Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Campanulaceae  PDF Campanula  PDF   | Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   9. Campanula  Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 163. 1753.
风铃草属   feng ling cao shu
Authors:Authors: Deyuan Hong, Thomas G. Lammers & Laura L. Klein

Neocodon Kolakovsky & Serdyukova.


Herbs, perennial, with long horizontal rhizomes or with short caudexes and thickened ± fleshy roots; less often annual. Basal leaves sometimes rosulate; cauline leaves all alternate. Flowers solitary and terminal, or in cymes; cymes paniculate or capitellate, later subtended by an involucre. Calyx adnate to ovary; lobes 5, sometimes with an appendage between lobes. Corolla campanulate, tubular-campanulate, or funnelform, sometimes subrotate, 5-lobed. Filaments dilated; anthers coherent or rarely connate. Disk absent. Ovary inferior, 3-5-locular. Capsules dehiscent by lateral, upper or lower pores, crowned by persistent calyx lobes. Seeds numerous, ellipsoid, smooth.

About 420 species: throughout the Arctic and N temperate regions, most abundant from the Mediterranean to the Caucasus; 22 species (11 endemic) in China.

1Capsule poricidal above middle; flowers solitary, terminal, or several terminal on main stems and branches; cauline leaves mostly toward base, upper cauline leaves sessile or nearly so, usually linear if present; basal leaves persistent at anthesis (2. C.(2)
+Capsule poricidal toward base; stems with numerous flowers, solitary or in various types of inflorescences; leaves many and evenly distributed on stems; basal leaves usually wilted at anthesis (1. C. subg. Campanula)(8)
2(1)Plants with horizontal rhizomes; stems simple; stems and leaves glabrous(3)
+Plants without horizontal rhizomes; stems simple or branched; stems and leaves variously pubescent(5)
3(2)Hypanthium narrowly cylindrical; calyx lobes filiform, longer than corolla.21  C. aristata    钻裂风铃草
+Hypanthium obovoid or obconic; calyx lobes subulate or narrowly triangular, shorter than corolla(4)
4(3)Plants 20-50 cm tall; middle cauline leaves longer than 2 cm; calyx lobes 5-9 mm; corolla 15-20 mm, cleft for ca. 1/2 its length.16  C. stevenii    新疆风铃草
+Plants 7-22 cm tall; middle cauline leaves shorter than 2 cm; calyx lobes 1.8-5 mm; corolla 4-11 mm, cleft for ca. 1/3 its length.22  C. immodesta    藏滇风铃草
5(2)Flowers pendent(6)
+Flowers erect(7)
6(5)Plants 20-50 cm tall; calyx lobes 1-5.5 mm; corolla lobes as long as tube.17  C. delavayi    丽江风铃草
+Plants 6-33 cm tall; calyx lobes 3-12 mm; corolla lobes ca. 1/2 as long as tube.18  C. crenulata    流石风铃草
7(5)Basal leaves cordate-reniform; stems slender but not filiform, hairy, lower half with cordate to ovate-lanceolate leaves; capsule 4-8 mm.19  C. calcicola    灰岩风铃草
+Basal leaves cordate; stems filiform, glabrous or subglabrous, with mostly linear leaves; capsule 9-19 mm.20  C. chrysospleniifolia    丝茎风铃草
8(1)Appendages between calyx lobes present, reflexed, setose on margins(9)
+Appendages between calyx lobes absent(11)
9(8)Annuals, ca. 6 cm tall; corolla 6-8 mm, green.3  C. gansuensis    
+Perennials, over 25 cm tall; corolla 9-65 mm, white, purple, or yellow(10)
10(9)Corolla large, 3-6.5 cm, punctate.1  C. punctata    紫斑风铃草
+Corolla smaller, narrowly campanulate, less than 1.5 cm, not punctate.2  C. sibirica    刺毛风铃草
11(8)Flowers in a head of 2 to several in axils of involucral bracts, several heads aggregated into a large compound head; leaf blades more than 4 cm, often up to 17 cm(12)
+Flowers solitary or in a lax inflorescence; leaves usually much smaller, up to 6 cm(14)
12(11)Corolla lobes linear-lanceolate, longer than tube; plants ca. 10 cm tall.6  C. austroxinjiangensis    南疆风铃草
+Corolla lobes ovate, shorter than tube; plants 14-130 cm tall(13)
13(12)Lower cauline leaves long petiolate; calyx lobes subulate.4  C. glomerata    北疆风铃草
+Lower cauline leaves shortly winged-petiolate; calyx lobes ligulate, rounded at apex.5  C. glomeratoides    头花风铃草
14(11)Leaves glabrous on both surfaces or hairy only on margins; corolla glabrous outside; calyx lobes linear or subulate, glabrous on both surfaces or sparsely ciliate(15)
+Leaves hairy on both surfaces; corolla ± hairy outside; calyx lobes hairy, narrowly triangular to subtriangular, rarely subulate-triangular (subulate only in C. mekongensis)(16)
15(14)Leaves and calyx lobes hispidulous on margins; blades of cauline leaves obovate-elliptic or elliptic.7  C. nakaoi    藏南风铃草
+Leaves and calyx lobes glabrous throughout; blades of cauline leaves linear.8  C. langsdorffiana    石生风铃草
16(14)Annual herbs; rosulate basal leaves sometimes present at anthesis; each branch with compound cymes.14  C. dimorphantha    一年生风铃草
+Perennial herbs; basal leaves often absent at anthesis; branches with a single cyme or solitary flower(17)
17(16)Cauline leaves, at least lower ones, long petiolate; petiole 5-12 cm.9  C. omeiensis    峨眉风铃草
+Cauline leaves sessile or shortly winged-petiolate(18)
18(17)Calyx tube hairy only along veins; lateral branches with several flowers; calyx lobes subulate, sinus between lobes truncate-obtuse.15  C. mekongensis    澜沧风铃草
+Calyx tube densely hairy; lateral branches with a solitary flower or single simple inflorescence; calyx lobes subulate-triangular to deltoid, overlapping, or sinus acute(19)
19(18)Calyx lobes deltoid, with a pair of large teeth; stems long and prostrate; cauline leaves of lower half of stem wilted at anthesis, rest of leaves pannose abaxially, sessile, suborbicular.13  C. yunnanensis    云南风铃草
+Calyx lobes subulate-triangular, rarely subdeltoid, with or without teeth; stems erect or diffuse; lower cauline leaves often present at anthesis; leaves sparsely hispid or densely pannose abaxially, elliptic, rhombic, or linear-elliptic(20)
20(19)Style strongly exserted; anthers completely or partially connivent; corolla cleft more than halfway.12  C. chinensis    长柱风铃草
+Style included; anthers completely free; corolla cleft down to middle(21)
21(20)Calyx lobes narrowly triangular to subdeltoid, toothed or not; leaves often hispid, less frequently pannose abaxially; stems single or several from one caudex, erect or ascending.10  C. pallida    西南风铃草
+Calyx lobes subulate-triangular to narrowly triangular, rarely toothed; leaves densely pannose abaxially; stems usually numerous from one caudex, often diffuse, less often ascending.11  C. cana    灰毛风铃草
   List of lower taxa