Flora of China
  FOC Vol.8 (2001)              | Family List  Brassicaceae  PDF Erysimum  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   83. Erysimum  Linnaeus
糖芥属   tang jie shu
Authors:Zhou Taiyan (Cheo Tai-yien), Lu Lianli (Lou Lian-li), Yang Guang; Vladimir I. Dorofeyev, Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz

Cheiranthus Linnaeus; Cheirinia Link; Cuspidaria (de Candolle) Besser; Syrenia Andrzejowski ex Besser.


Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial, rarely subshrubs or shrubs. Trichomes sessile, medifixed, appressed, malpighiaceous or 3-5(-8)-rayed stellate. Stems simple or branched basally and/or apically. Basal leaves petiolate, rosulate, simple, entire or dentate, rarely pinnatifid or pinnatisect. Cauline leaves petiolate or sessile, cuneate or attenuate at base, rarely auriculate, entire or dentate. Racemes ebracteate or basally bracteate, rarely bracteate throughout, corymbose, elongated or not in fruit. Fruiting pedicels slender or thickened and nearly as wide as fruit, erect, ascending, divaricate, or reflexed. Sepals oblong or linear, erect, pubescent, base of lateral pair saccate or not. Petals yellow or orange, rarely white, pink, purple, or violet; blade suborbicular, obovate, spatulate, or oblong, apex rounded or emarginate; claw differentiated from blade, subequaling or longer than sepals. Stamens 6, erect, tetradynamous; anthers oblong or linear. Nectar glands 1, 2, or 4, distinct or confluent and subtending bases of all stamens; median glands present or absent. Ovules 15-100 per ovary. Fruit dehiscent siliques or rarely silicles, linear or rarely oblong, terete, 4-angled, latiseptate, or angustiseptate, sessile or rarely shortly stipitate; valves with an obscure to prominent midvein, pubescent on outside, rarely also on inside, keeled or not, smooth or torulose; replum rounded; septum complete, membranous, translucent or opaque, veinless; style obsolete or short, rarely half as long as or subequaling fruit, often pubescent; stigma capitate, entire or 2-lobed. Seeds uniseriate or rarely biseriate, winged, margined, or wingless, oblong, plump or flattened; seed coat minutely reticulate, mucilaginous when wetted; cotyledons incumbent or rarely accumbent.

About 150 species: N hemisphere, primarily in Asia and Europe, with 14 species in Central and North America and eight species in N Africa and Macaronesia; 17 species (five endemic) in China.

Erysimum cheiri (Linnaeus) Crantz (as Cheiranthus cheiri Linnaeus in FRPS) is a widely cultivated ornamental plant, but it is not known if it has become naturalized in China or elsewhere in Asia.

1Sepals united, persistent well after fruit maturity; fruit oblong, slightly angustiseptate, with transversely oriented malpighiaceous trichomes; styles (4-)5-10(-12) mm17  E. siliculosum    棱果糖芥
+Sepals free, caducous shortly after anthesis; fruit linear or rarely linear-oblong, terete, 4-angled, or latiseptate; with longitudinally oriented, malpighiaceous and/or 3-5-fid stellate trichomes; styles 0.5-3(-4) mm.(2)
2(1)Annuals or biennials.(3)
3(2)Fruiting pedicels nearly as thick as fruit.(4)
+Fruiting pedicels distinctly narrower than fruit.(5)
4(3)Trichomes malpighiaceous mixed with 3-forked ones; fruiting pedicels 2-4 mm; petals 6-8 × 1.5-2 mm; fruit 4-angled, (2-)3-8(-10) cm16  E. repandum    粗梗糖芥
+Trichomes exclusively malpighiaceous; fruiting pedicels 0.5-1.5(-2) mm; petals 3-4(-5) × 0.3-0.6 mm; fruit terete, (1.3-)1.7-2.2(-2.5) cm15  E. sisymbrioides    小糖芥
5(3)Fruit valves densely stellate inside.(6)
+Fruit valves glabrous inside, if sparsely pubescent (rarely in E. hieraciifolium), then petals more than 6 × 2 mm.(7)
6(5)Petals spatulate, well differentiated into claw and limb, 1.5-2 mm wide; fruiting pedicels 5-13(-16) mm; seeds 1-1.3 mm13  E. cheiranthoides    小花糖芥
+Petals linear to linear-oblanceolate, undifferentiated into a claw and limb, 0.3-0.5(-0.7) mm wide; fruiting pedicels 3-7(-9) mm; seeds (0.6-)0.7-0.914  E. macilentum    波齿糖芥
7(5)Trichomes exclusively malpighiaceous, rarely 3-fid ones on style; fruit smooth, with 4 bands of white trichomes separated by glabrous replum and valve midveins9  E. canescens    灰毛糖芥
+Trichomes 3- or 4-fid mixed with malpighiaceous ones on leaves and fruit; fruit torulose, without 4 white bands of trichomes.(8)
8(7)Fruit (6-)7-11(-13) cm; racemes bracteate at base10  E. benthamii    四川糖芥
+Fruit (1-)1.5-3.5(-4) cm; racemes ebracteate.(9)
9(8)Plants (10-)30-90(-110) cm tall; fruiting pedicels suberect or ascending, subappressed to rachis; leaves entire or obscurely denticulate11  E. hieraciifolium    山柳菊叶糖芥
+Plants 3-10 cm tall; fruiting pedicels divaricate; leaves sinuate-dentate or dentate12  E. schlagintweitianum    矮糖芥
10(2)Petals pink or purple.(11)
+Petals yellow or orange.(12)
11(10)Petals narrowly spatulate, 7-9(-10) × 1.7-2(-2.5) mm; plants (1.5-)2-6(-8) cm tall5  E. funiculosum    紫花糖芥
+Petals broadly obovate or broadly spatulate, (14-)16-22(-25) × (3-)4-6(-8) mm; plants (6-)10-28(-36) cm tall4  E. roseum    红紫糖芥
12(10)Plants stemless; raceme subumbellate and often without a rachis2  E. handel-mazzettii    无茎糖芥
+Plants with a distinct stem; raceme short or long, with a distinct rachis.(13)
13(12)Racemes bracteate throughout; fruit 4-5 mm wide; seeds 3-4.5 mm1  E. forrestii    匍匐糖芥
+Racemes ebracteate or only lowermost few flowers bracteate; fruit 1-2 mm wide; seeds 0.8-3 mm.(14)
14(13)Leaf blade mostly filiform to narrowly linear, folded7  E. flavum    蒙古糖芥
+Leaves lanceolate, oblong, lanceolate-linear, or very rarely linear, not folded.(15)
15(14)Fruit smooth, strongly 4-angled, with 4 bands of white trichomes separated by glabrous replum and valve midveins9  E. canescens    灰毛糖芥
+Fruit torulose, flattened, subterete, or slightly 4-angled, without 4 bands of white trichomes.(16)
16(15)Plants 2-10(-15) cm tall; petals yellow, 0.6-1(-1.2) cm; sepals 4-6 mm; raceme usually deflexed in fruit8  E. deflexum    外折糖芥
+Plants (12-)20-100 cm tall; petals often orange-yellow, (1.2-)1.5-2(-2.3) cm; sepals (6-)7-10(-11) mm; racemes erect.(17)
17(16)Basal and lowermost leaves coarsely dentate; stigma subentire; fruit (5-)8-11 cm; Sichuan, Xizang, and Yunnan3  E. wardii    具苞糖芥
+Basal and lowermost leaves entire or obscurely denticulate; stigma prominently 2-lobed; fruit (1.1-)2.5-5(-8) cm; N and E China, Russia, and Korea6  E. amurense    糖芥
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