Flora of China
  FOC Vol.6 (2001)              | Family List  Ranunculaceae  PDF Delphinium  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   11. Delphinium  Linnaeus
翠雀属   cui que shu
Authors:Wang Wencai; Michael J. Warnock

Chienia W. T. Wang.


Herbs perennial, rarely biennial or annual. Stem(s) erect or ascending, or much reduced. Leaves basal and/or cauline; leaf blade palmately divided. Inflorescence racemose or corymbose, sometimes only 1-flowered. Pedicels usually 2-bracteolate. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic. Sepals 5, petaloid and variously colored, upper one spurred. Petals 2, sessile, free, spurred; spur nectariferous. Staminodes 2, each usually with a slender claw and an expanded limb. Stamens numerous; filaments lanceolate-linear, 1-veined; anthers ellipsoid. Carpels 3(or 4--10); ovaries many ovulate. Styles without a distinct stigma. Follicles narrowly oblong, reticulate. Seeds obpyramidal, tetrahedral, or obovoid, narrowly winged along angles, transversely rugose, squamulose winged, lamellate, or concave reticulate.

About 350 species: N hemisphere, also a few species in equatorial Africa; 173 species (150 endemic) in China.

In order to reduce the length of the species descriptions and keep them as parallel as possible, section descriptions are included in the treatment. Delphinium is represented in China by an extraordinary number of taxa, many of these with very narrow geographic distributions. The present senior author (Wang) is the primary architect of this treatment of the genus for China, and the circumscription of the species represents his concept of the species boundaries. While the junior author (Warnock) would be more comfortable consolidating some of the species, he does not have the detailed familiarity with the entire range of variation among the Chinese Delphinium species to accomplish a major revision successfully. In addition, it seems clear that hybridization is a significant complicating factor in the taxonomy of Chinese Delphinium. During a brief field trip by the junior author to China, hybrids were seen between D. bulleyanum and D. delavayi, D. ceratophorum and D. grandiflorum, and D. coleopodum and D. delavayi . It is likely that searching would reveal additional hybrids. In fact, it is possible that some of the taxa recognized in the present account are actually hybrids.

1Leaf blade pinnately compound; plants annual; petals enlarged distally; seeds transversely lamellate (5. D. sect. Anthriscifolium)173  D. anthriscifolium    还亮草
+Leaf blade palmately parted (simple or compound); plants perennial; petals not enlarged distally; seeds narrowly winged along angles, or transversely rugose or squamulose winged.(2)
2(1)Sepals and staminodes yellow (4. D. sect. Oligophyllon)172  D. biternatum    三出翠雀花
+Sepals and staminodes blue, purple, black, brown, or white (if sepals yellow, then staminodes black).(3)
3(2)Petals and staminodes wholly or partly black to brown.(4)
+Petals and staminodes not black to brown, similar in color to sepals (blue, purple, or white) (3. D. sect. Delphinastrum).(78)
4(3)Staminode limb weakly differentiated from claw (limb less than 2 × as wide as claw and less than 45° angle from claw), adaxially glabrous or ciliate (1. D. sect. Aconitoides).(5)
+Staminode limb distinct from claw in width (limb at least 2 × as wide as claw) and orientation (limb at least 45° from claw), usually adaxially barbate (2. D. sect. Elatopsis).(10)
5(4)Spur pendulous; yellow, glandular hairs absent from stem.(6)
+Spur within 45° of horizontal; yellow, glandular hairs present on stem.(8)
6(5)Inflorescence tapered cylindric, usually at least 16 cm6  D. trichophorum    毛翠雀花
+Inflorescence ovoid to globose, usually less than 16 cm.(7)
7(6)Spur less than 1.7 cm1  D. forrestii    短距翠雀花
+Spur at least 1.7 cm5  D. oxycentrum    尖距翠雀花
8(5)Stem less than 20 cm; inflorescence less than 3 × as long as wide, ca. 4-flowered3  D. xichangense    西昌翠雀花
+Stem 20--50(--70) cm; inflorescence at least 3 × as long as wide, (6--)10--20-flowered.(9)
9(8)Bracteoles at least 1.2 cm; raceme dense2  D. leiophyllum    光叶翠雀花
+Bracteoles less than 1.2 cm; raceme lax4  D. wrightii    狭序翠雀花
10(4)Inflorescence less than 3 × as long as wide, usually 1- or few flowered (to 40-flowered in D. densiflorum).(11)
+Inflorescence at least 3 × as long as wide, usually more than 6-flowered.(47)
11(10)Carpels 4 or 5.(12)
+Carpels 3.(20)
12(11)Leaf base abruptly narrowed and cuneate14  D. brunonianum    囊距翠雀花
+Leaf base not narrowed.(13)
13(12)Leaf lobes separate for less than 90% of blade radius.(14)
+Leaf lobes separate for at least 90% of blade radius.(16)
14(13)Spur subulate, ca. 2.5 mm in diam. at base34  D. lingbaoense    灵宝翠雀花
+Spur conic, (3--)4--7 mm in diam. at base.(15)
15(14)Stem 6--10 cm; spur less than 9 mm13  D. lacostei    帕米尔翠雀花
+Stem 40--50 cm; spur more than 9 mm15  D. yechengense    叶城翠雀花
16(13)Flower solitary; carpels 420  D. chumulangmaense    珠峰翠雀花
+Flowers 2--6; carpels 5 (rarely 4).(17)
17(16)Spur conic or narrowly so, less than 2 cm, base 4--5 mm in diam.(18)
+Spur subulate or cylindric-subulate, more than 2 cm, base ca. 3 mm in diam.(19)
18(17)Filaments glabrous17  D. glaciale    冰川翠雀花
+Filaments pilose18  D. pseudoglaciale    拟冰川翠雀花
19(17)Inflorescence with yellow, glandular hairs; petal apex emarginate; staminode limb suboblong, 2-cleft; filaments glabrous32  D. pylzowii    大通翠雀花
+Inflorescence without glandular hairs; petal apex entire; staminode limb suborbicular, emarginate; filaments sparsely pilose33  D. motingshanicum    磨顶山翠雀花
20(11)Leaf lobes separate for less than 90% of blade radius.(21)
+Leaf lobes separate for at least 90% of blade radius.(33)
21(20)Carpels hairy only on ventral suture, glabrous elsewhere24  D. wardii    堆拉翠雀花
+Carpels evenly hairy throughout exposed surfaces.(22)
22(21)Spur conic or conic-tubular, base 5--12 mm in diam.(23)
+Spur cylindric or subulate, base 2--4(--4.5) mm in diam.(25)
23(22)Bracteoles blue-purple, navicular-lanceolate41  D. purpurascens    紫苞翠雀花
+Bracteoles not blue-purple, flat.(24)
24(23)Bracteoles more than 0.5 mm from flowers; spur base 7--12 mm in diam.16  D. chrysotrichum    黄毛翠雀花
+Bracteoles ca. 0.5 mm from flowers; spur base ca. 5 mm in diam.19  D. viscosum
25(22)Bracteoles ca. 1 mm from flowers.(26)
+Bracteoles more than 1 mm from flowers.(29)
26(25)Bracteoles elliptic39  D. albocoeruleum    白蓝翠雀花
+Bracteoles linear or narrowly so.(27)
27(26)Staminodes yellow barbate27  D. chenii    白缘翠雀花
+Staminodes white barbate.(28)
28(27)Spur less than 1 cm12  D. pulanense    普兰翠雀花
+Spur more than 1 cm61  D. wentsaii    文采翠雀花
29(25)Staminode limb emarginate at apex28  D. yangii    竟生翠雀花
+Staminode limb 2-lobed to middle.(30)
30(29)Sepal margin white27  D. chenii    白缘翠雀花
+Sepal margin not white.(31)
31(30)Lateral and lower sepals obovate or broadly so30  D. pseudopulcherrimum    宽萼翠雀花
+Lateral and lower sepals elliptic or ovate.(32)
32(31)Stem less than 50 cm25  D. smithianum    宝兴翠雀花
+Stem ca. 50 cm40  D. siwanense    细须翠雀花
33(20)Bracteoles ca. 1 mm from flower.(34)
+Bracteoles more than 1 mm from flower.(35)
34(33)Bracteoles linear, 1--1.7 mm wide29  D. batangense    巴塘翠雀花
+Bracteoles narrowly elliptic, 3--3.5 mm wide38  D. henryi    川陕翠雀花
35(33)Bracteoles leaflike, 3-cleft.(36)
+Bracteoles undivided, linear or lanceolate.(40)
36(35)Spur longer than lateral sepals.(37)
+Spur shorter than or equaling lateral sepals.(38)
37(36)Sepals 2--3 cm, spur subulate35  D. candelabrum    奇林翠雀花
+Sepals 1.4--1.5 cm, spur cylindric37  D. calophyllum    美叶翠雀花
38(36)Inflorescence 1-flowered; staminodes undivided23  D. chungbaense    仲巴翠雀花
+Inflorescence 2- or 3-flowered; staminodes 2-lobed.(39)
39(38)Sepals 1.9--2 cm, spur subcylindric, shorter than sepals, ca. 1.2 cm; filaments pilose36  D. pseudocandelabrum    石滩翠雀花
+Sepals 1.2--1.5 cm, spur subulate, subequaling sepals, 1.2--1.4 cm; filaments glabrous22  D. qinghaiense    青海翠雀花
40(35)Inflorescence 1-flowered; spur shorter than lateral sepals.(41)
+Inflorescence 2--7-flowered; spur longer than lateral sepals.(42)
41(40)Spur cylindric, 1--1.3 cm21  D. tangkulaense    唐古拉翠雀花
+Spur cylindric-subulate or subulate, 1.7--2.6 cm35  D. candelabrum    奇林翠雀花
42(40)Lower sepals obovate, apex rounded30  D. pseudopulcherrimum    宽萼翠雀花
+Lower sepals ovate, elliptic-ovate, or narrowly elliptic, apex narrowed.(43)
43(42)Central leaf segment 2- or 3-subpinnately dissected, ultimate lobules narrowly ovate to linear32  D. pylzowii    大通翠雀花
+Central leaf segment 3-parted, ultimate lobules ovate or narrowly so.(44)
44(43)Lateral sepals equaling or longer than spur; seeds not densely squamulose winged22  D. qinghaiense    青海翠雀花
+Lateral sepals shorter than spur or, if equaling spur (D. siwanense), seeds densely squamulose winged.(45)
45(44)Sepals 2--2.2 cm, spur 3.5--3.8 cm26  D. malacophyllum    软叶翠雀花
+Sepals 1.1--1.8 cm, spur 1.6--2.4 cm.(46)
46(45)Stem 28--30 cm; sepal margin white; spur 2--2.4 cm31  D. yajiangense    雅江翠雀花
+Stem 38--120 cm; sepal margin not white; spur 1.6--1.8 cm40  D. siwanense    细须翠雀花
47(10)Spur ca. 10 mm, much shorter than lateral sepals.(48)
+Spur at least 9 mm, equaling or longer than lateral sepals, rarely slightly shorter than them (D. subspathulatum, D. vestitum, and D. wuqiaense).(52)
48(47)Carpels pubescent.(49)
+Carpels glabrous.(51)
49(48)Basal leaves absent at anthesis8  D. nordhagenii    叠裂翠雀花
+Basal leaves present at anthesis.(50)
50(49)Raceme 20--40-flowered7  D. densiflorum    密花翠雀花
+Raceme less than 20-flowered12  D. pulanense    普兰翠雀花
51(48)Stem 30--38 cm; bracteoles sessile, linear-lanceolate9  D. tetragynum    四果翠雀花
+Stem 20--23 cm; bracteoles shortly stalked, obovate, elliptic, or linear10  D. taxkorganense    塔什库尔干翠雀花
52(47)Leaves all basal, or 1 or 2 proximal cauline leaves present.(53)
+Leaves both basal and cauline, cauline leaves evenly distributed.(57)
53(52)Leaf blade cleft to base, ultimate lobules linear to narrowly lanceolate67  D. erlangshanicum    二郎山翠雀花
+Leaf blade cleft less than 80% to base, ultimate lobules not linear.(54)
54(53)Hairs of bracteole margin 1.5--2.2 mm46  D. iliense    伊犁翠雀花
+Hairs of bracteole margin ca. 0.8 mm.(55)
55(54)Rachis with yellow, glandular hairs57  D. kaschgaricum    喀什翠雀花
+Rachis without yellow, glandular hairs.(56)
56(55)Lateral sepals at least 1.2 cm58  D. zhangii    镱锂翠雀花
+Lateral sepals less than 1.2 cm44  D. kansuense    甘肃翠雀花
57(52)Leaf blade lobed less than 50% to base.(58)
+Leaf blade lobed more than 50% to base.(59)
58(57)Stem without glandular hairs; spur cylindric-conic, slightly shorter than lateral sepals, 1.1--1.3 cm, base 5--6 mm in diam.11  D. vestitum    浅裂翠雀花
+Stem with yellow, glandular hairs; spur subulate, slightly longer than lateral sepals, 1.9--2.6 cm, base 3--4 mm in diam.43  D. nangziense    朗孜翠雀花
59(57)Bracteoles borne proximally on pedicel51  D. maackianum    宽苞翠雀花
+Bracteoles borne near middle of pedicel or distally.(60)
60(59)Bracteoles navicular-ovate48  D. naviculare    船苞翠雀花
+Bracteoles flat, not navicular.(61)
61(60)Pedicels glabrous.(62)
+Pedicels hairy.(65)
62(61)Sepals abaxially densely puberulent62  D. mollifolium    新源翠雀花
+Sepals abaxially glabrous.(63)
63(62)Bracteoles contiguous to flowers65  D. korshinskyanum    东北高翠雀花
+Bracteoles remote from flowers.(64)
64(63)Bracteoles narrowly lanceolate or linear-oblanceolate, margin long ciliate46  D. iliense    伊犁翠雀花
+Bracteoles narrowly linear, margin not ciliate59  D. sinoelatum    新疆高翠雀花
65(61)Bracteoles 2--3 mm wide.(66)
+Bracteoles ca. 1 mm wide.(70)
66(65)Stem with dense, yellow, glandular hairs45  D. hillcoatiae    毛茛叶翠雀花
+Stem without yellow, glandular hairs.(67)
67(66)Bracteoles remote from flowers.(68)
+Bracteoles contiguous to flowers.(69)
68(67)Stem simple; pedicels to 8 cm; spur slightly shorter than sepals42  D. subspathulatum    匙苞翠雀花
+Stem branched; pedicels to 2.7 cm; spur slightly longer than sepals49  D. ellipticovatum    长卵苞翠雀花
69(67)Raceme rachis without glandular hairs; bracteoles lanceolate-oblong or lanceolate, 8--10 mm50  D. winklerianum    温泉翠雀花
+Raceme rachis with yellow, glandular hairs; bracteoles linear, 10--14 mm64  D. tabatae    吉隆翠雀花
70(65)Sepals abaxially without yellow, glandular hairs.(71)
+Sepals abaxially with yellow, glandular hairs.(74)
71(70)Carpels glabrous63  D. eglandulosum    无腺翠雀花
+Carpels pubescent.(72)
72(71)Pedicels and sepals abaxially strigose; carpels densely strigose54  D. tianshanicum    天山翠雀花
+Pedicels and sepals abaxially puberulent; carpels puberulent.(73)
73(72)Petals sparsely ciliate, apex 2-lobed47  D. aktoense    阿克陶翠雀花
+Petals glabrous, apex emarginate66  D. trisectum    全裂翠雀花
74(70)Central primary leaf lobes and secondary lobes of lateral primary lobes long acuminate or caudate at apex60  D. shawurense    萨乌尔翠雀花
+Central primary leaf lobes and secondary lobes of lateral primary lobes acute or acuminate at apex.(75)
75(74)Bracteoles contiguous to flowers.(76)
+Bracteoles remote from flowers.(77)
76(75)Petals 2-lobed; carpels densely puberulent52  D. tarbagataicum    新塔翠雀花
+Petals entire; carpels glabrous53  D. elatum
77(75)Spur shorter than or equaling lateral sepals55  D. wuqiaense    乌恰翠雀花
+Spur longer than lateral sepals56  D. kunlunshanicum    昆仑翠雀花
78(3)Cauline leaf petiole sheath 8--15 mm wide139  D. coleopodum    鞘柄翠雀花
+Cauline leaf petiole sheath less than 8 mm wide, or cauline leaves absent.(79)
79(78)Carpels at least 4.(80)
+Carpels 3.(88)
80(79)Staminode limb cleft for at least 30% of its length.(81)
+Staminode limb cleft for less than 30% of its length.(84)
81(80)Inflorescence less than 3 × as long as wide162  D. caeruleum    蓝翠雀花
+Inflorescence at least 3 × as long as wide.(82)
82(81)Stem at least 40 cm154  D. pseudomosoynense    条裂翠雀花
+Stem less than 40 cm.(83)
83(82)Spur less than 1 cm8  D. nordhagenii    叠裂翠雀花
+Spur at least 1 cm69  D. humilius    乡城翠雀花
84(80)Inflorescence more than 3 × as long as wide.(85)
+Inflorescence less than 3 × as long as wide.(86)
85(84)Staminode limb white barbate68  D. kingianum    密叶翠雀花
+Staminode limb yellow barbate153  D. sinopentagynum    五果翠雀花
86(84)Staminode limb narrowly obovate; spur at least 2.4 cm, base at least 3 mm in diam.161  D. beesianum    宽距翠雀花
+Staminode limb broadly obovate or suborbicular; spur to 2.6 cm, base to 4 mm in diam.(87)
87(86)Staminodes white barbate163  D. huangzhongense    湟中翠雀花
+Staminodes yellow barbate162  D. caeruleum    蓝翠雀花
88(79)Sepals abaxially corniculate near apex.(89)
+Sepals abaxially not or very shortly (less than 0.5 mm) corniculate near apex.(97)
89(88)Corniculate projection 2.5--3.5 mm, 2-cleft105  D. campylocentrum    弯距翠雀花
+Corniculate projection less than 2.5 mm, not 2-cleft.(90)
90(89)Spur ca. 1.3 cm111  D. sparsiflorum    疏花翠雀花
+Spur more than 1.3 cm.(91)
91(90)Sepals yellow pubescent abaxially132  D. leiostachyum    光轴翠雀花
+Sepals white pubescent abaxially.(92)
92(91)Inflorescence pubescent106  D. sutchuenense    松潘翠雀花
+Inflorescence glabrous.(93)
93(92)Petals apically 2-lobate117  D. taliense    大理翠雀花
+Petals apically entire or emarginate.(94)
94(93)Spur ca. 2.4 cm.(95)
+Spur less than 2.4 cm.(96)
95(94)Filaments pilose120  D. ceratophoroides    拟角萼翠雀花
+Filaments glabrous131  D. dolichocentroides    拟长距翠雀花
96(94)Basal leaves present at anthesis128  D. ceratophorum    角萼翠雀花
+Basal leaves absent at anthesis136  D. yunnanense    云南翠雀花
97(88)Spur U-shaped or spirally recurved (more than 180°).(98)
+Spur straight, upcurved, or recurved to 180°, neither U-shaped nor spirally curved.(107)
98(97)Pedicels glabrous.(99)
+Pedicels hairy.(101)
99(98)Inflorescence less than 3 × as long as wide; leaf blade lobed ca. 50% to base96  D. maoxianense    茂县翠雀花
+Inflorescence at least 3 × as long as wide; leaf blade lobed more than 50% to base.(100)
100(99)Leaf blade lobed less than 90% to base92  D. potaninii    黑水翠雀花
+Leaf blade lobed at least 90% to base113  D. glabricaule    光茎翠雀花
101(98)Leaf blade lobed ca. 50% to base95  D. sinovitifolium    葡萄叶翠雀花
+Leaf blade lobed more than 50% to base.(102)
102(101)Leaf lobes long acuminate or caudate at apex103  D. pseudotongolense    拟川西翠雀花
+Leaf lobes shortly acuminate at apex.(103)
103(102)Stem proximally glabrous.(104)
+Stem proximally hairy.(105)
104(103)Raceme with only yellow, glandular hairs; petals undivided100  D. wenchuanense    汶川翠雀花
+Raceme with both appressed, white hairs and yellow, glandular hairs; petals 2-lobed101  D. bulleyanum    拟螺距翠雀花
105(103)Stem sparsely pubescent proximally99  D. angustirhombicum    狭菱形翠雀花
+Stem hispid proximally.(106)
106(105)Leaf blade strongly divided, with many lobules; lateral sepals 1.5--1.8 cm; carpels hairy97  D. spirocentrum    螺距翠雀花
+Leaf blade less divided, with few lobules; lateral sepals ca. 1.1 cm; carpels glabrous98  D. gonggaense    贡嘎翠雀花
107(97)Leaf blade lobed up to 90% to base.(108)
+Leaf blade lobed more than 90% to base.(164)
108(107)Sepals hairy on both surfaces.(109)
+Sepals adaxially glabrous.(110)
109(108)Stem, raceme rachis, and pedicels densely appressed puberulent; bracteoles 10--18 mm; spur subcylindric70  D. pachycentrum    粗距翠雀花
+Stem and raceme rachis glabrous, pedicels glabrous proximally, puberulent distally; bracteoles ca. 5 mm; spur subulate75  D. yuchuanii    毓泉翠雀花
110(108)Spur shorter than or equaling lateral sepals.(111)
+Spur longer than lateral sepals, rarely subequaling them.(116)
111(110)Inflorescence less than 3 × as long as wide92  D. potaninii    黑水翠雀花
+Inflorescence ca. 3 × as long as wide.(112)
112(111)Spur ca. 9 mm, upcurved77  D. orthocentrum    直距翠雀花
+Spur more than 10 mm, usually horizontal or recurved.(113)
113(112)Leaf primary lobes cleft ca. 50% of blade radius116  D. aemulans    塔城翠雀花
+Leaf primary lobes cleft less than 50% of blade radius.(114)
114(113)Bracteoles less than 0.8 mm wide88  D. longipedicellatum    长梗翠雀花
+Bracteoles 1.2--2 mm wide.(115)
115(114)Bracteoles more than 0.5 mm from flowers72  D. gyalanum    拉萨翠雀花
+Bracteoles ca. 0.5 mm from flowers76  D. micropetalum    小瓣翠雀花
116(110)Bracteoles ca. 1 mm from flowers.(117)
+Bracteoles more than 1 mm from flowers.(121)
117(116)Basal leaves 4--8, present at anthesis; cauline leaves 1--3, borne proximally on stem.(118)
+Basal leaves usually wilted at anthesis; cauline leaves at least 3, evenly arranged along stem.(119)
118(117)Stem ca. 40 cm, spreading hispid throughout; raceme ca. 20 cm; spur 1.7--2 cm127  D. yongningense    永宁翠雀花
+Stem less than 40 cm, sparsely strigose near base, glabrous elsewhere; raceme less than 20 cm; spur 2.4--2.6 cm133  D. brevisepalum    短萼翠雀花
119(117)Bracteoles narrowly lanceolate79  D. delavayi    滇川翠雀花
+Bracteoles linear.(120)
120(119)Spur more than 1.8 cm; pedicels more than 1 cm80  D. umbrosum    阴地翠雀花
+Spur ca. 1.8 cm; pedicels ca. 1 cm89  D. pseudocyananthum    假深蓝翠雀花
121(116)Leaf cleft less than 60% of blade radius.(122)
+Leaf cleft ca. 60% of blade radius.(124)
122(121)Raceme glabrous121  D. hamatum    钩距翠雀花
+Raceme puberulent.(123)
123(122)Inflorescence yellow glandular puberulent; ovaries pubescent122  D. hueizeense    会泽翠雀花
+Inflorescence white puberulent; ovaries glabrous123  D. calthifolium    驴蹄草叶翠雀花
124(121)Leaf blade lobed more than 85% of blade radius.(125)
+Leaf blade lobed ca. 85% of blade radius.(143)
125(124)Pedicels glabrous.(126)
+Pedicels hairy.(131)
126(125)Staminode limb 2-cleft to middle.(127)
+Staminode limb entire or emarginate at apex.(129)
127(126)Middle cauline leaves with central lobe broadly rhombic, 3-cleft; pedicels ascending-spreading, forming an obtuse angle with rachis134  D. tenii    长距翠雀花
+Middle cauline leaves with central lobe lanceolate, often undivided, or with 1 or 2 lobules; pedicels erect-spreading, forming an acute angle with rachis.(128)
128(127)Raceme laxly 3--10-flowered; spur 1.7--2.4 cm; petals glabrous, emarginate at apex136  D. yunnanense    云南翠雀花
+Raceme densely 18--30-flowered; spur 1.3--1.5 cm; petals ciliate at margin, 2-lobed at apex137  D. pseudoyunnanense    拟云南翠雀花
129(126)Stem at least 80 cm, ca. 10-leaved74  D. cheilanthum    唇花翠雀花
+Stem less than 80 cm, up to 6-leaved.(130)
130(129)Sepals ca. 1.8 cm, spur 2.6--3 cm; staminode limb entire at apex119  D. liangshanense    凉山翠雀花
+Sepals 1--1.4 cm, spur 1.8--2.5 cm; staminode limb emarginate at apex134  D. tenii    长距翠雀花
131(125)Raceme rachis glabrous.(132)
+Raceme rachis hairy.(134)
132(131)Stem ca. 70 cm; raceme to 22 cm, ca. 8-flowered156  D. obcordatilimbum    倒心形翠雀花
+Stem 11--30 cm; raceme 3--16 cm, 1--5-flowered.(133)
133(132)Stem ca. 30 cm; raceme 3--5-flowered; sepals 0.75--0.9 cm, spur ca. 1.9 cm; staminode limb 2-parted for more than 50% of its length85  D. yanwaense    岩瓦翠雀花
+Stem 11--18 cm; raceme 1- or 2-flowered; sepals 1.6--1.7 cm, spur ca. 2.8 cm; staminode limb entire124  D. pseudohamatum    宁蒗翠雀花
134(131)Pedicels without glandular hairs.(135)
+Pedicels with yellow, glandular hairs.(139)
135(134)Stem 75--95 cm; basal and lower cauline leaves wilted at anthesis.(136)
+Stem 3--17 cm; basal leaves present at anthesis.(138)
136(135)Staminode limb emarginate73  D. hsinganense    兴安翠雀花
+Staminode limb 2-lobed.(137)
137(136)Bracteoles narrowly lanceolate79  D. delavayi    滇川翠雀花
+Bracteoles subulate136  D. yunnanense    云南翠雀花
138(135)Stem 3--8 cm; leaf blade central lobe 3-dentate or 3-lobed; raceme 1- or 2-flowered130  D. hui    稻城翠雀花
+Stem 15--17 cm; leaf blade central lobe 3-parted; raceme 2--5-flowered129  D. yulungshanicum    玉龙山翠雀花
139(134)Leaf blade central lobe lanceolate, undivided or indistinctly 3-lobed87  D. hirtifolium    毛叶翠雀花
+Leaf blade central lobe rhombic or obovate-rhombic, usually distinctly 3-lobed.(140)
140(139)Leaf blade primary lobes dissected, ultimate lobules narrowly ovate to linear-lanceolate; carpels glabrous140  D. kantzeense    甘孜翠雀花
+Leaf blade primary lobes less divided, ultimate lobules triangular; carpels puberulent.(141)
141(140)Stem 11--30 cm; raceme 3- or 4-flowered126  D. pergameneum    纸叶翠雀花
+Stem more than 40 cm; raceme 5--15-flowered.(142)
142(141)Stem long hispid proximally79  D. delavayi    滇川翠雀花
+Stem puberulent proximally144  D. incisolobulatum    缺刻翠雀花
143(124)Stem glabrous below inflorescence.(144)
+Stem hairy below inflorescence.(152)
144(143)Pedicels glabrous92  D. potaninii    黑水翠雀花
+Pedicels hairy.(145)
145(144)Pedicels with only yellow, glandular hairs.(146)
+Pedicels with only white hairs or with both white hairs and yellow, glandular hairs.(147)
146(145)Inflorescence less than 3 × as long as wide93  D. eriostylum    毛梗翠雀花
+Inflorescence ca. 3 × as long as wide118  D. lasiantherum    毛药翠雀花
147(145)Pedicels with only appressed, white hairs78  D. altissimum    高茎翠雀花
+Pedicels with both appressed, white hairs and spreading, yellow, glandular hairs.(148)
148(147)Leaf blade central lobe with lateral lobules less than 2 × as long as neighboring lobules.(149)
+Leaf blade central lobe with lateral lobules ca. 2 × as long as neighboring lobules.(150)
149(148)Staminode hairs white; spur ca. 1.5 cm82  D. handelianum    淡紫翠雀花
+Staminode hairs yellow; spur 2--2.1 cm83  D. honanense    河南翠雀花
150(148)Leaf blade to 6.8 cm wide; raceme ca. 4-flowered; staminode limb emarginate at apex102  D. ninglangshanicum    宁朗山翠雀花
+Leaf blade to 12 cm wide; raceme 6--16(--25)-flowered; staminode limb 2-cleft to middle.(151)
151(150)Pedicels with dense, spreading, yellow, glandular hairs and a few retrorse, white hairs; sepals 1.4--1.7 cm86  D. tongolense    川西翠雀花
+Pedicels with dense, retrorse, white hairs and sparse, spreading, yellow, glandular hairs; sepals 1--1.5 cm101  D. bulleyanum    拟螺距翠雀花
152(143)Inflorescence less than 3 × as long as wide94  D. laxicymosum    聚伞翠雀花
+Inflorescence ca. 3 × as long as wide.(153)
153(152)Pedicels glabrous91  D. hirticaule    毛茎翠雀花
+Pedicels hairy.(154)
154(153)Leaf blade central lobes undivided or indistinctly 3-lobed.(155)
+Leaf blade central lobes distinctly 3-lobed to 3-parted.(156)
155(154)Bracteoles less than 2 mm from flowers79  D. delavayi    滇川翠雀花
+Bracteoles ca. 2 mm from flowers82  D. handelianum    淡紫翠雀花
156(154)Stem with appressed hairs.(157)
+Stem with spreading or retrorse hairs.(158)
157(156)Stem ca. 30 cm; raceme rachis glabrous; pedicels 3.5--10 cm85  D. yanwaense    岩瓦翠雀花
+Stem 57--65 cm; raceme rachis puberulent; pedicels 1--2.9 cm84  D. omeiense    峨眉翠雀花
158(156)Stem hairs 1.2--3 mm.(159)
+Stem hairs less than 1 mm or absent.(160)
159(158)Stem hairs yellowish84  D. omeiense    峨眉翠雀花
+Stem hairs white91  D. hirticaule    毛茎翠雀花
160(158)Bracteoles subulate or filiform, 2--5 × 0.2--0.4 mm, glabrous90  D. sherriffii    米林翠雀花
+Bracteoles lanceolate, 4.5--11 × 1.2--1.7 mm, hairy.(161)
161(160)Cauline leaf 1, leaf blade to 10 cm wide144  D. incisolobulatum    缺刻翠雀花
+Cauline leaves at least 2, leaf blade 8--16(--22) cm wide.(162)
162(161)Stem glabrous proximally; sepals less than 1 cm81  D. latirhombicum    宽菱形翠雀花
+Stem puberulent proximally; sepals ca. 1 cm.(163)
163(162)Filaments glabrous to sparsely hairy79  D. delavayi    滇川翠雀花
+Filaments pilose72  D. gyalanum    拉萨翠雀花
164(107)Leaves all basal.(165)
+Leaves both basal and cauline, sometimes basal and lower cauline leaves wilted at anthesis (in some alpine plants, lower internodes are very short and leaves may falsely appear to be all basal).(170)
165(164)Sepals adaxially puberulent.(166)
+Sepals adaxially glabrous.(167)
166(165)Lateral sepals more than 1.7 cm148  D. chayuense    察隅翠雀花
+Lateral sepals ca. 1.7 cm143  D. thibeticum    澜沧翠雀花
167(165)Stem sparsely spreading pubescent; bracteoles more than 1 mm from flowers.(168)
+Stem retrorsely puberulent; bracteoles ca. 1 mm from flowers.(169)
168(167)Staminode limb suborbicular, entire; sepals elliptic-obovate or oblong, 1.5--1.8 cm125  D. autumnale    秋翠雀花
+Staminode limb broadly ovate, 2-cleft; sepals lanceolate, ca. 2.5 cm165  D. saxatile    岩生翠雀花
169(167)Spur pendulous; sepals villous abaxially147  D. pomeense    波密翠雀花
+Spur horizontal; sepals puberulent abaxially149  D. sinoscaposum    花葶翠雀花
170(164)Leaf blade primary lobes lobed for ca. 50% of their length, ultimate lobules ovate or narrowly so.(171)
+Leaf blade primary lobes lobed for more than 50% of their length, ultimate lobules lanceolate, narrowly so, or linear.(190)
171(170)Inflorescence less than 3 × as long as wide, or 1-flowered.(172)
+Inflorescence or branches ca. 3 × as long as wide.(176)
172(171)Leaf blade 1.3--2.6 cm wide.(173)
+Leaf blade 2.8--7 cm wide.(174)
173(172)Stem subglabrous; bracteoles leaflike, palmately 3-sect35  D. candelabrum    奇林翠雀花
+Stem hispid; bracteoles linear, undivided145  D. pseudothibeticum    拟澜沧翠雀花
174(172)Pedicels 3.5--10 cm164  D. davidii    谷地翠雀花
+Pedicels 1--2 cm.(175)
175(174)Spur ca. 2 cm; filaments glabrous38  D. henryi    川陕翠雀花
+Spur ca. 1.5 cm; filaments sparsely hairy109  D. conaense    错那翠雀花
176(171)Staminode limb entire or emarginate at apex.(177)
+Staminode limb 2-lobed to 2-parted.(179)
177(176)Bracteoles ca. 1 mm from flowers, narrowly lanceolate; raceme with yellow, glandular hairs143  D. thibeticum    澜沧翠雀花
+Bracteoles more than 1 mm from flowers, narrowly linear or subulate; raceme without glandular hairs.(178)
178(177)Raceme rachis and pedicels densely retrorsely puberulent155  D. majus    金沙翠雀花
+Raceme rachis glabrous, pedicels puberulent only at apex156  D. obcordatilimbum    倒心形翠雀花
179(176)Bracteoles ca. 1 mm from flowers.(180)
+Bracteoles more than 1 mm from flowers.(184)
180(179)Staminode limb with white hairs; leaf blade central segment undivided or indistinctly 3-lobed114  D. trifoliolatum    三小叶翠雀花
+Staminode limb with yellow or yellowish hairs; leaf blade central segment distinctly 3-lobed or 3-cleft.(181)
181(180)Stem ca. 10-leaved; basal leaves wilted at anthesis; carpels glabrous115  D. wangii    秀丽翠雀花
+Stem 1--3-leaved; basal leaves green at anthesis; carpels hairy.(182)
182(181)Stem spreading hispid127  D. yongningense    永宁翠雀花
+Stem retrorsely pubescent or puberulent.(183)
183(182)Leaf blade 4.5--6 cm; raceme 7--10-flowered; filaments with a few hairs142  D. medogense    墨脱翠雀花
+Leaf blade 2.5--4 cm; raceme 2--4-flowered; filaments glabrous146  D. taipaicum    太白翠雀花
184(179)Pedicels glabrous.(185)
+Pedicels hairy.(187)
185(184)Stem hispid108  D. rangtangense    壤塘翠雀花
+Stem glabrous.(186)
186(185)Spur 1.8--2 cm, longer than sepals110  D. giraldii    秦岭翠雀花
+Spur 0.6--1.1 cm, subequaling sepals111  D. sparsiflorum    疏花翠雀花
187(184)Pedicels with only yellow, glandular hairs107  D. pseudocampylocentrum    拟弯距翠雀花
+Pedicels with white hairs (yellow, glandular hairs present or not).(188)
188(187)Inflorescence glabrous; sepals 0.7--0.8 cm112  D. angustipaniculatum    宕昌翠雀花
+Inflorescence hairy; sepals (0.9--)1.1--1.8 cm.(189)
189(188)Spur subulate-cylindric, 0.9--1 cm71  D. caudatolobum    尾裂翠雀花
+Spur subulate, 1.3--2.2 cm104  D. muliense    木里翠雀花
190(170)Inflorescence less than 3 × as long as wide, or 1-flowered.(191)
+Inflorescence ca. 3 × as long as wide.(204)
191(190)Bracteoles elliptic or elliptic-ovate; calyx urceolate; sepals longer than spur152  D. likiangense    丽江翠雀花
+Bracteoles linear or subulate; calyx open; sepals shorter than spur.(192)
192(191)Bracteoles ca. 1 mm from flowers147  D. pomeense    波密翠雀花
+Bracteoles more than 1 mm from flowers.(193)
193(192)Staminode limb 2-cleft to middle.(194)
+Staminode limb emarginate or 2-lobulate at apex.(198)
194(193)Stem long branched proximally171  D. maximowiczii    多枝翠雀花
+Stem simple or shortly branched distally.(195)
195(194)Ultimate leaf lobules narrowly ovate; spur 1.8--3 cm35  D. candelabrum    奇林翠雀花
+Ultimate leaf lobules narrowly linear; spur ca. 2.5 cm.(196)
196(195)Stem simple; inflorescence 1-flowered; lateral sepals subequaling spur150  D. nortonii    细茎翠雀花
+Stem branched distally; inflorescence 2--5-flowered; lateral sepals shorter than spur.(197)
197(196)Lateral sepals at least 1.7 cm; bracteoles borne proximally on pedicel, or absent164  D. davidii    谷地翠雀花
+Lateral sepals less than 1.7 cm; bracteoles borne near middle of pedicel or distally170  D. pseudocaeruleum    拟蓝翠雀花
198(193)Pedicels with spreading, white hairs (yellow, glandular hairs present or not).(199)
+Pedicels with retrorse or appressed, white hairs, or glabrous (yellow, glandular hairs present or not).(201)
199(198)Pedicels white puberulent only169  D. mollipilum    软毛翠雀花
+Pedicels white puberulent and yellow glandular puberulent.(200)
200(199)Spur 2.5--3.1 cm; lateral sepals 2.4--3.6 cm; staminode limb ca. 13 × 10 mm167  D. grandilimbum    硕边翠雀花
+Spur 3.3--3.8 cm; lateral sepals 1.4--1.6 cm; staminode limb ca. 6 × 5 mm168  D. pumilum    矮翠雀花
201(198)Stem proximally branched.(202)
+Stem simple or branched distally.(203)
202(201)Stem base retrorsely puberulent171  D. maximowiczii    多枝翠雀花
+Stem base glabrous134  D. tenii    长距翠雀花
203(201)Sepals slightly shorter than spur; pedicels bracteolate above middle159  D. grandiflorum    翠雀
+Sepals distinctly shorter than spur; pedicels bracteolate near middle166  D. tatsienense    康定翠雀花
204(190)Lateral sepals longer than spur.(205)
+Lateral sepals shorter than or equaling spur.(208)
205(204)Bracteoles ca. 1 mm from flowers, elliptic or elliptic-ovate; calyx urceolate; sepals 2--2.5 cm152  D. likiangense    丽江翠雀花
+Bracteoles more than 1 mm from flowers, subulate; calyx open; sepals 1.1--1.8 cm.(206)
206(205)Raceme puberulent; staminode limb broadly obovate160  D. kamaonense    光序翠雀花
+Raceme glabrous; staminode limb obovate-oblong.(207)
207(206)Spur 1.3--1.5 cm; raceme 18--30-flowered137  D. pseudoyunnanense    拟云南翠雀花
+Spur 1.8--2 cm; raceme 5--9-flowered141  D. pycnocentrum    密距翠雀花
208(204)Spur subequaling lateral sepals, 1--1.4 cm, abruptly upcurved138  D. yuanum    中甸翠雀花
+Spur usually longer than lateral sepals, (1.2--)1.5--3 cm, horizontal or recurved, rarely slightly upcurved.(209)
209(208)Staminode limb glabrous; sepals ± forward pointing151  D. souliei    川甘翠雀花
+Staminode limb barbate; sepals ± spreading.(210)
210(209)Bracteoles ca. 1 mm from flower.(211)
+Bracteoles more than 1 mm from flowers.(214)
211(210)Raceme dense, pedicels densely yellow glandular puberulent116  D. aemulans    塔城翠雀花
+Raceme ± sparse, pedicels only white puberulent, rarely mixed with a few yellow, glandular hairs.(212)
212(211)Cauline leaf blade ultimate lobules pungent at apex143  D. thibeticum    澜沧翠雀花
+Cauline leaf blade ultimate lobules acute or slightly obtuse at apex.(213)
213(212)Raceme at least 5-flowered; bracteoles lanceolate, 1--1.6 mm wide; spur 1.9--2.7 cm143  D. thibeticum    澜沧翠雀花
+Raceme 2--4-flowered; bracteoles oblong-ovate, 3--3.5 mm wide; spur 1.4--2 cm146  D. taipaicum    太白翠雀花
214(210)Raceme glabrous.(215)
+Raceme ± hairy.(218)
215(214)Carpels glabrous135  D. shuichengense    水城翠雀花
+Carpels hairy.(216)
216(215)Stem glabrous156  D. obcordatilimbum    倒心形翠雀花
+Stem hairy proximally, glabrous distally.(217)
217(216)Pedicels yellow pubescent near apex125  D. autumnale    秋翠雀花
+Pedicels glabrous132  D. leiostachyum    光轴翠雀花
218(214)Raceme sparsely puberulent.(219)
+Raceme densely puberulent.(222)
219(218)Staminode limb suborbicular, apex entire125  D. autumnale    秋翠雀花
+Staminode limb obovate, apex usually emarginate or 2-lobed, rarely entire.(220)
220(219)Raceme dense; ovary sparsely pubescent141  D. pycnocentrum    密距翠雀花
+Raceme lax; ovary densely pubescent.(221)
221(220)Stem more than 50 cm136  D. yunnanense    云南翠雀花
+Stem to 50 cm160  D. kamaonense    光序翠雀花
222(218)Staminode limb broadly obovate or suborbicular159  D. grandiflorum    翠雀
+Staminode limb narrowly obovate or oblong.(223)
223(222)Bracteoles narrowly oblong, 11--18 × 3--4 mm157  D. weiningense    威宁翠雀花
+Bracteoles linear or subulate, 2.5--7 × 0.2--1 mm.(224)
224(223)Sepals abaxially only puberulent, spur 1.6--2.2 cm; petals glabrous; staminode limb emarginate at apex155  D. majus    金沙翠雀花
+Sepals abaxially puberulent and villous, spur 2.4--2.8 cm; petals ciliate at apex; staminode limb erose at apex158  D. nangchienense    囊谦翠雀花
   List of lower taxa