceolate, or ovate, broadest at base, 1-veined(13)
+Bracts ovate to circular to elliptic to obovate to spatulate-obovate, broadest above base, pinnately veined(14)
13(12)Bracts 2-3 mm.20  J. siccanea    旱杜根藤
+Bracts 5-6 mm.21  J. xantholeuca    黄白杜根藤
14(12)Leaf blade (2-)5.5-11.5 cm(15)
+Leaf blade 0.8-7(-10.5) cm(16)
15(14)Bracts ovate to obovate, with 3-4 mm petiole, apex obtuse; calyx 5-6 mm.17  J. quadrifaria    杜根藤
+Bracts obovate to circular, with 1-2 mm petiole, apex retuse or rounded; calyx ca. 1 cm.18  J. kouytcheensis    贵州杜根藤
16(14)Leaf blade adaxially glabrous.13  J. xylopoda    木柄杜根藤
+Leaf blade adaxially pubescent at least when young(17)
17(16)Leaf blade sparsely pubescent, soon glabrescent or abaxially pilose along midvein.11  J. championii    圆苞杜根藤
+Leaf blade hispid, or densely grayish or white or yellowish pubescent(18)
18(17)Bracts circular to subcircular.16  J. hainanensis    海南爵床
+Bracts not circular (sometimes subcircular in J. xerobatica and J. xerophila)(19)
19(18)Corolla white(20)
+Corolla whitish yellow, yellow, or yellowish green(21)
20(19)Stems yellow pilose; leaf blade 3-5 mm wide.12  J. xerophila    干地杜根藤
+Stems minutely white sericeous; leaf blade 5-8 mm wide.19  J. xerobatica    滇东杜根藤
21(19)Stems villous.14  J. albovelata    绵毛杜根藤
+Stems sericeous.15  J. yunnanensis    滇杜根藤
22(7)Flowers in terminal thyrses of 3-flowered cymes; both anther thecae spurred at base.22  J. grossa    大爵床
+Flowers in spikes or axillary cymes; only lower anther theca spurred at base(23)
23(22)Corolla 2.5-3 cm.23  J. adhatoda    鸭嘴花
+Corolla 2.2 cm or less(24)
24(23)Flowers in axillary cymes.24  J. vagabunda    针子草
+Flowers in terminal or axillary spikes (or panicles of spikes), or sometimes in racemes(25)
25(24)Bracts (at least lower ones) longer than calyx(26)
+Bracts equaling or shorter than calyx(30)
26(25)Bracts 1-1.5 cm.25  J. ventricosa    黑叶小驳骨
+Bracts to 1 cm(27)
27(26)Leaf blade narrowly lanceolate, to 1.5 cm wide; basal bracts longer than calyx then gradually smaller with apicalmost ones shorter than calyx.26  J. gendarussa    小驳骨
+Leaf blade lanceolate to ovate to elliptic to subcircular, often wider than 1.5 cm; all bracts longer than calyx(28)
28(27)Spikes interrupted; flowers distant on rachis; corolla yellow with purplish spots.27  J. pseudospicata    黄花爵床
+Spikes continuous; flowers dense on rachis; corolla pale white or yellowish green with purplish red dots or stripes(29)
29(28)Leaf blade margin entire; bracts ovate to elliptic, basally pale green and purplish red above middle, apex acuminate.28  J. latiflora    紫苞爵床
+Leaf blade margin entire or crenate; bracts broadly obovate or flabellate, green, apex acuminate to obtuse and mucronate with 1-3 teeth.29  J. austrosinensis    华南爵床
30(25)Leaves sessile(31)
+Leaves petiolate(32)
31(30)Leaf blade oblanceolate to rarely lanceolate, 8-17 × 2.5-6.5 cm, abaxially rust-colored when dry.30  J. ferruginea    锈背爵床
+Leaf blade obovate, 15-26 × 7.5-15 cm, abaxially dark green when dry.31  J. panduriformis    琴叶爵床
32(30)Leaf blade base cordate to truncate(33)
+Leaf blade base (rounded to) cuneate to attenuate(34)
33(32)Flowers usually 1 per rachis node; stems 4-angled; calyx ca. 4 mm; calyx and corolla pubescent with gland-tipped trichomes outside.32  J. lianshanica    广东爵床
+Flowers usually 2-5 per rachis node; stems terete; calyx ca. 2 mm; calyx and corolla pubescent with non-glandular trichomes outside.33  J. cardiophylla    心叶爵床
34(32)Stems short; leaves in a basal rosette.34  J. austroguangxiensis    桂南爵床
+Stems elongated; leaves cauline(35)
35(34)Flowers more than 1 per rachis node(36)
+Flowers 1 per rachis node(38)
36(35)Shrubs to 2 m tall; leaf blade (2-)3-5.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm; inflorescences unbranched spikes.36  J. microdonta    小齿爵床
+Herbs to 1 m tall; leaf blade 4-12.5(-18) × 2.5-6.5(-8) cm; inflorescences unbranched or branched(37)
37(36)Leaf blade 10.5-12.5(-18) × 5-6.5(-8) cm; flowers in spikes.35  J. leptostachya    南岭爵床
+Leaf blade 4-9 × 2.5-4.5 cm; flowers in spiciform racemes (pedicel ca. 1 mm).37  J. damingensis    大明爵床
38(35)Calyx lobes elliptic-lanceolate, apex obtuse or rounded.38  J. amblyosepala    钝萼爵床
+Calyx lobes linear to lanceolate or narrowly triangular, apex acute(39)
39(38)Stems sharply 4-angled, slightly winged along angles.39  J. acutangula    棱茎爵床
+Stems subterete to 4-angled, wingless(40)
40(39)Corolla tube 2-3 × as long as limb.40  J. patentiflora    野靛棵
+Corolla tube less than 2 × as long as limb(41)
41(40)Calyx puberulent on both surfaces.41  J. poilanei    毛萼爵床
+Calyx glabrous adaxially(42)
42(41)Leaf blade lanceolate, broadest below middle, 4.3-5 cm wide; bracts ca. 1.5 mm.42  J. kampotiana    那坡爵床
+Leaf blade elliptic to obovate-elliptic, broadest at or above middle, 1.2-4.2 cm wide; bracts 3-4 mm.43  J. caudatifolia    尾叶爵床
   List of lower taxa