Flora of China
  FOC Vol.8 (2001)              | Family List  Brassicaceae  PDF Draba  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   41. Draba  Linnaeus
葶苈属   ting li shu


Herbs perennial, rarely annual, biennial (or subshrubs with woody stems). Trichomes simple, forked, stellate, malpighiaceous, or dendritic, stalked or sessile, often more than 1 kind present. Stems erect or ascending, sometimes prostrate, leafy or leafless and plants scapose. Basal leaves petiolate, often rosulate, simple, entire or toothed, rarely lobed. Cauline leaves petiolate or sessile, cuneate or auriculate at base, entire or dentate, sometimes absent. Racemes bracteate or ebracteate, elongated or not in fruit. Fruiting pedicels slender, erect, ascending, or divaricate. Sepals ovate, oblong, or elliptic, base of lateral pair not saccate or subsaccate, margin usually membranous. Petals yellow, white, pink, purple, orange (or rarely red); blade obovate, spatulate, oblong, oblanceolate, orbicular, or linear, apex obtuse, rounded, or rarely emarginate; claw obscurely to strongly differentiated from blade. Stamens 6, tetradynamous; filaments dilated or not at base; anthers ovate or oblong, obtuse at apex. Nectar glands 1, 2, or 4, distinct or confluent and subtending bases of all stamens; median glands present or absent; lateral glands toothlike, semiannular, or annular. Ovules 4 to numerous per ovary. Fruit dehiscent, silicles or rarely siliques, ovate, elliptic, oblong, orbicular, ovoid, globose, lanceolate, or linear, latiseptate or terete, sometimes spirally twisted; valves distinctly or obscurely veined, glabrous or pubescent; replum rounded; septum complete, membranous, translucent; style distinct or obsolete, glabrous; stigma capitate, entire or slightly 2-lobed. Seeds biseriate, wingless (or rarely winged), oblong, ovate, or orbicular, flattened; seed coat minutely reticulate, not mucilaginous when wetted; cotyledons accumbent.

About 350 species: primarily in the N hemisphere, especially arctic, subarctic, alpine, and subalpine regions, with about 70 species in South America; 48 species (16 endemic) in China.

Draba is the largest and most taxonomically difficult genus in the Brassicaceae. More than 950 binomials and nearly a fourth as many infraspecific taxa have been proposed. Numerous taxa are based on trivial characters, especially the presence vs. absence of trichomes on the fruit valves. Otto Eugene Schulz (Pflanzenr. 89(IV. 105): 1-396. 1927), hereafter Schulz (without a reference), was the last person to monograph Draba on worldwide basis. Although he accorded varietal names to forms with glabrous and pubescent fruits, this variation often occurs within the same population (see discussion under D. oreades). By contrast, petal color is taxonomically important and should be recorded in the field rather than from dried specimens because white petals sometimes dry yellow or vice versa. Another taxonomically important character is the number of ovules/seeds per ovary/fruit. This is easily obtained by counting the seeds and aborted ovules in the fruit.

The records from China of Draba fladnizensis Wulfen (e.g., FRPS, p. 160; Fl. Qinghai. 1: 443. 1997; Fl. Xinjiang. 2(2): 117. 1995) and D. hirta Linnaeus (e.g., FRPS, p. 164; Fl. Xinjiang. 2(2): 127. 1995) cannot be confirmed, and it is likely that these records are based on 19th Century accounts that represent misidentifications of plants of several species, including D. altaica, D. lanceolata, D. lasiophylla, D. mongolica, and D. oreades.

Draba affghanica Boissier was recorded from Gansu by Pohle (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 32: 128. 1925), but the present authors have seen no Chinese material of that species.

According to FRPS (p. 168), Fl. Qinghai. (1: 449. 1997), and Fl. Xinjiang. (2(2): 125. 1995), Draba borealis de Candolle was said to occur in Qinghai, Shaanxi, Sichuan, and Xinjiang. However, the present authors have seen no material from these provinces. The distribution of D. borealis in Asia is restricted to Russia (only the coastal Far East, not Siberia) and Japan. It is highly unlikely that the species occurs in China.

Draba fuhaiensis Z. X. An (Fl. Xinjiang. (2(2): 374. 1995) is not included in the present account because the present authors have not seen the type, which was the single collection cited.

1Annuals or rarely biennials.(2)
+Perennials, with well-developed caudex often covered with leaf or petiolar remains of previous years.(7)
2(1)Cauline leaves absent, very rarely 1; fruit base acute43  D. melanopus    天山葶苈
+Cauline leaves 2-24(-30); fruit base obtuse.(3)
3(2)Seeds and aborted ovules (30-)36-60(-72) per fruit.(4)
+Seeds and aborted ovules 10-24(-28) per fruit.(5)
4(3)Fruit linear, (6-)9-20(-25) mm; petals 3-4 mm44  D. stenocarpa    狭果葶苈
+Fruit oblong or elliptic, (3-)5-8(-10) mm; petals (1.2-)1.7-2.2(-2.5) mm45  D. nemorosa    葶苈
5(3)Fruit ovate, glabrous, acute at apex; cauline leaves (5-)10-24(-30)47  D. eriopoda    毛葶苈
+Fruit oblong, oblong-elliptic, or rarely suborbicular, puberulent, obtuse at apex; cauline leaves 3-12.(6)
6(5)Petals yellow, (1.2-)1.7-2.2(-2.5) mm; valves with stellate and forked trichomes; racemes (5-)12-40(-60)-flowered46  D. huetii    中亚葶苈
+Petals white, 0.6-1 mm; valves with exclusively simple trichomes; racemes (2-)4-10(-15)-flowered48  D. ellipsoidea    椭圆果葶苈
7(1)Flowering stems leafless.(8)
+Flowering stems 1- to many leaved.(26)
8(7)Petals white.(9)
+Petals yellow.(14)
9(8)Stems distal half and fruiting pedicels glabrous or rarely glabrescent.(10)
+Stems and fruiting pedicels tomentose throughout.(11)
10(9)Petals 2.5-3(-3.5) × 1-1.5 mm; fruit base obtuse; fruiting pedicels (1-)2-5(-7) mm; Xinjiang15  D. turczaninowii    屠氏葶苈
+Petals (3.5-)4-6 × 2-3 mm; fruit base acute; fruiting pedicels 4-13 mm; Jilin14  D. ussuriensis    乌苏里葶苈
11(9)Petals 4-7 × 1.5-4.5 mm; fruit often twisted, (3-)5-12 mm; style (0.5-)0.7-1.5 mm.(12)
+Petals 1.5-2.5(-3) × 0.6-1.2 mm; fruit not twisted, 2.5-5 mm; style 0.1-0.4 mm.(13)
12(11)Rachis of infructescence often flexuous; fruit apex acute; petals 1.5-2.5 mm wide; stellate trichomes sessile or subsessile, with some rayed branched11  D. winterbottomii    棉毛葶苈
+Rachis of infructescence straight; fruit apex obtuse; petals 2.5-4.5 mm wide; stellate trichomes long-stalked, with unbranched rays13  D. sikkimensis    锡金葶苈
13(11)Sepals sparsely hairy inside; fruit oblong, 1-1.5 mm wide, apex obtuse; petals 1.5-2 mm12  D. handelii    矮葶苈
+Sepals glabrous inside; fruit narrowly ovate or oblong-ovate, 1.5-2.5 mm wide, apex acute; petals 1.8-2.5(-3) mm10  D. glomerata    球果葶苈
14(8)Leaf margin with exclusively malpighiaceous trichomes; seeds and aborted ovules 24-30 per fruit40  D. sibirica    西伯利亚葶苈
+Leaves without malpighiaceous trichomes; seeds and aborted ovules 6-24 per fruit.(15)
15(14)Style (1-)1.5-3.5; sepals 3-4.5 mm32  D. jucunda    愉悦葶苈
+Style to 1 mm, if to 1.5 mm then fruits linear to linear-oblong; sepals rarely to 3 mm.(16)
16(15)Leaf margin ciliate with setose or subsetose trichomes to 1.4 mm.(17)
+Leaf margin not ciliate or ciliate with nonsetose, shorter trichomes.(20)
17(16)Leaves linear or linear oblong; petals 3-4 × 1-2 mm.(18)
+Leaves variously shaped but not linear or linear-oblong; petals 4-7 × 2-3.5 mm.(19)
18(17)Fruit ovoid to subglobose, inflated, 2.5-4.5 mm; ovules 4-8 per ovary35  D. cachemirica    克什米尔葶苈
+Fruit elliptic-ovate, rarely oblong-lanceolate, flattened, 6-10 mm; ovules 12-16 per ovary34  D. setosa    刚毛葶苈
19(17)Fruiting pedicels pubescent all around; valves glabrous, base obtuse; racemes 3-7(-12)-flowered; plants surculose33  D. senilis    衰老葶苈
+Fruiting pedicels glabrous; valves puberulent, base acute; racemes (6-)10-25(-35)-flowered; plants not surculose38  D. olgae    奥氏葶苈
20(16)Fruit inflated at least basally.(21)
+Fruit flattened.(23)
21(20)Fruiting pedicels tomentose all around; ovules 16-24 per ovary; fruit apex obtuse39  D. humillima    小葶苈
+Fruiting pedicels glabrous at least adaxially; ovules 4-12 per ovary; fruit apex acute to acuminate.(22)
22(21)Leaves abaxially tomentose with predominantly stellate trichomes; fruit inflated throughout, 2-4 mm, basally semicordate36  D. korshinskyi    科氏葶苈
+Leaves abaxially pubescent with predominantly simple trichomes; fruit inflated only basally, (3-)4-9(-12) mm, basally not semicordate30  D. oreades    喜山葶苈
23(20)Fruit oblong, oblong-linear, or linear-lanceolate; fruiting pedicels (5-)7-18(-22) mm; leaf stellate trichomes 4-6-rayed, at least 1 ray laterally branched.(24)
+Fruit ovate, suborbicular, or elliptic; fruiting pedicels 1-7(-10) mm; leaf stellate trichomes 3- or 4-rayed, all rays unbranched.(25)
24(23)Fruit valves with predominantly stellate trichomes; style 0.4-0.8 mm; seeds and aborted ovules 18-24 per fruit; petals 3.5-5 mm28  D. tibetica    西藏葶苈
+Fruit valves with predominantly simple trichomes; style 0.7-1.5 mm; seeds and aborted ovules 10-16 per fruit; petals 4.5-6 mm29  D. alajica    帕米尔葶苈
25(23)Leaf trichomes predominantly simple, very rarely absent; fruit apex acute to acuminate; fruiting pedicels glabrous at least adaxially30  D. oreades    喜山葶苈
+Leaf trichomes predominantly stellate; fruit apex obtuse; fruiting pedicels tomentose all around31  D. involucrata    总苞葶苈
26(7)Petals white.(27)
+Petals yellow.(39)
27(26)Seeds and aborted ovules 24-60 per fruit.(28)
+Seeds and aborted ovules 6-20(-22) per fruit.(31)
28(27)Fruit linear, 1-1.5 mm wide; fruiting pedicels divaricate, not appressed to rachis1  D. ladyginii    苞序葶苈
+Fruit oblong-elliptic, oblong, lanceolate, or lanceolate-linear, 1.5-3 mm wide; fruiting pedicels erect to ascending, often subappressed to rachis.(29)
29(28)Stems and pedicels hirsute with simple trichomes; leaf stellate trichomes with unbranched rays3  D. parviflora    小花葶苈
+Stems and pedicels tomentose with primarily stellate and forked trichomes; leaf stellate trichomes with at least 1 ray laterally branched.(30)
30(29)Fruit oblong-elliptic to narrowly oblong, 2-3 mm wide; cauline leaves (2 or)3-5(-7) per stem; petals 3.5-7 mm4  D. subamplexicaulis    半抱茎葶苈
+Fruit lanceolate to lanceolate-linear, 1.5-2 mm wide; cauline leaves 6-12(-16) per stem; petals 2.5-3.5 mm2  D. lanceolata    锥果葶苈
31(27)Petals broadly obovate, 2.5-4.5 mm wide; sepals 2.5-3 mm; fruit apex obtuse; basal leaves subfluccose with long, slender trichomes13  D. sikkimensis    锡金葶苈
+Petals spatulate to narrowly obovate, 1-2(-3) mm wide; sepals 1-2(-2.5) mm; fruit apex acute to acuminate; basal leaves pubescent, pilose, or tomentose with short trichomes.(32)
32(31)Abaxial surface of basal leaves with predominantly simple trichomes, stellate trichomes with unbranched rays.(33)
+Abaxial surface of basal leaves with predominantly stellate trichomes 1 to all 4 rays of with laterally branched.(34)
33(32)Fruiting pedicels 1-4 mm; fruit not twisted; cauline leaves (1 or)2-6(-8); Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan7  D. altaica    阿尔泰葶苈
+Fruting pedicels 4-12 mm; fruit slightly twisted; cauline leaves 1-3; Taiwan9  D. sekiyana    台湾葶苈
34(32)Stems distal half and fruiting pedicels glabrous or rarely glabrescent.(35)
+Stems and fruiting pedicels tomentose throughout.(36)
35(34)Petals 2.5-3(-3.5) × 1-1.5 mm; fruit base obtuse; fruiting pedicels (1-)2-5(-7) mm; Xinjiang15  D. turczaninowii    屠氏葶苈
+Petals (3.5-)4-6 × 2-3 mm; fruit base acute; fruiting pedicels 4-13 mm; Jilin14  D. ussuriensis    乌苏里葶苈
36(34)Fruit (5-)6-11 mm, narrowly oblong-ellipsoid to lanceolate-linear; seeds and aborted ovules 12-22 per fruit.(37)
+Fruit 2-4(-5) mm, ovate, elliptic, or rarely oblong-ovate; seeds and aborted ovules 6-12 per fruit.(38)
37(36)Fruiting pedicel erect to ascending, often subappressed to rachis; cauline leaves 1-4(or 5) per stem; fruit twisted 2 or 3 turns, rarely untwisted; base of cauline leaves often ciliate with simple trichomes5  D. lasiophylla    毛叶葶苈
+Fruiting pedicel divaricate, not appressed to rachis; cauline leaves 6-14(-17) per stem; fruit twisted 1 turn or untwisted; base of cauline leaves not ciliate with simple trichomes6  D. mongolica    蒙古葶苈
38(36)Fruiting pedicels divaricate; racemes bracteate at least basally, slightly elongated in fruit8  D. lichiangensis    丽江葶苈
+Fruiting pedicels erect to ascending; racemes ebracteate, distal half not elongated in fruit10  D. glomerata    球果葶苈
39(26)Racemes bracteate throughout or only basally.(40)
+Racemes ebracteate.(49)
40(39)Racemes 2-10(-12)-flowered; fruiting pedicels glabrous or pubescent throughout, if glabrous adaxially then style 1.5-3 mm.(41)
+Racemes (12-)15-60(-140)-flowered; fruiting pedicels glabrous adaxially, pubescent abaxially.(44)
41(40)Petals 2.5-3.5 × 0.8-1.5 mm; style 0.2-0.5 mm; lowermost fruiting pedicels filiform, to 4 cm, strongly recurved41  D. gracillima    纤细葶苈
+Petals 6-8 × 3-6 mm; style longer; lowermost pedicels not filiform, to 1.8 cm, rarely recurved.(42)
42(41)Racemes bracteate basally; ovary and fruit hirsute; basal leaves ciliate26  D. bhutanica    不丹葶苈
+Racemes bracteate throughout; ovary and fruit glabrous or puberulent; basal leaves not ciliate.(43)
43(42)Style ca. 1 mm; ovules ca. 4 per ovary; racemes 8-12-flowered; pedicels divaricate22  D. serpens    中甸葶苈
+Style 2-3.5 mm; ovules 18-22 per ovary; racemes 2-6-flowered; pedicels recurved25  D. remotiflora    疏花葶苈
44(40)Fruit pilose; abaxial leaf surface with primarily simple and forked trichomes; lateral pair of sepals not saccate at base24  D. matangensis    马塘葶苈
+Fruit glabrous; abaxial leaf surface with stellate trichomes; lateral pair of sepals subsaccate at base.(45)
45(44)Abaxial surface of basal and lowermost cauline leaves with 5-8-rayed stellate trichomes.(46)
+Abaxial surface of basal and lowermost cauline leaves with simple, forked, or 3- or 4-rayed stellate trichomes.(47)
46(45)Cauline leaves auriculate to amplexicaul, acute, dentate or denticulate; stems often branched; plants not canescent18  D. amplexicaulis    抱茎葶苈
+Cauline leaves not auriculate or amplexicaul, obtuse, entire; stems simple; plants canescent at least basally16  D. yunnanensis    云南葶苈
47(45)Cauline leaves neither auriculate nor amplexicaul; fruit 4-7 mm23  D. oreodoxa    山景葶苈
+Cauline leaves auriculate or amplexicaul; fruit (7-)10-15 mm.(48)
48(47)Caudex branches surculose; stems few to several from base; seeds and aborted ovules 8-12 per fruit17  D. surculosa    山菜葶苈
+Caudex not surculose; stems simple at base; seeds and aborted ovules (12-)16-22(-24) per fruit19  D. polyphylla    多叶葶苈
49(39)Midvein of basal leaves prominent, persistent and often spinelike; leaf margin ciliate with setose or subsetose with simple trichomes to 1.5 mm.(50)
+Midvein of basal leaves obscure or evident, not persistent and spinelike, leaf margin not ciliate or ciliate with slender, nonsetose trichomes.(51)
50(49)Fruit elliptic-ovate, rarely oblong-lanceolate; stems glabrous distally; leaves glabrous adaxially, midvein narrower than blade on each side34  D. setosa    刚毛葶苈
+Fruit linear-lanceolate; stems pubescent throughout; leaves hirsute adaxially, midvein wider than blade on each side37  D. linearifolia    线叶葶苈
51(49)Petals 1-1.5 mm; seeds and aborted ovules 24-38 per fruit; style absent42  D. zangbeiensis    藏北葶苈
+Petals 2.5-8 mm; seeds and aborted ovules 4-20(-24); style 0.1-2 mm.(52)
52(51)Fruit ovate, suborbicular, or ovate-lanceolate.(53)
+Fruit linear, linear-lanceolate, linear-elliptic, to oblong.(54)
53(52)Cauline leaves 3-6(-9); fruiting pedicels 6-13(-17) mm; seeds and aborted ovules 16-20 per fruit; fruit valves pilose, flat20  D. elata    高茎葶苈
+Cauline leaves 1(or 2); fruiting pedicels 1-7(-10) mm; seeds and aborted ovules 4-12 per fruit; fruit valves glabrous or rarely puberulent, inflated basally30  D. oreades    喜山葶苈
54(52)Racemes (20-)30-90-flowered; fruiting pedicels glabrous adaxially, pubescent abaxially21  D. calcicola    灰岩葶苈
+Racemes 2-18(-20)-flowered; fruiting pedicels either glabrous throughout or pubescent all around.(55)
55(54)Cauline leaves 2-6; fruiting pedicels filiform, lowermost often recurved; abaxial surface of basal leaves with forked or 4-rayed stellate trichomes with unbranched rays.(56)
+Cauline leaves 1 or very rarely 2; fruiting pedicels not filiform, suberect to divaricate, straight; abaxial surface of basal leaves with 4-6-rayed stellate trichomes 1 or more rays of which forked or with a lateral branch on each side.(57)
56(55)Petals 6-8 × 3-4 mm; fruit 1.5-2.2 cm; style 1.5-2 mm27  D. cholaensis    大花葶苈
+Petals 2.5-3.5 × 0.8-1.5 mm; fruit (0.5-)0.7-1.3(-1.8) cm; style 0.2-0.5 mm41  D. gracillima    纤细葶苈
57(55)Fruit valves with predominantly stellate trichomes; style 0.4-0.8 mm; seeds and aborted ovules 18-24 per fruit; petals 3.5-5 mm28  D. tibetica    西藏葶苈
+Fruit valves with predominantly simple trichomes; style 0.7-1.5 mm; seeds and aborted ovules 10-16 per fruit; petals 4.5-6 mm29  D. alajica    帕米尔葶苈
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