foc
《中国植物志》英文修订版
Flora of China
  FOC Vol.19 (2011)              | Family List  Berberidaceae  PDF Berberis  PDF   |  eFloras.org Link Font:+ Big | - Small
   2. Berberis  Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 330. 1753.
小檗属   xiao bo shu
  
Authors:Authors: Junsheng Ying

  

Shrubs, evergreen or deciduous. Branches glabrous or tomentose, spinose or not; spines simple or usually 3-5-fid. Leaves on short shoots, simple, alternate, usually petiolate. Inflorescences solitary or fascicled flowers, racemes, umbels, or panicles. Flowers 3-merous; bracteoles usually 3, caducous, scalelike. Sepals 6, rarely 3 or 9, yellow. Petals 6, yellow, bases nectariferous. Stamens opposite petals; anthers dehiscing by valves; pollen grains subspheroidal, exine reticulate. Ovary symmetrically club-shaped; ovules 1-12, rarely to 15, subbasal; styles very short. Fruit a berry, usually red, dark red, or black, globose, ellipsoid, oblong, ovoid, or obovoid. Seeds 1-10, tan to red-brown or black; aril absent. 2n = 14.

About 500 species: north temperate regions, a few in the S Hemisphere; 215 species (197 endemic, one introduced) in China.

Many species of the genus are grown as ornamental shrubs and used for medicinal purposes.

Many species of the genus are grown as ornamental shrubs and used for medicinal purposes.

  
1Inflorescence an umbel, raceme, or panicle(2)
+Flowers solitary or fascicled(100)
   
2(1)Inflorescence an umbel(3)
+Inflorescence a raceme or panicle(10)
   
3(2)Branches densely pubescent.119  B. weiningensis
+Branches glabrous(4)
   
4(3)Inflorescences not pedunculate (flowers fascicled at base of peduncle)(5)
+Inflorescences pedunculate (flowers not fascicled at base of peduncle)(7)
   
5(4)Stems, pedicels, and leaves abaxially pruinose, each leaf margin 2-7-aristate-dentate.124  B. multiserrata    粗齿小檗
+Stems, pedicels, and leaves abaxially not pruinose, each leaf margin 1-4-spinose-serrate or entire(6)
   
6(5)Shrubs evergreen; spines 3-fid; each leaf margin 1-4-spinose-serrate, rarely entire, veins raised on both surfaces; ovules 4 or 5.125  B. pulangensis    普兰小檗
+Shrubs deciduous; spines simple; leaves entire, veins inconspicuous; ovules 1 or 2.126  B. thunbergii
   
7(4)Sepals in 3 whorls; fruit contracted at middle part, apex usually bent.120  B. johannis    腰果小檗
+Sepals in 2 whorls; fruit not bent at apex(8)
   
8(7)Leaves narrowly elliptic or obovate-elliptic; fruit contracted at lower part, style persistent; ovules 2.121  B. leboensis    雷波小檗
+Leaves obovate, obovate-lanceolate, or oblong; fruit not contracted, style not persistent; ovules 4 or 5(9)
   
9(8)Petals emarginate at apex; leaves obovate or obovate-lanceolate.122  B. umbratica
+Petals entire at apex; leaves oblong or elliptic.123  B. gilungensis    吉隆小檗
   
10(2)Inflorescence a panicle(11)
+Inflorescence a raceme(28)
   
11(10)Inflorescence a corymbose panicle(12)
+Inflorescence a panicle(13)
   
12(11)Leaf blade narrowly obovate or obovate-lanceolate, margin entire; sepals in 3 whorls; petals emarginate at apex; ovules 3 or 4.198  B. jiulongensis    九龙小檗
+Leaf blade narrowly elliptic, margin 1-4-spinose-serrate on each side; sepals in 2 whorls; petals entire at apex; ovules 1.199  B. contracta    德钦小檗
   
13(11)Inflorescence a congested panicle; pedicels 1-2(-3) mm; fruit subglobose.200  B. aggregata    堆花小檗
+Inflorescence a loose panicle; pedicels longer than 2 mm(14)
   
14(13)Sepals in 3 whorls(15)
+Sepals in 2 whorls(19)
   
15(14)Rachis and peduncle pubescent.201  B. luhuoensis    炉霍小檗
+Rachis and peduncle glabrous(16)
   
16(15)Leaves entire(17)
+Leaves spinose-serrate(18)
   
17(16)Rachis conspicuously flexuose; fruit oblong-ovoid, pruinose, style not persistent.202  B. sherriffii    短苞小檗
+Rachis not flexuose; fruit ovoid, not pruinose, style persistent.203  B. prattii    短锥花小檗
   
18(16)Leaves abaxially pruinose; inflorescences 2-4 cm; petals entire or slightly emarginate at apex; style not persistent; ovules 3 or 4.204  B. beaniana    康松小檗
+Leaves abaxially not pruinose; inflorescences 5-12 cm; petals incised at apex; style persistent; ovules 2.205  B. francisci-ferdinandi    大黄檗
   
19(14)Branches and rachises pubescent(20)
+Branches and rachises glabrous(21)
   
20(19)Bracts shorter than pedicels; anther connective apiculate; ovules 2.206  B. trichiata
+Bracts longer than pedicels; anther connective truncate; ovules usually 3 or 4.207  B. gyalaica    波密小檗
   
21(19)Shrubs deciduous(22)
+Shrubs evergreen or semi-evergreen(24)
   
22(21)Leaves narrowly oblanceolate, thinly papery; petals entire or emarginate at apex.215  B. beijingensis    北京小檗
+Leaves obovate, papery; petals emarginate at apex(23)
   
23(22)Leaves up to 6.5 cm; pedicels 5-12 mm; fruit red, pruinose, style not persistent.213  B. xanthophlaea
+Leaves up to 2.7 cm; pedicels 2-3 mm; fruit dark red to purple-red, not pruinose, style persistent.214  B. concolor    同色小檗
   
24(21)Shrubs evergreen; leaves oblanceolate; fruit black, pruinose.208  B. kerriana    南方小檗
+Shrubs semi-evergreen; leaves spatulate-cuneate, obovate, or oblong-obovate(25)
   
25(24)Leaf margin spinose-serrate; style 1-1.5 mm(26)
+Leaves entire; style 0.5-0.75 mm(27)
   
26(25)Spines usually simple; inflorescences 5-15 cm; petals incised at apex; ovules 2.209  B. polyantha    刺黄花
+Spines 3-fid; inflorescences 3-5 cm; petals entire at apex; ovules 4.210  B. sikkimensis    锡金小檗
   
27(25)Leaves spatulate-cuneate, apex retuse; bracts shorter than pedicels.211  B. coryi    贡山小檗
+Leaves obovate, apex rounded; bracts subequal to pedicels in length.212  B. metapolyantha    万源小檗
   
28(10)Inflorescence a spikelike raceme(29)
+Inflorescence a racemose subumbel or raceme(35)
   
29(28)Leaves glabrous(30)
+Leaves pubescent(32)
   
30(29)Leaf margin 2-15-spinose-serrate on each side; fruit black.131  B. purdomii    延安小檗
+Leaf margin entire; fruit red(31)
   
31(30)Petals entire at apex.132  B. vernae
+Petals incised at apex.133  B. poiretii    细叶小檗
   
32(29)Sepals in 3 whorls(33)
+Sepals in 2 whorls(34)
   
33(32)Adaxial surface of leaf rugose, both surfaces pubescent.127  B. brachypoda    短柄小檗
+Adaxial surface of leaf not rugose, only abaxially pubescent.128  B. salicaria    柳叶小檗
   
34(32)Leaves entire; petals entire at apex; pedicels glabrous.129  B. gilgiana    涝峪小檗
+Leaf margin aristate-dentate; petals incised at apex; pedicels pubescent.130  B. stenostachya    短梗小檗
   
35(28)Inflorescence a racemose subumbel(36)
+Inflorescence a raceme(56)
   
36(35)Inflorescences not pedunculate(37)
+Inflorescences pedunculate(41)
   
37(36)Sepals in 3 whorls.134  B. pallens    淡色小檗
+Sepals in 2 whorls(38)
   
38(37)Leaf margin closely spinose-serrate; petals slightly emarginate at apex; berry ovoid.135  B. reticulata    网脉小檗
+Leaves entire or 1-4-spinose-serrate; petals entire or deeply emarginate at apex(39)
   
39(38)Leaves oblong-obovate; spines simple; ovules solitary.136  B. pruinocarpa    粉果小檗
+Leaves lanceolate or broadly ovate; spines 3-fid; ovules 2-5(40)
   
40(39)Leaves lanceolate; spines stout, 1-3 cm; petals entire at apex; ovules 2 or 3.137  B. hemsleyana    拉萨小檗
+Leaves broadly obovate; spines slender, ca. 1 cm; petals emarginate at apex; ovules 3-5.138  B. platyphylla    阔叶小檗
   
41(36)Sepals in 3 whorls(42)
+Sepals in 1 or 2 whorls(44)
   
42(41)Inflorescences with leaflike bracts; fruit globose, style persistent.139  B. sichuanica    四川小檗
+Inflorescences without leaflike bracts; fruit oblong, style not persistent(43)
   
43(42)Leaves obovate or broadly obovate; stamens truncate at apex.140  B. mekongensis    湄公小檗
+Leaves oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic; stamens apiculate at apex; fruit contracted below middle.141  B. pseudoamoena    假美丽小檗
   
44(41)Sepals in 1 whorl; leaves narrowly oblanceolate, less than 5 mm wide.142  B. lepidifolia    鳞叶小檗
+Sepals in 2 whorls(45)
   
45(44)Stems, rachises, and pedicels conspicuously pruinose.143  B. calcipratorum    钙原小檗
+Stems, rachises, and pedicels not pruinose(46)
   
46(45)Leaves leathery(47)
+Leaves papery(49)
   
47(46)Leaves abaxially not pruinose; fruit obovoid-oblong.146  B. derongensis    得荣小檗
+Leaves abaxially pruinose; fruit globose or oblong(48)
   
48(47)Leaves elliptic or oblong-obovate, reticulate veins conspicuous; fruit subglobose; seeds 3.144  B. weisiensis
+Leaves narrowly obovate, reticulate veins inconspicuous; fruit oblong; seeds 1.145  B. amoena    美丽小檗
   
49(46)Leaves entire(50)
+Leaves spinose-serrate or entire and 1-10-spinose-serrate(52)
   
50(49)Petals incised at apex; stamens truncate at apex.147  B. papillifera    乳突小檗
+Petals entire at apex; stamens shortly apiculate at apex(51)
   
51(50)Leaves acute at apex; petals obovate, clawed at base.148  B. virescens
+Leaves obtuse at apex; petals elliptic, not clawed at base.149  B. integripetala    甘南小檗
   
52(49)Branches and pedicels pubescent.150  B. tomentulosa
+Branches and pedicels glabrous(53)
   
53(52)Leaves oblanceolate, abaxially brown.154  B. atroviridiana    那觉小檗
+Leaves abaxially pale green, grayish, or pruinose(54)
   
54(53)Leaves abaxially pruinose; ovules 3 or 4.151  B. tischleri
+Leaves abaxially not pruinose; ovules 1 or 2(55)
   
55(54)Petals entire at apex; fruit globose.152  B. silva-taroucana    华西小檗
+Petals emarginate at apex; fruit oblong-ellipsoid.153  B. tsarongensis
   
56(35)Racemes not pedunculate(57)
+Racemes pedunculate(74)
   
57(56)Evergreen or semi-evergreen shrubs(58)
+Deciduous shrubs(61)
   
58(57)Semi-evergreen shrubs; leaves entire.50  B. wilsoniae
+Evergreen shrubs; leaves spinose-serrate or aristate-dentate(59)
   
59(58)Leaves 1-4-aristate-dentate; stem spines 1.5-6 cm.182  B. potaninii    少齿小檗
+Leaves 10-25-spinose-serrate on each side; stem spines 0.6-1.5 cm(60)
   
60(59)Leaves 3-9 × 1-3 cm; fruit oblong-ellipsoid; style persistent, short.183  B. centiflora    多花大黄连刺
+Leaves 0.8-2(-3.5) × 0.5-1.2 cm; fruit subglobose; style not persistent.184  B. tenuipedicellata
   
61(57)Sepals in 3 whorls(62)
+Sepals in 1 or 2 whorls(63)
   
62(61)Leaves rounded or retuse at apex; reticulate veins distinctly raised; anther connective truncate.196  B. batangensis    巴塘小檗
+Leaves acute or rounded at apex; reticulate veins inconspicuous; anther connective apiculate.197  B. ignorata    烦果小檗
   
63(61)Sepals in 1 whorl; leaves entire or 1-8-spinose-serrate.185  B. mouillacana    变刺小檗
+Sepals in 2 whorls(64)
   
64(63)Leaves entire or rarely few spinose-serrate(65)
+Leaves spinose-serrate(70)
   
65(64)Leaves entire(66)
+Leaves entire, occasionally 1-7-spinose-serrate(68)
   
66(65)Fruit usually bent, style persistent; petals acute at apex.186  B. franchetiana    滇西北小檗
+Fruit not bent, style not persistent(67)
   
67(66)Petals incised at apex; leaf margin not revolute, 1.2-3.5 × 0.5-1.4 cm.187  B. lecomtei    光叶小檗
+Petals rounded, entire at apex; leaf margin revolute, 1-2 × 0.4-0.8 cm.188  B. microtricha    小毛小檗
   
68(65)Fruit red; style persistent, short.189  B. dawoensis    道孚小檗
+Fruit black; style not persistent(69)
   
69(68)Leaves obovate; petals entire at apex.190  B. heteropoda    异果小檗
+Leaves lanceolate; petals slightly emarginate at apex.191  B. kaschgarica    喀什小檗
   
70(64)Petals deeply incised at apex; leaves elliptic, glabrous.192  B. dielsiana    首阳小檗
+Petals entire at apex(71)
   
71(70)Ovules 7-11; leaves oblong-orbicular, abaxially grayish white, usually pruinose.42  B. aemulans    峨眉小檗
+Ovules 1 or 2(72)
   
72(71)Leaf blade elliptic or obovate-elliptic, margin spinose-serrate; bracts ca. 1 mm.193  B. dictyoneura    松潘小檗
+Leaf blade obovate, margin remotely spinose-serrate; bracts 4-5 mm(73)
   
73(72)Spines to 2.5 cm; leaves to 5 × 2 cm.194  B. nutanticarpa    垂果小檗
+Spines to 5 cm; leaves to 4 × 1.7 cm.195  B. bracteata    长苞小檗
   
74(56)Leaves entire(75)
+Leaves spinose-serrate or sometimes entire(88)
   
75(74)Leaves pubescent(76)
+Leaves glabrous(77)
   
76(75)Rachises, peduncles, and pedicels pubescent.155  B. daochengensis    稻城小檗
+Rachises, peduncles, and pedicels glabrous.156  B. pubescens    柔毛小檗
   
77(75)Leaves abaxially pruinose(78)
+Leaves not pruinose(79)
   
78(77)Leaves oblanceolate; petals slightly emarginate at apex.157  B. kongboensis    工布小檗
+Leaves obovate; petals entire at apex.158  B. agricola    暗红小檗
   
79(77)Sepals in 3 whorls(80)
+Sepals in 2 whorls(81)
   
80(79)Peduncles 1-4 cm; fruit not pruinose, style not persistent.159  B. forrestii    金江小檗
+Peduncles 3-7 cm; fruit pruinose, style persistent.160  B. racemulosa    短序小檗
   
81(79)Leaves cuneate, obcordate, or oblong-rhombic(82)
+Leaves elliptic, oblong, obovate, oblong-obovate, or obovate-lanceolate(83)
   
82(81)Leaves cuneate or obcordate, 0.8-1.4 × 0.6-0.9 cm.161  B. retusa    心叶小檗
+Leaves oblong-rhombic, 3.5-8 × 1.5-3.5(-7) cm.162  B. virgetorum
   
83(81)Style persistent(84)
+Style not persistent(85)
   
84(83)Leaves oblong-obovate; fruit obovoid, pruinose when mature.163  B. humidoumbrosa    阴湿小檗
+Leaves narrowly obovate; fruit oblong, not pruinose.164  B. sabulicola    砂生小檗
   
85(83)Fruit oblong or oblong-ellipsoid(86)
+Fruit globose or subglobose(87)
   
86(85)Fruit oblong; inflorescences 5-18 cm; leaves subleathery, obovate or oblong-obovate.165  B. feddeana    异长穗小檗
+Fruit oblong-ellipsoid; inflorescences 2.5-3.5 cm; leaves papery, narrowly obovate-lanceolate or narrowly elliptic.166  B. haoi    洮河小檗
   
87(85)Fruit globose, apex lacunose.167  B. jamesiana    川滇小檗
+Fruit ovoid-ellipsoid or subglobose, apex flat.168  B. iliensis    伊犁小檗
   
88(74)Leaves spinose-serrate, sometimes entire; petals entire at apex.169  B. farreri    陇西小檗
+Leaves spinose-serrate(89)
   
89(88)Sepals in 3 or 4 whorls(90)
+Sepals in 2 whorls(91)
   
90(89)Sepals in 3 whorls; leaves thinly papery, abaxially pale green.170  B. honanensis    河南小檗
+Sepals in 4 whorls; leaves thickly papery, abaxially brown when dry.171  B. pingwuensis    平武小檗
   
91(89)Style persistent(92)
+Style not persistent(93)
   
92(91)Petals elliptic, apex emarginate; leaves abaxially not pruinose.172  B. tianshuiensis
+Petals oblong-obovate, apex incised; leaves abaxially pruinose.173  B. henryana    川鄂小檗
   
93(91)Leaves suborbicular to broadly elliptic(94)
+Leaves oblong, elliptic, ovate, or obovate(96)
   
94(93)Petals emarginate at apex; stem spines simple or 3-fid.174  B. kansuensis    甘肃小檗
+Petals entire at apex; stem spines absent or simple(95)
   
95(94)Leaves abaxially whitish, slightly pruinose.175  B. anhweiensis    安徽小檗
+Leaves abaxially yellow-green, not pruinose.176  B. dasystachya    直穗小檗
   
96(93)Leaves obovate(97)
+Leaves oblong or elliptic(98)
   
97(96)Leaves narrowly obovate, abaxially whitish; style persistent, short.180  B. pseudotibetica    假藏小檗
+Leaves oblong-obovate, abaxially pale yellow-green; style not persistent.181  B. dubia    置疑小檗
   
98(96)Leaves oblong to ovate, 5-10 × 2.5-5 cm, abaxially pale green; spines 3-fid.177  B. amurensis    黄芦木
+Leaves elliptic, 1.5-5 × 0.6-1.8 cm; spines absent, simple, or 3-fid(99)
   
99(98)Petals entire at apex; anther connective slightly prolonged, shortly apiculate; ovules 5 or 6.178  B. shensiana    陕西小檗
+Petals slightly emarginate at apex; anther connective not prolonged, truncate; ovules 2.179  B. hersii    南阳小檗
   
100(1)Flowers solitary(101)
+Flowers fascicled(132)
   
101(100)Leaves abaxially pruinose(102)
+Leaves abaxially not or slightly pruinose(107)
   
102(101)Sepals in 3 whorls(103)
+Sepals in 2 whorls(105)
   
103(102)Petals entire at apex; ovules 3 or 4.1  B. candidula    单花小檗
+Petals 2-lobate at apex; ovules 6-12(104)
   
104(103)Petals emarginate at apex; fruit ovoid, black, with strict style.2  B. chrysosphaera    黄球小檗
+Petals incised at apex; fruit oblong-ovoid, red, with bent style at apex.3  B. temolaica
   
105(102)Leaves entire; anther connective shortly apiculate; fruit ovoid; ovules 3 or 4(-6).4  B. dictyophylla    刺红珠
+Leaf margin 1-6-spinose-serrate; anther connective truncate; fruit globose or subglobose; ovules 5-8(106)
   
106(105)Plants 1-1.5 m tall; leaf margin 1-7-spinose-serrate; pedicels 3-7 mm; fruit pruinose, style persistent.5  B. approximata    近似小檗
+Plants 10-20 cm tall; leaf margin 1- or 2-spinose-serrate; fruiting pedicels to 23 mm; fruit not pruinose, style not persistent.6  B. medogensis    矮生小檗
   
107(101)Leaves entire(108)
+Leaf margin spinose-serrate or entire and sometimes 1-6-spinose-serrate(115)
   
108(107)Sepals in 3 whorls.7  B. parisepala    等萼小檗
+Sepals in 2 whorls(109)
   
109(108)Shoots pubescent; petals entire at apex; ovules 6.8  B. angulosa    有棱小檗
+Shoots glabrous; petals 2-lobate at apex; ovules 3-5(110)
   
110(109)Leaves oblong-oblanceolate, oblanceolate, or oblong-obovate(111)
+Leaves obovate, oblong, or elliptic(112)
   
111(110)Leaves oblong-oblanceolate; style not persistent.9  B. qiaojiaensis    巧家小檗
+Leaves oblanceolate or oblong-obovate; style persistent.10  B. woomungensis
   
112(110)Leaf blade leathery, margin thickened; anther connective truncate.11  B. crassilimba    厚檐小檗
+Leaf blade herbaceous, margin not thickened; anther connective apiculate(113)
   
113(112)Fruit obovoid, style persistent; ovules 4 or 5.14  B. tsarica
+Style not persistent; ovules 3 or 4(114)
   
114(113)Fruit globose; spines 5-fid, conspicuously longer than leaves; pedicels 3-5 mm.12  B. longispina    长刺小檗
+Fruit oblong-ovoid or ovoid; spines 3-fid, subequal to or shorter than leaves; pedicels 10-30 mm.13  B. muliensis    木里小檗
   
115(107)Leaves entire and sometimes 1-6-spinose-serrate(116)
+Leaf margin spinose-serrate(124)
   
116(115)Pedicels 15-30 mm(117)
+Pedicels shorter than 10 mm(118)
   
117(116)Pedicels stout, tip bent; fruit large (1.3-1.5 × 1.2-1.3 cm); ovules 11.15  B. daiana    城口小檗
+Pedicels slender, straight; fruit small (ca. 6.5 × 4-5 mm); ovules 4 or 5.16  B. asmyana    直梗小檗
   
118(116)Shoots pubescent(119)
+Shoots glabrous(120)
   
119(118)Plants 20-30 cm tall; fruit elliptic-ovoid, style persistent; ovules 4.17  B. multicaulis    多枝小檗
+Plants ca. 1 m tall; fruit subglobose, style not persistent; ovules 6 or 7.18  B. kangdingensis    康定小檗
   
120(118)Fruit oblong, tip bent; leaves elliptic or oblanceolate.19  B. campylotropa    弯果小檗
+Fruit ovoid, oblong-ovoid, or ovoid-globose, tip not bent; leaves obovate or narrowly oblanceolate(121)
   
121(120)Petals entire at apex; fruit ovoid; spines 3-5-fid.20  B. everestiana    珠峰小檗
+Petals emarginate or incised at apex; spines 1-3-fid(122)
   
122(121)Leaves slightly papery, elliptic; ovules solitary.21  B. mianningensis    冕宁小檗
+Leaves subleathery or papery, narrowly obovate or oblanceolate; ovules 2(123)
   
123(122)Leaf margin applanate; anther connective prolonged; pedicels 5-10 mm; style not persistent.22  B. minutiflora    小花小檗
+Leaf margin revolute; anther connective not prolonged; pedicels 1-3 mm; style persistent or not.23  B. graminea    狭叶小檗
   
124(115)Sepals in 3 whorls(125)
+Sepals in 2 whorls(126)
   
125(124)Pedicels 4-10 mm; stems densely verruculose; leaves abaxially grayish green.24  B. verruculosa
+Pedicels 15-20 mm; stems sometimes scarcely verruculose; leaves abaxially slightly glaucous.25  B. concinna    雅洁小檗
   
126(124)Style persistent(127)
+Style not persistent(128)
   
127(126)Leaves elliptic; fruit ellipsoid, black, not pruinose.26  B. alpicola    高山小檗
+Leaves oblong-ovate; fruit ovoid or oblong-ovoid, red, pruinose.4  B. dictyophylla    刺红珠
   
128(126)Spines of stems 3-9-fid(129)
+Spines of stems 3-fid(130)
   
129(128)Spines 3-7-fid; petals obtusely emarginate at apex; leaf margin coarsely aristate-dentate.27  B. sibirica    西伯利亚小檗
+Spines 3-9-fid; petals entire at apex; leaf margin spinose-serrate.28  B. erythroclada    红枝小檗
   
130(128)Leaves oblanceolate, subleathery; fruit black; ovules 1 or 2.30  B. paraspecta    鸡脚连
+Leaves obovate or elliptic; fruit red(131)
   
131(130)Leaves narrowly obovate; fruit ovoid or oblong-ovoid, 1-1.4 cm; ovules 3 or 4.13  B. muliensis    木里小檗
+Leaves elliptic or obovate; fruit broadly ellipsoid, to 2 cm; ovules 6 or 7.29  B. fengii    大果小檗
   
132(100)Shrubs deciduous(133)
+Shrubs evergreen(145)
   
133(132)Leaf margin entire or only 1- or 2-spinose-serrate(134)
+Leaf margin spinose-serrate(139)
   
134(133)Shoots, pedicels, and leaf margins pubescent.31  B. hobsonii    毛梗小檗
+Shoots, pedicels, and leaf margins glabrous(135)
   
135(134)Sepals in 3 whorls.32  B. reticulinervis    芒康小檗
+Sepals in 2 whorls(136)
   
136(135)Pedicels 20-40 mm; flowers 2-4-fascicled.33  B. yunnanensis
+Pedicels 2-12 mm(137)
   
137(136)Pedicels 2-5 mm; fruit black or red.34  B. ulicina
+Pedicels 8-12 mm; fruit red(138)
   
138(137)Leaf blade elliptic or oblanceolate, margin rarely 1- or 2-spinose-serrate; fruit slightly pruinose; ovules 2.35  B. nullinervis    无脉小檗
+Leaf blade obovate or suborbicular, margin entire; fruit not pruinose; ovules 3.36  B. hypericifolia    异叶小檗
   
139(133)Pedicels 2-4 mm; ovules solitary.37  B. tsienii
+Pedicels 12-30 mm; ovules 2-11(140)
   
140(139)Petals incised or emarginate at apex(141)
+Petals entire at apex(143)
   
141(140)Petals emarginate at apex; veins not conspicuous.38  B. morrisonensis    玉山小檗
+Petals incised at apex; veins conspicuous or raised(142)
   
142(141)Leaves oblanceolate; sepals in 3 whorls; ovules 2.39  B. yui
+Leaves oblong or obovate-oblong; sepals in 2 whorls; ovules 6-10.40  B. diaphana    鲜黄小檗
   
143(140)Sepals in 3 whorls.41  B. circumserrata    秦岭小檗
+Sepals in 2 whorls(144)
   
144(143)Leaf margin 15-40-spinose-serrate; petals obovate; anther connective truncate.41  B. circumserrata    秦岭小檗
+Leaf margin 5-12-spinose-serrate; petals oblong; anther connective apiculate.42  B. aemulans    峨眉小檗
   
145(132)Leaf margin entire or 1- or 2-spinose-serrate(146)
+Leaf margin spinose-serrate or spinose-dentate, rarely entire(155)
   
146(145)Stems without spines or with very weak spines(147)
+Stems with spines, usually 3-fid(149)
   
147(146)Stems without spines; leaves broadly oblong-ovate, abaxially not pruinose, stramineous when dry; branches dark gray.43  B. hypoxantha    黄背小檗
+Stems without spines or with very weak spines; leaves abaxially pruinose or glaucous(148)
   
148(147)Leaves leathery, oblong-obovate or oblong-elliptic, apex obtuse, abaxially glaucous; shoots stramineous.44  B. holocraspedon    风庆小檗
+Leaves thickly leathery, elliptic, narrowly elliptic, or oblanceolate, apex acuminate, abaxially slightly pruinose; shoots dark purple.45  B. ziyunensis
   
149(146)Ovules 3-5(150)
+Ovules 1 or 2(152)
   
150(149)Leaves obovate or obovate-spatulate, 0.6-2.5 cm; fruit globose.50  B. wilsoniae
+Leaves elliptic, lanceolate, or oblanceolate, to 3-7 cm; fruit ellipsoid or oblong(151)
   
151(150)Leaf blade elliptic or oblanceolate, to 3 cm, margin conspicuously revolute; style not persistent.51  B. taliensis    大理小檗
+Leaf blade lanceolate or oblong-elliptic, to 7 cm, margin not revolute; style persistent, short.52  B. subholophylla    近缘小檗
   
152(149)Petals entire at apex; leaves 3.5-7 cm wide.46  B. pingshanensis    屏山小檗
+Petals emarginate at apex; leaves less than 2 cm wide(153)
   
153(152)Flowers 2-4-fascicled; leaves obovate.47  B. obovatifolia    裂瓣小檗
+Flowers 6-15-fascicled; leaves oblong-elliptic, oblong-lanceolate, or oblanceolate(154)
   
154(153)Leaves oblanceolate, 8-16 mm wide, abaxially not pruinose.48  B. wuyiensis
+Leaves oblong-elliptic to oblong-lanceolate, 3-5(-8) mm wide, abaxially pruinose.49  B. replicata    卷叶小檗
   
155(145)Leaves elliptic, oblong, ovate, or obovate(156)
+Leaves linear, lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, or oblanceolate(184)
   
156(155)Petals entire at apex(157)
+Petals emarginate or incised at apex(163)
   
157(156)Sepals in 3 whorls(158)
+Sepals in 2 whorls(160)
   
158(157)Leaf margin 1-3-aristate-dentate on each side; pedicels to 3.5 cm.90  B. dongchuanensis    东川小檗
+Leaf margin spinose-serrate; pedicels to 2 cm(159)
   
159(158)Leaf margin flat, 2-6-spinose-serrate on each side; pedicels 10-20 mm; ovules 3 or 4.91  B. parapruinosa    拟粉叶小檗
+Leaf margin slightly revolute, 12-16-spinose-serrate on each side; pedicels 1-4 mm; ovules solitary.92  B. jinshajiangensis    嘘小檗
   
160(157)Flowers 7-15-fascicled; sepals lanceolate; petals oblong; leaves elliptic, ovate, or obovate.93  B. kawakamii    台湾小檗
+Flowers 3-8-fascicled; sepals ovate, obovate, or ovate-elliptic; petals obovate(161)
   
161(160)Leaf margin 10-25-spinose-serrate on each side; berry not pruinose.94  B. bicolor    二色小檗
+Leaf margin 3-10-spinose-serrate on each side; berry pruinose(162)
   
162(161)Leaves ovate-elliptic, abaxially not pruinose; outer sepals ovate.95  B. chunanensis    淳安小檗
+Leaves elliptic, abaxially pruinose; outer sepals obovate.96  B. jinfoshanensis    金佛山小檗
   
163(156)Petals incised at apex(164)
+Petals emarginate at apex(168)
   
164(163)Ovules solitary(165)
+Ovules 2 or 3(166)
   
165(164)Leaf margin flat, 3-7-spinose-serrate; flowers 2-6-fascicled; petals obovate.97  B. hayatana    南湖小檗
+Leaf margin revolute, 6-15-spinose-serrate; flowers 5-20-fascicled; petals ovate.98  B. cavaleriei    贵州小檗
   
166(164)Leaf blade rhombic-elliptic to lanceolate, margin 20-40-spinulose-serrate on each side; petals obovate-spatulate.99  B. aristatoserrulata    密齿小檗
+Leaf blade elliptic or elliptic to obovate, margin 1-16-spinose-serrate on each side; petals ovate or obovate(167)
   
167(166)Leaf blade elliptic, margin 12-16-spinose-serrate on each side, abaxially not pruinose; flowers 2-5-fascicled; style persistent, short.100  B. silvicola    兴山小檗
+Leaf blade elliptic to obovate, margin 1-6-aristate-dentate on each side, rarely entire, abaxially pruinose; flowers 8-25-fascicled; style not persistent.101  B. pruinosa    粉叶小檗
   
168(163)Sepals in 3 whorls(169)
+Sepals in 2 whorls(172)
   
169(168)Leaf blade elliptic or narrowly elliptic, margin revolute, abaxially pruinose; ovules 4.102  B. laojunshanensis    老君山小檗
+Leaf blade oblong or oblong-elliptic, margin flat, abaxially not pruinose(170)
   
170(169)Leaf margin 15-25-spinose-serrate on each side; berry not pruinose, style not persistent; ovules 1 or 2.103  B. sargentiana    刺黑珠
+Leaf margin 5-18-spinose-serrate on each side; berry pruinose, style persistent; ovules 2 or 3(171)
   
171(170)Flowers 3-7-fascicled; petals cuneate at base; berry dark purple.104  B. lempergiana    天台小檗
+Flowers 7-20-fascicled; petals clawed at base; berry red.105  B. soulieana    假豪猪刺
   
172(168)Stem spines absent or very weak; leaves oblong or narrowly elliptic.106  B. impedita    南岭小檗
+Stem spines 3-fid(173)
   
173(172)Flowers 30-50-fascicled; ovules 5 or 6.107  B. hsuyunensis    叙永小檗
+Flowers less than 25-fascicled; ovules 1-5(174)
   
174(173)Ovules solitary(175)
+Ovules 2-5(177)
   
175(174)Leaf margin 20-30-spinose-serrate on each side; flowers 6-20-fascicled; style not persistent.108  B. deinacantha    壮刺小檗
+Leaf margin 6-16-spinose-serrate on each side; flowers 3-7-fascicled; style persistent, short(176)
   
176(175)Leaves abaxially not pruinose; flowers 3-5-fascicled; berry not pruinose.109  B. valida
+Leaves abaxially pruinose; flowers 5-7-fascicled; berry pruinose.110  B. nemorosa    林地小檗
   
177(174)Style persistent(178)
+Style not persistent(181)
   
178(177)Leaf margin 1-6-spinose-serrate on each side(179)
+Leaf margin 7-40-spinose-serrate on each side(180)
   
179(178)Leaf blade oblong-elliptic, margin 2-10-spinose-serrate on each side; berry ellipsoid or obovoid, not pruinose.111  B. chingii    华东小檗
+Leaf blade elliptic, broadly elliptic, or obovate, margin 1-4-spinose-serrate on each side, rarely entire; berry ovoid, pruinose.112  B. vinifera
   
180(178)Leaf blade elliptic, margin 20-40-spinose-serrate on each side; ovules 1 or 2; berry pruinose.113  B. dumicola    丛林小檗
+Leaf blade oblong-elliptic to lanceolate, margin 7-15-spinose-serrate on each side; ovules 4 or 5; berry not pruinose.114  B. fallax    假小檗
   
181(177)Flowers 10-17-fascicled; pedicels to 35 mm; ovules 2; leaf margin spinose-serrate.118  B. malipoensis    麻栗坡小檗
+Flowers 2-6-fascicled; pedicels less than 15 mm; ovules 3-5; leaf margin sinuate or flat(182)
   
182(181)Leaf margin sinuate, conspicuously revolute, abaxially brown, not pruinose.115  B. guizhouensis    毕节小檗
+Leaf margin flat, abaxially pruinose or slightly so(183)
   
183(182)Leaf blade oblong-obovate, margin 3- or 4-spinose-serrate on each side; pedicels 12-15 mm; berry pruinose.116  B. lijiangensis    丽江小檗
+Leaf blade elliptic or ovate-oblong, margin 12-25-spinose-serrate on each side; pedicels 7-13 mm; berry not pruinose.117  B. xanthoclada
   
184(155)Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate(185)
+Leaves lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, or oblanceolate(187)
   
185(184)Leaf blade 4-15 cm × 2-10 mm, margin conspicuously revolute, 3-26-spinulose-serrate on each side; ovules 1 or 2.53  B. insolita    西昌小檗
+Leaf margin not conspicuously revolute; ovules 2-4(186)
   
186(185)Leaf blade 1.5-16 cm × 3-6 mm, margin 4-17-spinulose-serrate on each side, adaxially dark green; ovules 2 or 3.54  B. sanguinea    血红小檗
+Leaf blade 6-9 cm × 10-15 mm, margin 12-24-spinose-serrate on each side, adaxially shiny; ovules 4.55  B. lubrica    亮叶小檗
   
187(184)Sepals in 3 whorls(188)
+Sepals in 2 whorls(198)
   
188(187)Petals emarginate or incised at apex(189)
+Petals entire at apex(193)
   
189(188)Pedicels 5-15 mm; ovules 4 or 5(190)
+Pedicels 10-35 mm; ovules 2(-4)(191)
   
190(189)Leaves 1.5-3 × 0.3-0.5 cm; petals elliptic or oblong; style persistent, short.62  B. multiovula    多珠小檗
+Leaves 5-11 × 1-2 cm; petals obovate; style not persistent.63  B. gagnepainii    湖北小檗
   
191(189)Leaves oblong-lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, abaxially slightly pruinose; flowers 2-6-fascicled.64  B. triacanthophora
+Leaves lanceolate, abaxially not pruinose; flowers 4-16-fascicled(192)
   
192(191)Leaves 6-15 × 1.3-4 cm; petals emarginate at apex; anther connective truncate; ovules 2.65  B. xingwenensis
+Leaves 5-11 × 1-2 cm; petals incised at apex; anther connective rounded; ovules 2-4.66  B. veitchii
   
193(188)Berry subglobose; ovules 5-7; shoots dark red.   
+Berry ellipsoid, oblong, or obovoid; ovules 1-5(194)
   
194(193)Ovules 2-5; style not persistent(195)
+Ovules solitary; style persistent, conspicuous(196)
   
195(194)Petals obtusely emarginate at apex, clawed at base; ovules 4 or 5.60  B. delavayi    显脉小檗
+Petals rounded, entire at apex, not clawed at base; ovules 2.61  B. davidii    密叶小檗
   
196(194)Pedicels 8-12(-20) mm; petals elliptic; berry red.57  B. wangii
+Pedicels 15-22 mm; petals obovate or ovate-elliptic; berry black(197)
   
197(196)Leaf margin pectinate-spinose-serrate; petals ovate-elliptic; berry not pruinose.58  B. pectinocraspedon    疏齿小檗
+Leaf margin spinose-serrate, petals obovate; berry pruinose.59  B. kunmingensis    昆明小檗
   
198(187)Stems without spines(199)
+Stems with 3-fid spines(200)
   
199(198)Leaf margin 15-20-spinose-serrate on each side; berry globose, red, not pruinose, style not persistent.67  B. pingbienensis    屏边小檗
+Leaf margin 2-4-aristate-dentate on each side; flowers 2-10-fascicled; berry pomiform or ellipsoid, purplish black, pruinose, style persistent.68  B. griffithiana    错那小檗
   
200(198)Ovules solitary(201)
+Ovules 2-4(210)
   
201(200)Funicles 3-6 × longer than ovules; berry ovoid, red.69  B. sublevis    近光滑小檗
+Funicles equal to or shorter than ovules; berry ellipsoid, oblong, obovoid, or globose(202)
   
202(201)Petals entire at apex(203)
+Petals emarginate or incised at apex(205)
   
203(202)Branches purplish brown; flowers 6-12-fascicled; anther connective truncate; style not persistent.70  B. wuliangshanensis
+Branches yellow or yellow-brown; flowers 10-20-fascicled; anther connective rounded; style persistent(204)
   
204(203)Sepals ovate; petals clawed at base.71  B. vernalis
+Sepals lanceolate; petals cuneate at base.72  B. levis    平滑小檗
   
205(202)Petals incised at apex; berry ovoid-ellipsoid or ovoid-globose.73  B. bergmanniae    汉源小檗
+Petals emarginate at apex; berry oblong or ellipsoid(206)
   
206(205)Leaf margin more than 25-spinose-serrate on each side(207)
+Leaf margin less than 20-spinose-serrate on each side(208)
   
207(206)Leaf blade narrowly lanceolate, 9-16 cm, margin 25-35-spinose-serrate on each side; berry not pruinose.74  B. iteophylla    鼠叶小檗
+Leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate, 4-9 cm, margin 35-60-spinose-serrate on each side; berry pruinose or not.75  B. ferdinandi-coburgii    大叶小檗
   
208(206)Leaf margin conspicuously revolute; pedicels 3-4 cm or 4-12 mm.76  B. grodtmanniana    安宁小檗
+Leaf margin flat; pedicels 8-20 mm(209)
   
209(208)Anther connective not prolonged; berry pruinose, style persistent.77  B. julianae    豪猪刺
+Anther connective prolonged; berry sometimes pruinose, style not persistent.78  B. liophylla    滑叶小檗
   
210(200)Petals entire(211)
+Petals emarginate or incised(213)
   
211(210)Leaf blade abaxially pruinose, margin 2-7-aristate-dentate on each side; pedicels 10-25 mm; berry obovoid, style persistent.79  B. taronensis
+Leaf blade abaxially not pruinose, margin 8-14-spinose-serrate on each side; berry ellipsoid, style not persistent(212)
   
212(211)Shoots purplish red; leaves lanceolate; fruit stalks 10-15 mm; berry slightly pruinose.80  B. photiniifolia    石楠小檗
+Shoots pale yellow; leaves elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate; fruit stalks 10-15 mm; berry sometimes pruinose.81  B. fujianensis    福建小檗
   
213(210)Petals deeply incised; berry ovoid.82  B. atrocarpa    黑果小檗
+Petals emarginate; berry ellipsoid or obovoid(214)
   
214(213)Berry obovoid(215)
+Berry ellipsoid(216)
   
215(214)Leaf blade lanceolate, margin 10-20-spinose-serrate on each side; flowers 5-30-fascicled; style persistent.83  B. zanlanscianensis
+Leaf blade elliptic-lanceolate, margin 15-30-spinose-serrate on each side; flowers 2-5-fascicled; style not persistent.84  B. fallaciosa    南川小檗
   
216(214)Leaf margin conspicuously revolute; flowers 6-25-fascicled.85  B. amabilis    可爱小檗
+Leaf margin flat; flowers 2-8-fascicled(217)
   
217(216)Leaf margin 30-60-spinose-serrulate on each side; berry not pruinose; pedicels red.86  B. arguta    锐齿小檗
+Leaf margin 4-25-spinose-serrate on each side; berry pruinose(218)
   
218(217)Leaf blade abaxially pruinose, margin 4-7-spinose-serrate on each side; pedicels 6-10 mm; style persistent, short.87  B. jiangxiensis    江西小檗
+Leaf blade abaxially not pruinose, margin 8-25-spinose-serrate on each side; pedicels 10-25 mm; style not persistent(219)
   
219(218)Leaf blade leathery, lanceolate, 10-17 × 2-2.5 cm, margin 10-25-spinose-serrate on each side.88  B. weixinensis
+Leaf blade subleathery, lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, 4-9 × 1.2-2.2 cm, margin 8-15-spinose-serrate on each side.89  B. subacuminata    亚尖小檗
   
   List of lower taxa