Flora of China
  FOC Vol.6 (2001)              | Family List  Ranunculaceae  PDF Cimicifuga  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   6. Cimicifuga  Wernischeck
升麻属   sheng ma shu
Authors:Li Liangqian; Anthony R. Brach


Herbs perennial. Rhizome robust, creeping, with fibrous roots. Stem terete, apically usually several branched. Leaves 1--3 × ternately sect or subpinnately compound, long petiolate. Inflorescence densely racemose, sometimes spicate, simple or branched; rachis densely glandular pubescent and hairy; bracts subulate to narrowly triangular, small. Flowers dense, small, actinomorphic, hermaphroditic or rarely unisexual and plants dioecious. Sepals 4 or 5, petaloid, white, obovate-orbicular, caducous. Petals elliptic to suborbicular, entire, slightly concave or forked-lobed with 2 empty anthers, rarely with a nectary. Stamens numerous; filaments narrowly linear to filamentous; anthers yellow, broadly ellipsoid to suborbicular. Follicles 1--8, stalked or sessile, oblong-ellipsoid to obovate-ellipsoid, adaxially convex veined, apex beaked. Seeds few, yellowish brown, ellipsoid to narrowly ellipsoid.

About 18 species: N temperate regions; eight species (three endemic) in China.

Elsewhere (Compton et al., Taxon 47: 593–634. 1998), Cimicifuga has been transferred to Actaea . However, for the present account, as in FRPS, one of us (Li) prefers to maintain Cimicifuga as distinct.

1Leaves 1 × ternate, subbasal; inflorescence spicate; carpels 1, sometimes 21  C. japonica    小升麻
+Leaves 2 or 3 × ternately pinnate; inflorescence racemose; carpels 2--8.(2)
2(1)Flower unisexual, plants dioecious8  C. dahurica    兴安升麻
+Flower hermaphroditic.(3)
3(2)Inflorescence unbranched or with several short branches at base.(4)
+Inflorescence (2--)4--20-branched.(5)
4(3)Plants 1--1.5 m; terminal leaflet ovate or rhombic, 4.5--8.5 × 2--5.5 cm, adaxially glabrous; pedicels 5--8 mm2  C. simplex    单穗升麻
+Plants 40--90(--140) cm; terminal leaflet ovate or broadly rhombic, 2--3.7 × 1.5--3 cm, adaxially sparsely pubescent; pedicels 1--4 mm3  C. yunnanensis    云南升麻
5(3)Carpels densely gray pubescent; follicles densely appressed pubescent7  C. foetida    升麻
+Carpels or follicles glabrous or subglabrous.(6)
6(5)Terminal leaflet rhombic, papery, abaxially pubescent at veins6  C. brachycarpa    短果升麻
+Terminal leaflet ovate or obovate, slightly leathery, abaxially glabrous.(7)
7(6)Petals entire at apex; terminal leaflet obovate to obovate-elliptic, 4--9 cm wide4  C. heracleifolia    大三叶升麻
+Petals 2-lobed at apex; terminal leaflet ovate, 5.5--14.5 cm wide5  C. nanchuanensis    南川升麻
   List of lower taxa